فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:9 Issue: 3, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/02/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Muhammed Mubarak, Hamid Nasri* Page 1
  • Samad Godrati, Aiyoub Pezeshgi*, Rohollah Valizadeh, Steven James Kellner, SeyedRamin Radfar Page 2

    Methamphetamine is a highly addictive drug that acts as a stimulant for the central nervous system. It increases alertness and physical activity but can cause cardiac dysrhythmias, hypertension, hallucinations and violent behavior. The excretion rate of methamphetamine by the kidney can be seriously altered by urinary pH. Methamphetamine is a weak base, consequently, the proportion of the excreted amount of unchanged drug can vary from as little as 2% in alkaline (pH ≥8.0) to 76% in acidic urine (pH ≤5.0). Methamphetamine is metabolized by hepatic metabolism and renal excretion via cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). The effects of methamphetamine on the kidneys can be divided into the following sub-groups: vascular effects, non-traumatic rhabdomyolysis and direct nephrotoxicity. Additionally, methamphetamine directly stimulates the release of ET-1, a potent vasoconstrictor. ET-1 stimulates vasoconstriction, inflammation and fibrosis in kidney, thus promoting hypertension, atherosclerosis and chronic kidney disease.

    Keywords: Methamphetamine, Rhabdomyolysis, Endothelin-1, Vasoconstrictor, Nephrotoxicity, Inflammation, Hypertension, Hypernatremia, Myoglobin
  • Nader Mahdavi, Parisa Hosseinpour, Golnaz Dashti, Behnaz Bouzari, Rohollah Valizadeh, Babak Hassanlouei* Page 3
    Introduction

    Relationship between renal cell carcinoma and physical activity is not clear.

    Objectives

    This study aimed to review the relationship between renal cell carcinoma and physical activity.

    Methods

    We searched valid databases such as PubMed/Medline, Web of Science and Scopus for search of English papers by 30/12/2018. Eleven articles were selected for final assessment. We used Kidney cancer, Exercise, Kidney Neoplasm, Renal cancer, Physical activity, Renal cell carcinoma, Physical inactivity and Sedentary Lifestyle or a combination of them in the title/abstracts as the keywords.

    Results

    There were 37,742 subjects reviewed in this systematic review of eleven published papers including five standard case-control, three cohorts and three population-based case-control design.

    Conclusion

    According to the results, physical activity has a reverse relationship with renal cell carcinoma.

    Keywords: Physical activity, Kidney, Neoplasm, Inactivity, Exercise, Renal cell carcinoma
  • Vahideh Ebrahimzadeh Attari, Zahra Shahvegharasl, Pouya Fathalizadeh, Sajjad Pourasghary, Mohammadali Mohajel Shoja, Bahram Niknafs, MohammadReza Ardalan* Page 4
    Introduction

    Kidney transplantation has considerably increased the survival and life quality of patients with end-stage renal disease.

    Objectives

    The current study was designed to investigate the circulating level of dephosphorylateduncarboxylated matrix gamma carboxyglutamate protein (dp-ucMGP) as a marker of vitamin K status and vascular calcification in kidney transplant recipients as well as its association with the allograft function. Patients and

    Methods

    In this cross-sectional study, 90 eligible kidney transplant recipients were evaluated in the post-transplant phase (about 6-12 months after kidney transplantation). The serum levels of dp-ucMGP, urea, creatinine and other biochemical indices were determined.

    Results

    The mean serum level of dp-ucMGP was 3.78±3.79 µg/L. Most of the participants (80%) had a normal range of serum dp-ucMGP (<4 µg/L). However, 10 % had high serum dp-ucMGP (>12 µg/L). Serum dp-ucMGP did not have any statistical significant association with serum urea, creatinine and kidney function (P>0.05).

    Conclusion

    Further epidemiologic studies are needed to assess the time trends of dp-ucMGP after renal transplant and its relation to kidney function, since high serum level of dp-ucMGP may make kidney transplant recipients prone to various cardiovascular disease (CVD) and transplant rejection.

    Keywords: Matrix Gla Protein, Kidney function, Kidney transplant, Vascular calcification, Vitamin K, End-stage renal disease, Chronic kidney disease, Cardiovascular disease
  • David Micarelli*, Teresa Valentina Ranalli, Anna Rita Taddei, Angela Solazzo, Francesca Moccia, Sandro Feriozzi Page 5

    Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) is a clinical syndrome manifested by progressive loss of renal function in a short period. At renal biopsy, it is characterized by crescent formation. RPGN may be associated with the presence of circulating antibodies. We report a case of type IV RPGN [ANCA and Anti–glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) antibody disease], a severe disease causing a difficult to treat picture. Our case was complicated by severe thrombocytopenia due to the use of heparin and later on by thrombotic microangiopathy. These events occurred rapidly, making the clinical framing and management decisions very hard.

    Keywords: rapidly progressive glomerulonephrithis, Thrombotic microangiopathy, Hemodialysis, Fibrinoid necrosis, Thrombocytopenia, Anti-nuclear antibodies
  • SeyedReza Yahyazadeh, Tayebeh Soleymanian* Page 6

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) is a rare and ominous necrotizing kidney infection mainly involving diabetic patients. While prompt medical therapy with antibiotic and percutaneous catheter drainage is mainstay of management, nephrectomy should remain for unresponsiveness situations with poor prognostic factors. We introduced the clinical course of an old male presented with bilateral EPN which was successfully treated without nephrectomy regardless of various risk factors such as thrombocytopenia, impaired consciousness, and acute renal failure.

    Keywords: Emphysematous pyelonephritis, Acute renal failure, Type II diabetes, Hypertension
  • Ali Alidadi, NourMohammad Bakhshani, Behnoush Sabayan*, Alireza Ansari Moghadam Page 7
    Objectives

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term HD on memory function of these patients. Patients and

    Methods

    Our study, included 80 HD patients of whom 39 were under 6 months of HD and 41 patients as another group which had a history of HD more than 6 months.

    Results

    The population had a mean age of 51.60 years old (27.5% female). The scores of patients who have been hemodialyzed for a long-time (median time of HD was up to 4 years) had lower score in forward digit (FD), backward digit score test (BD), letter digit modality task (LDMT), letter symbol digit modality task (LSDMT) (5.49; 3.61; 21.12; 17.66) than the HD patients who underwent HD for a shorter term, with the median time of 3 to 5 months (7.38; 4.79; 39.77; 43.38) (P<0.001).

    Conclusion

    The present study demonstrated that end-stage HD patients who were under HD for a long time had significantly lower scores in the memory and attention tests. However, additional researches are needed in this area.

    Keywords: Attention, Hemodialysis, Memory, End-stage renal disease
  • Sepideh Hajian*, MohammadReza Rajabpoor Nikfam, Zahra Esmayeilzad Page 8
    Introduction

    Despite the high prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in hemodialysis patients, few studies have investigated the effect of pramipexole and gabapentin on the severity of RLS in these patients.

    Objectives

    The study aimed to evaluate the effects of pramipexole and gabapentin on the treatment of RLS in end-stage chronic renal failure patients undergoing hemodialysis. Patients and

    Methods

    Using the diagnostic criteria the presence of RLS was investigated in all hemodialysis patients admitted to the dialysis ward of Bu Ali Sina and Velayat hospitals in Qazvin, Iran. Out of 162 patients, 96 patients had RLS and 60 patients with moderate to severe RLS were enrolled in the study. The selected patients were randomly divided into two groups including pramipexole (0.18 mg daily) and gabapentin (100 mg daily). The two groups were treated for 4 weeks.

    Results

    The prevalence of RLS was 59% (96 out of 162 patients). After the intervention, the severity of RLS was significantly decreased in all patients and also in each of the pramipexole and gabapentin groups (P<0.001). Moreover, after the intervention, the rate of improvement in RLS severity in the pramipexole group (16.8 ± 6.5) was significantly higher than that in the gabapentin group (13.0 ± 7.3; P=0.036).

    Conclusion

    The findings of the study showed that the severity of RLS in hemodialysis patients undergoing 4 weeks of treatment with pramipexole or gabapentin was significantly reduced; in addition, the rate of improvement in RLS severity was higher in pramipexole group.

    Keywords: Restless legs syndrome (RLS), Chronic kidney disease, Hemodialysis, Pramipexole, Gabapentin, End-stage kidney disease
  • Afshin Hasanvand, Majid Tavafi*, Hassan Ahmadvand, Ahmad Tamjidipoor Page 9
    Introduction

    Gentamicin sulphate (GS) induces nephrotoxicity by increasing of reactive oxygen species (ROS).

    Objectives

    The aim of this research was to assess the renoprotective effect of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as an antioxidant agent against GS-induced nephrotoxicity.

    Materials and Methods

    Forty male rats (Sprague-Dawley) were divided equally in to five groups and were treated as follows; group 1; received normal saline and served as normal controls, group 2; received GS (100 mg/kg/d), groups 3; received GS and DMSO (0.5 mL/kg/d), groups 4; received GS and DMSO (1 mL/kg/d), groups 5; received GS and DMSO (2 mL/kg/d). After eight days of treatment, serum was prepared. Paraffin sections (3 µ thickness) were prepared from the left kidneys and stained through periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) method. Serum creatinine and urea were assessed by the kits and serum malondialdehyde (MDA) was assessed by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test. Volume density of proximal tubules, tubular necrosis, tubular cast and lymphocyte infiltration were evaluated histopathologically. The data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test at P< 0.05 by SPSS 12 software.

    Results

    Serum MDA, creatinine, urea, tubular volume density, tubular necrosis, tubular cast and lymphocyte infiltration were ameliorated significantly in groups four and five compared with group two (P<0.05).

    Conclusion

    DMSO improved GS-induced renal toxicity significantly through prevention of lipid peroxidation and inflammation, but could not save kidney functional tests and histological changes at the same level as that of the normal group.

    Keywords: Nephrotoxicity, Gentamicin, Dimethyl sulfoxide, Antioxidant, Reactive oxygen species, Renal toxicity
  • Alireza Hejrati, Amir Ziaee, Mohammad Pourmahmudian, Elham Bayani, Mehrnaz Ghavamipour, Maryam Saatchi* Page 10
    Introduction

    Low testosterone level has strongly been correlated with body fat accumulation and abdominal obesity in men.

    Objectives

    This study aimed to evaluate testosterone level in men with and without metabolic syndrome to determine the relationship between testosterone and metabolic syndrome. Patients and

    Methods

    This case-control study was conducted on 172 cases of metabolic syndrome and 172 participants as a control group in Rasoul Akram hospital, Tehran, Iran. Demographic characteristics, fasting blood sugar (FBS), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), and testosterone levels were recorded. SPSS version 21.0 and SAS version 9.1 were used for statistical analysis. Level of significance was considered 0.05.

    Results

    The mean age of the two groups were 45.1±9.3 years and 41.5 ±11.2 years, respectively. There was a significant difference in serum testosterone levels between both groups and low testosterone levels were associated with metabolic syndrome (P<0.001). Serum testosterone levels showed a significant negative correlation with age in the metabolic syndrome group (r= -0.16, P=0.02). The relationship between metabolic syndrome and total plasma testosterone level using logistic regression model showed that, by increasing the total plasma testosterone level, the odds ratio for metabolic syndrome was 0.076 (95% CI: 0.027-0.216; P< 0.001).

    Conclusion

    According to the results, low level of testosterone was related to the presence of metabolic syndrome in adult males. Future studies can investigate diagnostic value of testosterone level in this syndrome.

    Keywords: Testosterone, Metabolic syndrome, Cardiovascular disease, Type II diabetes, Renal disease, Interleukin 10