فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:4 Issue: 2, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/01/13
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
  • Friederike Gethöffer *, Ursula Siebert Pages 1-12

    In this study we focus on literature dealing with differences in habitat use, environmental impact, reproductive output and management strategies concerning the nutria and muskrat in Germany and Europe. What is the current knowledge about these invasive species in European countries, and what management strategies exist so far? We summa-rised more than 200 references on these topics using common scientific databases. In their original distribution area, habitats suitable for muskrats are characterised by low water level fluctuations and high low water resources, wider river banks and higher wa-ter depths. In newly inhabited areas, different habitat structures are exploited, although an aquatic environment is required. In Europe, the presence of muskrats can lead to habitat changes and consequently to biodiversity loss. Overall, muskrats are regarded as generally being able to cope well with changing habitat conditions. Feeding on crops merely seems to be a behaviour restricted to new settlements in both nutrias and musk-rats. Nutrias, too, often achieve a reduction in plant diversity through their choice of food in the newly populated areas. Additionally, an urban occurrence along with sightings of the animals during the day are almost exclusively observed in these areas. Concerning the modelling of nutria population development, low winter temperatures and aquatic habi-tats are substantial factors.Research on reproductive outcome of both species in Europe is rare, and mostly reaches back to before the millennium. However, both species do have high litter sizes and might reproduce all year round, which is not yet confirmed for all habitats. The environmental impact of the invasive alien species (IAS) ranges from a mere nuisance in private gardens up to severe damage on protective dykes and a reduction in biodiversity in several coun-tries The management of the IAS is cost intensive and differs widely between countries.

    Keywords: Management, environmental impact, Review, nutria, muskrat
  • Hussein Valikhani, Jaber Aazami, Asghar Abdoli *, Farshad Nejat, Amir Shahinpur, Kamal Khezri Pages 13-21
    This study evaluated Length-Weight Relationships (LWRs) and condition factor (K) of the juvenile and young adult fish from shallow littoral zones in some aquatic ecosystems located in Khuzestan province, Iran. In June 2015, the specimens were sampled using a seine net from the Shadegan Wetland, the Dez, and the Karkheh Rivers in the time period of increased juvenile recruitment. The LWRs of fish were calculated using linear regression log formula as log W=loga+blogTL, and the K estimated using K=W/L3. A total of 18 species belong to 5 families collected in the stations. Exotic species comprised 33.33% of the total ichthyofauna. The variation of b-value ranges between 2.65 and 3.26, and the growth pattern is isometric in all species except Acanthobrama marmid. Since the amount of K was higher than one in all species, it can be concluded that the sampling stations are favorable for the growth of the fish.  As a consequence of the decreased floodplain habitats in the surrounding of the water bodies, the shallow waters of littoral zones that have suitable features for the juvenile fish can play an essential role in the survival of the native fish fauna.
    Keywords: Abundance, Allometry, fish species, growth, Khuzestan Province
  • Nasrin Nikmehr, Soheil Eagderi *, Hadi Poorbagher, Keyvan Abbasi Pages 22-27
    This study was conducted to compare the morphological characteristics of Ponticola iranicus populations from the Anzali Wetland drainage (wetland and it's two draining rivers, namely Siahdarvishan and Pasikhan, Southern Caspian Sea basin). For this purpose, five specimens of P. iranicus from the Pasikhan River, ten from Siah-Darvishan River, and eight from the Anzali Wetland were collected. After anesthesia, fish were fixed into 10% buffered formalin and transferred to the laboratory for further study. A total of 22 morphometric traits were measured using a digital caliper. The data, after removing size, were analyzed for normality, and the significant data were selected and used for multivariate analysis, including Principle component analysis (PCA), Canonical variate analysis (CVA), and Non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance (NPMANOVA). The results showed a significant difference in inter-orbital distance, minimum width of the caudal peduncle, and eye diameter between the studied populations (P<0.05). Besides, the Anzali wetland population was discriminated from others due to morphological characteristics. The observed morphological changes in P. iranicus can be as a result of their habitat adaptation such as current type and feeding.
    Keywords: Canonical variate analysis, Iranian Goby, Morphometric, Principle Component Analysis
  • Saeed Salari *, Mehdi Jahantigh, Mohammad Jahantigh Pages 28-33

    As a wild ground-foraging bird, crested lark (Galerida cristata) is widely distributed in the Sistan area, located in the North of Sistan and Baluchistan Province, Iran. Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is known as a cause of acute diarrheal and Guillain-Barré syndrome in humans and can use the same wild birds as a carrier. The present study was aimed to determine if the target wild bird species can be regarded as a medium to carry C. jejuni or not. A total of 100 individual birds were trapped alive, and cloacal swab samples were collected from each animal. By amplifying Hyp and hip genes, we screened the presence of C. jejuni in the sampled specimens. The results indicated that generating an amplicon of 500 bp and 750 bp from control strain for Hyp and hip genes, but in all examined samples, no C. jejuni was detected. As a first microbiological investigation on a crested lark, our finding indicates that it likely plays no role in the epidemiology of infections caused by C. jejuni. Vast studies, with a variety of wild birds, and different geographical areas are proposed.

    Keywords: Iran, Microorganism, PCR, wild animals
  • Andreia Garcês, Felisbina Queiroga, Justina Prada, Isabel Pires * Pages 34-55

    The exponential growth of the human population and their activity in the last decades have adverse effects on biodiversity. The main objective of this review was to present a compilation of works on causes of mortality of native wildlife in Europe, in the last decades linked to human activity. Here, a total of 130 peer-reviewed publications were reviewed for the period between 1942 to 2017 from thirty-eight countries. Sixty-five percent of the studies were focused on the bird’s species. Our results showed that the leading cause of mortality was due to traumatic origin, particularly collision with infrastructures and motor vehicles. Based on the papers analysed in the present study, it is possible to conclude that human development and its anthropogenic pressures have a negative effect on some species of wildlife, while the potential impact on the vast majority of other species is still unknown. This study provided an insight into the effects of the different anthropogenic pressures on the European fauna, giving valuable information on its main threats and raising important questions on rehabilitation management practices.

    Keywords: anthropogenic pressures, Europe, Mortality, Urban, wild fauna
  • Sushanto Gouda *, Netrapal Singh Chauhan, Janmejay Sethy, Hemanta Sahu Pages 56-64
    Sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) is the smallest bear species and remains the least known bear ‎among the ursids. Reliable information on population and activity pattern of Sun bear has been ‎lacking, thereby creating difficulties for field managers and conservationists to develop ‎a management plan for their conservation. The study was an attempt to determine the habitat ‎preference and daily activity of Sun bear through camera trapping and other signs survey ‎methods. In the study, we had a combined trapping effort of 647 trap-nights with a total of 18 ‎independent images of Sun bear recorded between May 2014 and March 2016. Distribution of ‎bear signs per hectare was found to be highest in the Bamboo forest (0.398), owing to large ‎numbers of termite's mounds. The photo capture rate of Sun bear in Dampa Tiger Reserve was ‎found to vary by different habitats with high numbers in degraded forest landscape within the ‎Reserve. The variation was also influenced by the disturbance of humans in the area and other ‎feeding opportunities. The relative abundance index shows that Old Chikha has the highest ‎index of 1.89 with a mean value of 5.26 ±0.670 among all blocks in Dampa Tiger Reserve. The ‎daily activity index suggests that Malayan Sun bears are more active during the crepuscular ‎period than diurnal. The highest activity was recorded between 1800- 2200 with 14.89% detection ‎probability. No activity was recorded during the mid-noon phase. Primary forests and degraded ‎forests with their large fruiting trees were represented as important habitat owing to the availability ‎of fruits, termites, and invertebrates. The study will hopefully be an important step towards ‎acquiring more knowledge on the ecology of the species and provide valuable information for ‎the conservation of the species and their habitat.
    Keywords: Foraging, Camera trapping, trap index, degraded forest
  • J. Stone *, Taru Vasanthan Pages 65-72
    Known tardigrade species have increased in number over the years, but individual life history traits for most are unknown. The present study documents life history traits such as growth, reproductive activity, and lifespan for the parthenogenetic Eutardigrada species Hypsibius exemplaris when reared under laboratory conditions. Embryos were characterized by 100% hatching success, and hatchlings were characterized by approximately 90% survival to sexual maturity and 80% healthy growth to adult size, suggesting that mortality and growth defects occur early in life history. Egg production increased with age, eggs per exuvium maximizing on days 18, 21, and 24 post-hatching. The mean lifespan was 61.9 ± 9.9 days, with the maximum, 75 days, achieved by four among the 70 individuals whose life histories were documented. Given its short generation time, amenability to laboratory conditions, stereotypical embryonic stages, recently sequenced genome, and now chronicled life history, H. exemplaris rapidly is becoming a popular candidate in the phylum Tardigrada for advancing scientific inquiry.
    Keywords: Hatching Success, Hypsibius dujardini, Lifespan, Reproduction
  • Evgeny Vilkov * Pages 73-83
    The paper is based on 19 years (1998-2017) of the avifauna monitoring in High-mountain Daghestan. Each of 11 bird communities of the study area is characterized by its whole set of birds, including the rarely occurred species since the latter promotes the formation of a unique pattern not only of an individual faunal community but also the entire avifauna of the region. It is assumed that a specific avifauna pattern of High-mountain Daghestan is determined not only by resident communities of typical mountain birds but also by nesting in the mountains adapted populations of migratory birds of the plains. The analysis of the collected material provides a picture of the species diversity and territorial distribution of birds and helps to understand the avifauna resource capacities of High-mountain Daghestan.
    Keywords: Avifauna, bird community, ecology, High-mountain Daghestan, micropopulaton