فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 40 (بهار 1399)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/02/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 15
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  • کرامت الله زیاری*، هاجر یدالله نیا، حسین یدالله نیا صفحات 1-16

    رویکرد حکم روایی منجر به نقش آفرینی فعال شهروندان در عرصه تصمیم گیری های شهری شده و این امکان را برای مدیران فراهم می کند تا با به کارگیری ظرفیت کنشگران، مشکلات را به صورت مناسب تر و بهینه تر شناخته و رفع کنند. در این پژوهش شهر ساری با توجه به افزایش جمعیت سالانه شهری و اهمیت این شهر به لحاظ سیاسی (مرکز استان)، عملکرد مدیریت شهر آن با توجه به نظرات شهروندان موردبررسی قرارگرفته است. جامعه آماری شهروندان شهر ساری بوده و حجم نمونه بر اساس فرمول کوکران 384 نفر برآورد شده است. برای تحلیل علاوه بر آمار توصیفی (میانگین و انحراف معیار) از آزمون T تک نمونه ای استفاده گردید. به همین منظور در این پژوهش سعی شده شاخص هایی چون مشارکت، کارایی، شفافیت، عدالت محوری، پاسخگویی، مسیولیت پذیری، قانون مندی و توافق جمعی مورد بررسی قرار گیرد. برای سنجش هر یک از متغیرها در پرسشنامه، از طیف لیکرت 5 سطحی استفاده شد. نتایج به دست آمده نشان می دهد، میانگین کل شاخص های حکمروایی خوب از منظر شهروندان با مقدار 1.98 از 3 در وضعیت نامطلوبی قرار دارد. با توجه به نتایج، در بین شاخص های بررسی شده شاخص کارایی و اثربخشی فعالیت مدیران و مسیولان شهری با میانگین 2.46 از 3 بیشترین میزان در بین شاخص ها را داشته است ولی کمتر از میانگین استاندارد است که نشان دهنده موثر نبودن روش فعالیت مدیران در عرصه شهری است و شاخص مشارکت با مقدار 1.67 از 3 کمترین مقدار را داشته است درنتیجه برای افزایش مشارکت شهروندان در امور مدیریتی لازم است که مسیولان شهری زمینه مشارکت شهروندان را فراهم کنند. نتایج عدم رضایت شهروندان را بیان می کند که در این رابطه مسیولان شهری باید با به کارگیری نظرات افراد در عرصه مدیریتی و سیاست گذاری ها، زمینه را برای افزایش رضایت از زندگی در شهر را فراهم نمایند.

    کلیدواژگان: عملکرد، مدیریت شهری، حکمروایی، شهروندان، ساری
  • احمد اسدی*، مهدی مودودی، سعید حسین آبادی صفحات 17-30

    سرزندگی یکی از معیارهای اصلی شهرهایی است که از کیفیت بالای برنامه ریزی و طراحی برخوردارند. محیط های شهری سرزنده، زمینه ساز تعاملات اجتماعی، خلق و افزایش سرمایه اجتماعی و حس تعلق به مکان می گردند. هدف این مطالعه تحلیل رابطه سرزندگی و حس تعلق مکانی در شهر قاین است. این تحقیق جزو تحقیقات پیمایشی و ابزار جمع آوری داده ها، پرسشنامه می باشد. حجم نمونه آماری 382 نفر از شهروندان شهر قاین می باشد که با استفاده از فرمول کوکران انتخاب شده است. متغیرهای مستقل این تحقیق شاخص های سرزندگی شهری (دسترسی، پویایی اجتماعی، سرزندگی اقتصادی، امنیت شهری، طراحی معابر، مبلمان، روشنایی فضاهای شهری، سیما و منظر شهری و خوانایی) و متغیر وابسته، حس تعلق مکانی می باشد. برای تحلیل رابطه متغیرها از مدل های k- نزدیک ترین فاصله و الگوریتم جنگل های تصادفی استفاده شده است. شاخص سرزندگی از 28 گویه تشکیل شده است. یافته های تحقیق نشان می دهد که میانگین 17 گویه آن در سطح مناسبی قرار ندارد و 11 گویه آن در سطح قابل قبولی هستند. در کل سرزندگی شهری در شهر قاین پایین است. همچنین میانگین متغیر حس تعلق مکانی در سطح متوسطی قرار دارد. با توجه به خروجی مدل ها روش K نزدیک ترین همسایه نتایج بهتری از مدل جنگل تصادفی داشته است. عملکرد مدل K-NN گویای آن است که این مدل تاثیر سرزندگی بر  تعلق مکانی را با ضریب همبستگی 0/82و میزان خطای 66/0 و ریسک برآورد 0/43 شبیه سازی کرده است. بر اساس مدل ایجاد شده توسط الگوریتم جنگل تصادفی متغیر دسترسی بیشترین و خوانایی کمترین تاثیر را در حس تعلق در شهر قاین را دارند.

    کلیدواژگان: سرزندگی شهری، حس تعلق مکانی، K نزدیک ترین همسایه، الگوریتم جنگل تصادفی، شهر قائن
  • مقاله برگرفته از پایان نامه
  • مجیدرضا آشتیانی عراقی، رحیم سرور*، پروانه زیویار، نصرالله فلاح تبار صفحات 31-46

    تعدد مدیریت و ناهماهنگی سازمان ها و نهادهای دولتی و خصوصی متولی امور شهری از چالش های مدیریت کلانشهری تهران است. هدف از پژوهش حاضر که از نوع کاربردی بوده، بررسی و ارزیابی تحقق مدیریت یکپارچه شهری با تاکید بر نقش و قدرت بازیگران سطوح مختلف مدیریت شهری در تهران است. برای رسیدن به آن از روش توصیفی تحلیل استفاده شده است. جامعه آماری پژوهش حاضر شامل تمامی کارشناسان، مدیران شهری و اساتید دانشگاه که در زمینه توسعه شهری، برنامه ریزی شهری و مدیریت شهری مشغول به فعالیت در شهر تهران هستند، می باشد. 100 نفر از افراد مذکور به صورت تصادفی انتخاب و اطلاعات لازمه با استفاده از ابزار تحقیق جمع آوری شد. ابزار مورد استفاده در این پژوهش شامل پرسشنامه ی محقق ساخته ای است که روایی آن به صورت محتوایی (صوری) و پایایی آن با استفاده آزمون آلفای کرونباخ (0/75-0/87) مورد تایید قرار گرفته است. نتایج نشان داد، وضعیت کلی تحقق مدیریت یکپارچه شهری تهران، براساس نظرات کارشناسان مورد مطالعه، (3/2- = t) در حال حاضر در مسیر تحقق نیست و یا سرعت رفتن به آن سمت چشم گیر نمی باشد. از طرفی، نتایج آزمون t تک نمونه ای بدست آمده برای عوامل حکمروایی شهری (6/9 = t) و شرایط ساختاری مدیریتی (3/8 = t) نشان دهنده مناسب بودن این دو عامل در زمینه تحقق مدیریت یکپارچه شهری است. همچنین، نتایج بررسی نقش و قدرت بازیگران سطوح مختلف مدیریت شهری تهران نشان داد که نهادهای دولتی، شهرداری و شورای شهری بیشترین قدرت را در سطوح تصمیم گیری مدیریت شهری داشته و به عبارتی بیشترین تاثیرگذاری را بر تحقق مدیریت یکپارچه شهری تهران دارند.

    کلیدواژگان: مدیریت یکپارچه شهری، بازیگران سطوح مختلف مدیریت، حکمروایی شهری، نهادهای دولتی، تهران
  • احمد اسدی، آزیتا رجبی*، غلامرضا جانباز قبادی، محمد کمیلی صفحات 47-58

    قدم اول جهت بهبود مدیریت  در یک سازمان با آسیب شناسی  آغاز می گردد. آسیب شناسی باعث می شود تا بتوانیم موانع رشد و توسعه سازمان را شناسایی و جهت رفع آنها برنامه ریزی کنیم. در این پژوهش ابتدا با استفاده از روش تحلیل سه شاخگی و با مصاحبه با 12 نفر از کارشناسان خبره شهرداری پاکدشت به شناسایی آسیب های ساختاری، رفتاری و محیطی یا زمینه ای پرداخته شده است . سپس متن مصاحبه ها با استفاده از روش تحلیل محتوا و نرم افزار MAXQDA 2018 مورد تحلیل قرار گرفته و ابعاد آسیب شناسی مدیریت توسعه شهری پاکدشت شناسایی شده و مدل تحقیق ارایه می شود. در آسیب های ساختاری، ساخت و ساز غیر مجاز با بار عاملی 0.89، سیستم نادرست حقوق و پاداش با بار عاملی 0.89، عدم استفاده از فناوری اطلاعات با بار عاملی 0.89 و نمودار سازمانی موجود با بار عاملی 0.86 مهم ترین آسیب های مدیریت توسعه شهری پاکدشت هستند. در آسیب های زمینه ای، وضعیت قوانین موجود با بار عاملی 0.98، طرح های توسعه شهری با بار عاملی 0.95، عدم استفاده از نظرات ارباب رجوع با بار عاملی 0.94 و عدم مشارکت شهروندان در مدیریت شهری با بار عاملی 0.85 آسیب های زمینه ای مدیریت توسعه شهری پاکدشت هستند. در آسیب های رفتاری، عدم آگاهی و دانش کارکنان با بار عاملی 0.97، عدم شناخت استانداردهای کاری با بار عاملی .97 ، عدم نظارت بر عملکرد کارکنان با بار عاملی 0.95، فرهنگ سازمانی در عملکرد کارکنان با بار عاملی 0.92 و عدم آگاهی و دانش اعضای شورای شهر با بار عاملی 0.79 آسیب های رفتاری مدیریت توسعه شهری پاکدشت هستند.

    کلیدواژگان: مدیریت شهری، آسیب شناسی، تحلیل سه شاخگی، توسعه شهری، شهر پاکدشت
  • تقی حیدری*، شهرام محمدی صفحات 59-76
    از زمینه های ناپایداری توسعه شهری به ویژه در کشورهای در حال توسعه، سکونتگاه های غیررسمی می باشد که به علت عدم توانایی سیاست های شهری برای حل و فصل مشکلات مسکن اقشار آسیب پذیر جامعه و کنترل مهاجرت ها شکل گرفته است. سکونت گاه های غیررسمی با تجمعی از اقشار کم درآمد و غالبا با مشاغل غیررسمی و شیوه ای از شهرنشینی ناپایدار همراه اند و به دلیل برخورداری از شرایط انزوا زمینه ساز بسیاری از آسیب های اجتماعی به شمار می روند. هدف پژوهش حاضر شناسایی عوامل تاثیرگذار بر آسیب های اجتماعی ناشی از اسکان غیررسمی و وضعیت آن ها در محله غیررسمی اسلام آباد شهر زنجان می باشد. روش پژوهش اکتشافی- تحلیلی بوده و روش جمع آوری اطلاعات با استفاده از مطالعات کتابخانه ای و پرسشنامه بوده است. تعداد نمونه آماری مورد مطالعه جهت تکمیل پرسشنامه شامل 382 نفر از ساکنین محله غیررسمی اسلام آباد می باشد. شاخص های تحقیق در قالب ابعاد شش گانه آسیب های اجتماعی شامل ابعاد اقتصادی، محیطی، اجتماعی-فرهنگی، خانوادگی، فردی-روانی، مدیریتی به صورت محقق ساخته بوده و با مطالعه پیشینه تحقیق و نظریه ها و رویکردهای آسیب های اجتماعی تنظیم گردیده است. جهت تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها از آزمون تحلیل عاملی، آزمون تک نمونه ای t، آزمون رگرسیون خطی چندگانه و الگوی تحلیل یکپارچه ANP بهره گرفته شده است. نتایج تحقیق نشان می دهد که مهم ترین عوامل تقویت کننده آسیب های اجتماعی در محله غیررسمی اسلام آباد ناشی از بیکاری (با ضریب 0.980)، بی عدالتی (با ضریب 0.988)، و توزیع ناعادلانه ثروت (با ضریب 0.978) می باشد و بعد «اجتماعی- فرهنگی» (با ضریب 0.627=β) بیش ترین همبستگی را بر گسترش آسیب های اجتماعی دارد. یعنی با تضعیف شرایط اجتماعی-فرهنگی در جامعه، آسیب های اجتماعی نیز گسترش پیدا می کند.
    کلیدواژگان: آسیب شناسی اجتماعی، حاشیه نشینی، مدیریت و پیشگیری از جرم، شهر زنجان
  • عسگر شهماری کلستان، آرش فرهودی* صفحات 77-90
    با توجه به اهمیت صنعت گردشگری و رقابتی تر شدن آن، به نظر می رسد مقاصد گردشگری به مانند دیگر محصولات مصرفی، به برند به عنوان هویت یگانه ای برای ایجاد تمایز بین خود و سایر رقبا، نیازمند هستند. شهر خلخال به دلیل دارا بودن جاذبه های گردشگری فراوان، در سال های اخیر، به مقصد محبوب گردشگران تبدیل شده است. این پژوهش بر آن است تا مولفه های ارزش ویژه برند از دیدگاه گردشگران داخلی سفر کرده به شهرستان خلخال را بررسی کند. این پژوهش جزو پژوهش های کاربردی است و برای انجام آن از پرسش نامه ای استفاده شد که برگرفته از پژوهش کونینک است. جهت نرمال بودن داده ها از آزمون کولموگروف- اسمیرنوف استفاده شد که فرض نرمال بودن داده ها برای تصویر برند با 0.174، کیفیت ادارک شده با 0.186، آگاهی از برند با 0.210 و وفاداری به برند با 0.154 تایید شد. بررسی فرضیه های تحقیق نشان می دهد که سه فرضیه از چهار فرضیه مورد نظر نگارندگان (آگاهی از برند با آماره T 5.22 ، تصویر برند با آماره 8.47 و وفاداری به برند با آماره 12.54 تایید شد و یکی از فرضیه ها (کیفیت ادارک شده با آماره 0.594) رد شد. یکی از دلایل اینکه گردشگران کیفیت ادراکی مقصد گردشگری شهرستان خلخال را مناسب ارزیابی نکردند این است که زیرساخت های مناسبی در حوزه گردشگری در این شهرستان وجود ندارد. از طرفی، تصویر گردشگران از مقصد گردشگری شهرستان خلخال خوب بوده که از دلایل آن می توان به آب و هوای خوب، چشم اندازهای زیبا، محیط آرام، مردم مهمان نواز و... اشاره کرد. لذا باید از چشمانداز طبیعی محافظت گردد.
    کلیدواژگان: گردشگری، اکوتوریسم، ارزش ویژه برند، معادلات ساختاری، شهرستان خلخال
  • زهرا کاغذلو، علیرضا لادن مقدم*، سعید اکبری صفحات 91-106

    گسترش مدرنیته منجر به رواج استفاده از ماشین در سراسر جهان شده است. به نحوی که در محیط های شهری که تا پیش از انقلاب صنعتی، در انحصار انسان بود، به فضاهایی با اولویت تردد خودرو تبدیل شدند؛ اما رفته رفته اندیشمندان برنامه ریزی توجه به اولویت تردد انسان بر ماشین را در فضاهای شهری مد نظر قرار دادند (عنوان راه حلی برای کاهش آلودگی هوا و ایجاد محیط های انسانی و سرزنده). پژوهش حاضر با چنین رویکردی اقدام به ارزیابی ابعاد کیفیت فضاهای شهری س(با تاکید بر منظر شهری) ، در شهر رامیان واقع در استان گلستان نموده است. در این راستا، روش توصیفی تحلیلی و مدل تحلیل عاملی بکار رفته است. ابزار جمع آوری اطلاعات پرسشنامه شهروندی و تعداد نمونه آماری 380 مورد شناسایی شده است. روایی ابزار توسط اساتید حوزه برنامه ریزی و طراحی شهری به تایید رسیده است و پایایی پژوهش نیز توسط آزمون KMO به تایید رسیده است. در نهایت با استفاده از روش تحلیل عاملی تعداد 8 عامل مرتبط با کیفیت فضاهای عمومی و منظر شهری شناسایی شده است. بر اساس نتایج به دست آمده مشخص می گردد که کیفیت های بصری نقش غیرقابل انکاری در ارتقای پیاده مداری در فضاهای عمومی دارد (با توجه به اینکه عامل اول شناسایی شده عامل کالبدی- بصری، اجتماعی و زیست محیطی و شامل ابعاد زیبایی شناختی و کارکردی نظیر: وضعیت مبلمان شهری، فضای سبز و پارک، وضعیت بناهای خاص فرهنگی مانند نمایشگاه ها، وضعیت فضاهای گردشگری است). بهره گیری از عوامل یاد شده، می تواند به عنوان راهکاری عمده جهت خلق فضاهای شهری پیاده مدار تلقی گردد.

    کلیدواژگان: منظر شهری، پیاده مداری، فضاهای عمومی، شهر رامیان، کیفیت های بصری
  • سید محمد احمدپور، غلامرضا جعفری نیا*، حبیب پاسالارزاده صفحات 107-122

    عوامل متعددی برکیفیت زندگی افراد تاثیرگذار است که از جمله آنها میزان صنعتی شدن محدوده زندگی می باشد. تداوم تعهد فرد به نظام اجتماعی ریشه در رضایت از کیفیت زندگی خود، وضعیت جامعه و به طور کلی شرایط زندگی فرد دارد. هر فرد از طریق تحلیل شرایط پیرامون خود، می تواند اوضاع فردی خویش را دریافته و به ارزیابی آن بپردازد. عواطف مثبت در مورد شرایط خود اگرچه عنصری ذهنی است، ریشه در شرایط عینی دارد. پژوهش حاضر با استفاده از روش میدانی، تکنیک پیمایش و ابزار تحقیق پرسشنامه به دنبال پاسخ به این سوال اصلی می باشد که آیا بین پیامدهای زیست محیطی صنعت نفت و گاز با کیفیت زندگی شهروندان در حوزه پارس جنوبی ارتباط وجود دارد؟ جامعه آماری پژوهش حاضر تمامی شهروندان 18 سال به بالای شهرستان های عسلویه و کنگان می باشد که تعداد 376 نفر از آنها به عنوان حجم نمونه که با استفاده از فرمول کوکران بدست آمده مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. همچنین برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها از نرم افزارهای SPSS و معادلات ساختاریSmart PLS   استفاده شده است. یافته های پژوهش بیانگر آن است که بین پیامدهای زیست محیطی صنعت نفت و گاز با میزان کل کیفیت زندگی (0/34 -P=) و شاخص های آن یعنی کیفیت زندگی اجتماعی (0/37 -P=)، کیفیت زندگی روانی (0/36 -P=)، کیفیت زندگی جسمانی (P=-0/30) و کیفیت زندگی خانوادگی (P=-0/39) ارتباط منفی و معکوس وجود دارد. اما بین پیامدهای زیست محیطی صنعت نفت و گاز با کیفیت زندگی اقتصادی ارتباط معناداری مشاهده نشد. همچنین نتایج حاصل از مدل معادله ساختاری (Smart PLS) نیز نشان می دهد که پیامدهای زیست محیطی صنعت نفت و گاز بر کیفیت زندگی تاثیر متوسط داشته (0/513-) و متغیر پیامدهای زیست محیطی صنعت نفت و گاز در مجموع (0/263) از واریانس متغیر کیفیت زندگی را تبیین می کند.

    کلیدواژگان: صنعت نفت و گاز، پیامدهای زیست محیطی، کیفیت زندگی، حوزه پارس جنوبی
  • ببراز کریمی، یعقوب پیوسته گر*، مسعود تقوایی صفحات 123-136
    افزایش جمعیت و توسعه شهرنشینی، فشار فزاینده ای را بر زمین وارد نموده و تخریب زمین های پیرامون شهرها را موجب شده و از چالش های اساسی در برنامه ریزی شهری در دهه های اخیر بوده است. روش تحقیق توصیفی _تحلیلی می باشد و از لحاظ هدف، کاربردی است. جهت تحلیل روند توسعه فضایی کلان شهر شیراز، از تصاویر ماهواره ای سال های 1365 تا 1395 استفاده شده و برای مدلسازی تغییرات در سال1410، از پارامترهای موثر در توسعه شهر و مدل تحول زمین استفاده گردید. نتایج تحلیل تصاویر ماهواره ای برای سال های 1365تا 1395 نشانگر تغییرات فزاینده کاربری های کشاورزی و فضاهای سبز به کاربری اراضی ساخته شده می باشد. در دوره 30 ساله باعث تخریب بیش از 508 هکتار از فضای سبز و بیش از 3373 هکتار زمین زراعی شده است. نتایج حاصل از مدل هلدرن نیز در این دوره نشانگر آنست که 59 درصد رشد فیزیکی شهر مربوط به افزایش جمعیت شهر و41 درصد آن مربوط به رشد افقی و اسپرال شهر شیراز بوده است. با ادامه این روند توسعه آتی شهر شیراز با مشکلات فزاینده زیست محیطی و اکولوژیکی مواجه خواهد شد، فضاهای سبز شهری و اراضی کشاورزی بیشتری در پیرامون شهر شیراز تا سال 1410 به زیر ساخت و ساز خواهد رفت و مشکلات موجود شهری دو چندان می گردد. همچنین بعد از 1410 برای توسعه شهری جدید نیاز به افزایش محدوده شهری و در نتیجه تخریب محیط زیست اطراف شهر و زمین های کشاورزی اتفاق خواهد افتاد.
    کلیدواژگان: توسعه، فضایی، LTM، هلدرن، شیراز
  • فرشید هاشم زاده قلعه جوق*، سامان ابی زاده، اسماعیل صفرعلیزاده صفحات 137-154
    شهرها که یکی از سکونتگاه ها و مکان تجمع زیستی انسان از ابتدا تاکنون بوده اند، مجموعه ای از عوامل زنده و پویا هستند و به عنوان یک منبع توسعه مطرح می باشند. نقش و جایگاه مدیریت شهری در روند توسعه و بهبود سکونتگاه های شهری بسیار مهم و تعیین کننده بوده و امروزه در پی روند شتابان توسعه و تحولات شهری در کشور، فراهم سازی محیط زندگی متناسب با این تغییرات جزء جدانشدنی برنامه ریزی و مدیریت شهری شده است. در سال های اخیر به منظور پاسخگویی به این نیازها، بافت های فرسوده شهری که اصالت و هویت هر شهری بیشتر در آن متجلی می باشد، اهمیت عمده ای یافته و مورد توجه ویژه قرار گرفته اند. هدف اصلی پژوهش حاضر، شناسایی، ارزیابی و تحلیل عوامل کلیدی موثر بر فرآیند برنامه ریزی بافت فرسوده ماکو می باشد. این تحقیق بر اساس هدف، کاربردی بوده و ماهیت داده های آن کیفی است. بر اساس گردآوری داده ها نیز، اسنادی و پیمایشی بوده و روش تحقیق آن، تحلیل ساختاری است. داده های اولیه به منظور تحقق هدف پژوهش، 22 عامل و متغیر در قالب 5 دسته معیار می باشد که با استفاده از نرم افزار میک مک جهت شناسایی عوامل کلیدی و به کمک فرآیند تحلیل سلسله مراتبی جهت اولویت بندی تحلیل گردیده اند. نهایتا 11 عامل و متغیر شیوه مدیریت؛ طرح های ساماندهی، بهسازی و نوسازی بافت فرسوده؛ مدیران و نیروی انسانی متخصص؛ فراهم بودن زیرساخت ها و امکانات زیربنایی اولیه؛ هماهنگی دستگاه های اجرایی؛ مسکن و زمین؛ ظرفیت های اقتصادی-محیطی؛ محیط زیست و منابع اکولوژیکی؛ سرمایه گذاری (دولتی و خصوصی)؛ تحقیق و توسعه و مشارکت به عنوان عوامل کلیدی و پیشران فرآیند برنامه ریزی شناسایی گردیده و مبنای ارایه پیشنهادها و راهکارهایی جهت پیشبرد برنامه ها و دستیابی به اهداف آتی مدیریت شهری در حوزه بافت مذکور قرار گرفته اند.
    کلیدواژگان: توسعه شهری، برنامه ریزی، بافت فرسوده، عوامل کلیدی، اولویت بندی
  • ملیحه تقی پور* صفحات 155-174
    ا  افزایش جمعیت ساکن در شهرها و نیاز به فضاهای مسکونی در سال های اخیر، ضرورت وجود آپارتمان ها و مجتمع های مسکونی را غیرقابل انکار نموده است. این امر پژوهشگران را به لزوم شناخت دقیق تر اینگونه از فضاها و بررسی مشکلات و راه حل های موجود وادار نموده است. وجود دسته بندی ها و گونه شناسی های مختلف مسکن می تواند در امر طراحی و پژوهش، جهت انتخاب نمونه موردی مناسب راهگشا باشد. هدف از این پژوهش شناخت سازماندهی فضایی موثر بر شکل گیری مجتمع های مسکونی شیراز است. روش تحقیق مورد استفاده در این پژوهش ترکیبی است که از مطالعات کتابخانه ای و روش میدانی بهره برده است. برای این منظور کلیه مجتمع های مسکونی موجود در شهر شیراز که با شرایط این پژوهش سازگاری داشتند مورد مطالعه قرارگرفتند. با بررسی عکس هوایی، نقشه های ماهواره ای و جی ای اس، و بازدید میدانی انواع مجتمع های مسکونی از نظر مقیاس و ارتفاع دسته بندی شده و سپس طبق مطالعات انجام شده، انواع سازماندهی های موجوددر شهر شیراز تدوین گردیده است. در این میان پنج نوع سازماندهی در میان مجتمعهای شیراز شناسایی گردید که عبارتند از: منفرد، مرکزی، مجموعه ای، خطی و مختلط. در نهایت جداول مربوط به نحوه پراکنش بر اساس نوع سازماندهی، مقیاس و ارتفاع بدست امد. نتایج حاصل حاکی از آن است که سازماندهی حاکم بر ساخت مجتمع های مسکونی در شهر شیراز بصورت مجموعه ای می باشد که از این میان تمایل به ساخت مجموعه های نامنظم بیش از مجموعه های منظم است. پس از آن تمایل به ساخت مجموعه های خطی (نواری) بیش از دیگر گونه هاست.
    کلیدواژگان: مجتمع مسکونی، سازماندهی فضایی، گونه شناسی، شیراز، spss
  • زریر صالح پور سروک* صفحات 175-188
    د گسترش شهرها امری غیرقابل اجتناب است، و این رشد زمانی مشکل آفرین می شود که فرایند گسترش بدون برنامه و به صورت خود به خودی صورت گیرد. در نتیجه، نظارت، تجزیه و تحلیل و برنامه ریزی پیش بینی گسترش شهر مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. هدف از این مطالعه؛ توسعه شهر یاسوج با مدل اتوماتای سلولی مبتنی بر GIS به منظور بررسی توسعه افقی شهری تا سال 1410 است. ابتدا پارامترای تناسب فیزیکی، راه های ارتباطی و اثر همسایگی محاسبه شدند. سپس با توجه به تقاضای کاربری های مختلف، اقدام به شناسایی مناطق توسعه یافته و توسعه نیافته شد. در مرحله بعدی تخصیص کاربری های دارای تقاضا با استفاده از تعامل میان تقاضا و تناسب کلی هر قطعه ملکی و متناسب با بیشترین ارزش به دست آمده در بین نقشه های تناسب کاربری انجام شده است. نتایج نشان داد مدل سازی پیشنهادی، توسعه شهر یاسوج از مناطق بیرونی شعاع آن زیاد می شود و بخصوص از ناحیه جنوب غربی، زیرا که در شمال و شرق شهر موانع طبیعی مانع از گسترش آن می شود. ارزیابی مدلسازی اتوماتای سلولی بیانگر دقت 61 درصدی رشد افقی می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: مدلسازی، توسعه افقی شهری، اتوماتای سلولی، یاسوج
  • علیرضا عبدالله زاده فرد* صفحات 189-200

    امنیت دارای دو عنصر اساسی تهدید و فرصت است و برقراری امنیت منوط به رهایی نسبی از تهدید و بهره گیری بهینه از فرصت هاست، از طرفی پدافند غیرعامل در راستای حفظ جان مردم، تضمین امنیت افراد، صیانت از تمامیت ارضی و حاکمیت ملی در همه مواقع در برابر هرگونه شرایط، موقعیت و هرگونه تجاوز برای دفاع از شهر در برابر هر نوع تهدیدی مطرح می گردد.  بر این مبنا در پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی نقش امنیت شهری در پدافند غیرعامل در شهر شیراز، با استفاده از روش دلفی، پرسشنامه‏ای تهیه گردید که توسط 30 نفر از متخصصین پاسخ داده شد و جهت تحلیل اطلاعات آماری از نرم افزار spss استفاده و تحلیل آماری داده‏ها در 2 گروه توصیفی و تحلیلی انجام شد. با توجه به داده‏های به دست آمده، به ترتیب اولویت های متغیرها شامل: ایمنی و امنیت با 5/18%، ابعاد کالبدی و زیست محیطی با 4%، ابعاد فرهنگی و اجتماعی با 2% و بعد اقتصادی با 0/9% معیارهای تاثیرگذار بر ارتقاء پدافند غیرعامل در شهر شیراز می‏باشند. همچنین با سطح معنی داری 0/000 که بین شاخص های پدافند غیرعامل و امنیت شهری است نشان دهنده وجود رابطه معنی داری بین شاخص های امنیت و پدافند غیرعامل است.

    کلیدواژگان: امنیت، شهر، پدافند، غیرعامل، شیراز
  • محمدرسول درویشی، محمدرضا قائدی*، گارینه کشیشیان سیرکی، محمد توحیدفام صفحات 201-216

    مهاجرت از شهرها به روستاها، سبب گسترش شهرنشینی و ایجاد مفاهیم جدیدی شد، که می توان با تکیه بر آن ها، از قبیل سرمایه اجتماعی و اعتماد عمومی در توسعه پایدار شهری قدم برداشت. هدف از انجام این  پژوهش حاضر توسعه پایدار شهری با تکیه بر شاخصه های سرمایه اجتماعی و اعتماد عمومی می باشد. روش این پژوهش تحقیق بر اساس مطالعه موردی و از سنخ توصیفی_ تحلیلی و ضریب همبستگی اجراشده است. ابزار گردآوری اطلاعات پرسشنامه است که برای سنجش اعتماد عمومی از پرسشنامه اعتماد عمومی پیران نژاد (1386) برای سنجش سرمایه اجتماعی گروترت و همکاران (1998)  و برای سنجش توسعه پایدار شهری از پرسشنامه گلند و اکایا (2001) استفاده شده است. جامعه آماری این تحقیق شامل شهروندان ساکن منطقه 2 شهر تهران می باشد . منطقه 2 دارای 21 محله و9 ناحیه میباشد. جمعیت این منطقه براساس سرشماری سال 1395 ایران، 701٬303 نفر (239٬742 خانوار) شامل 343٬033 مرد و 358٬270 زن است. منطقه 2 شهرداری تهران به  9 ناحیه و 30 محله شورایاری 14 محله ممیزی تقسیم می شود. که  تعداد 374 پرسشنامه مورد تحلیل قرار گرفت از نرم افزار SPSS و روش های آماری آن از قبیل تحلیل همبستگی پیرسون، تحلیل میانگین و مورد تجزیه وتحلیل قرار گرفت که طبق نتایج حاصل از پژوهش، سرمایه اجتماعی و اعتماد عمومی بر توسعه پایدار شهری تاثیر دارد (p=0.000).  شاخص های سرمایه اجتماعی بر توسعه پایدار شهری تاثیر دارد(p=0.000).  شاخص های اعتماد عمومی بر توسعه پایدار شهری تاثیر دارد(p=0.000)   و می توان نتیجه گرفت که در توسعه پایدار شهری، دو مولفه سرمایه اجتماعی و اعتماد عمومی را مد نظر قرار داد.

    کلیدواژگان: پایداری شهری، &quot، سرمایه اجتماعی&quot، اعتماد عمومی
  • آناهیتا ظریف پور لنگرودی، فریبا البرزی*، جمال الدین سهیلی صفحات 217-232

    این پژوهش به بررسی نماهای مسکونی منتخب مسابقات معماری و تبیین نقش نما در ایجاد دلبستگی به مکان در بین شهروندان تهران می پردازد. هدف اصلی تحقیق، بررسی و شناسایی عناصر نما با تاکید بر معانی و ادراکات ذهنی شهروندان و نقش نما در ایجاد دلبستگی به مکان می باشد. تحقیق از نوع کاربردی است و جهت ارزیابی مولفه های تدوین شده در مدل مفهومی از ترکیب روش های پژوهش پیمایشی و روش توصیفی تحلیلی (تحلیل محتوا) استفاده شده است. نتایج تحلیل های کمی و کیفی نمایانگر آن است که نماهای ساختمانی را می توان در قالب ابعاد کالبدی (بتا:0/322)، ادراکی-احساسی (بتا: 0/284) و عملکردی- فعالیتی (بتا: 0/217) بررسی نمود. همچنین، عامل کالبدی با ضریب بتا 0/322 مهم ترین اثرگذاری را بر احساس دلبستگی به مکان ایفا می کند. مبتنی بر یافته های آزمون فریدمن مولفه های نوع مصالح با میانگین رتبه 16/98، رنگ نما با میانگین رتبه 16/88، هماهنگی با ابعاد بومی و زمینه ای 64/16، وجود سطوح پر و خالی 16/28مهم ترین معیارهای کالبدی، تعامل با بنا با میانگین رتبه 16/63و تناسب فرم و عملکرد 76/15 و مشارکت مردم 15/55در مکان مهم ترین عوامل عملکردی- فعالیتی و خاطره انگیزی بنا با میانگین رتبه 16/60و دلبستگی به بنا 16/28و تجارب و انباشت ذهنی 15/13دارای بالاترین میانگین رتبه در عامل ادراکی- احساسی در بین شهروندان مورد مطالعه می باشند.

    کلیدواژگان: تعامل فرد و بنا، نما، دلبستگی به مکان، ساختمان مسکونی، شهر تهران
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  • Keramatollah Ziari *, Hajar Yadollahnia, Hossein Yadollahnia Pages 1-16

    City of Sari Due to the increasing annual urban population and the importance of this city politically (provincial capital), its management has been studied according to citizens' views. The statistical population of the city is Sari and the sample size is estimated to be 384 by Cochran formula. In addition to descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation), a single-sample t-test was used. For this purpose, in this research, we have tried to examine the indicators such as participation, efficiency, transparency, centrality justice, accountability, accountability, legality and collective agreement. To measure each of the variables in the questionnaire, a 5-level Likert scale was used. The results show that the average total of good governance indicators from the perspective of citizens is 1.98 out of 3 in an unfavorable situation. According to the results, among the indexes, the index of effectiveness and effectiveness of urban managers and managers with an average of 2.46 out of 3 was the highest among the indicators, but below the standard average, which indicates that the method is not effective The activities of managers in the urban area and the participation index with 1.67 of the 3 lowest values. Therefore, in order to increase citizens' participation in administrative affairs, urban authorities need to provide citizenship participation. Extended abstract

    Introduction

             The rapid and unnecessary growth of the urban population has changed the functions and identity of the city, making urban management one of the most complex and central areas of relations between the people and the state. One of the most important, yet new, debates in the development literature since the 1980s is the subject of good governance. Comprehensive growth, coupled with serious challenges in the socio-physical, economic, cultural, and environmental contexts, has for years required experts' intellectual consensus to address urban life issues and the efficiency of urban management. The theme of good governance to achieve sustainable human development can only be achieved when the goals of democracy, equality in service and environmental protection are pursued through the formation of integrated urban management. Good governance involves cooperation and partnership between the three main pillars of government agencies, civil society and private sector organizations (Ghanaie & Musaikhani, 2012: 2; Taghawai & Tajdar, 2009: 46). Among the various approaches proposed in the field of urban management, good urban governance is one of the most discussed approaches. At the present time, this approach is the only way out of the impasse and poverty and underdevelopment of cities in international fora and expert circles, and urban management has no choice but to implement it (Movahed et al, 2014: 148).  

    Methodology

          This research is of a practical nature and can help municipality, city council and all governmental and non-governmental institutions improve urban management in the form of good urban governance. According to the research components in this research, the research method is descriptive-analytical. Data were collected by library studies and field. The statistical population of this research is the citizens of Sari city. Based on the latest census of the population of 309820, the sample size is 384 according to the Cochran formula. The collected data was analyzed by SPSS software using descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (T-test). The aim of this study was to find out the goals of this study.

    Results

           Descriptive findings from 384 respondents to the questionnaire were 78.6% male and 21.4% female. In terms of educational level, the group is divided into the group with the highest percentage of respondents at the level of bachelor, with 28.6% and the lowest level of education in the guidance period. In terms of employment, 71.4% of the respondents were unemployed and 28.6% were unemployed. Based on theoretical foundations of  the research, good urban governance indicators are referred to 8 indicators, participation, transparency, consensus, efficiency and effectiveness, justice and equity, accountability, accountability and law-governedness. As a result, in order to strengthen good governance, the need to strengthen each indicator is required, which ultimately provides a constructive interaction between managers and citizens in order to increase the performance of urban management. The results show that because of the lack of involvement of urban managers, the lack of provision of participation, the lack of proper responsiveness of urban managers, poor managerial responsibility and lack of transparency in decision making and planning, Citizens and, in the end, reduced cooperation between urban executives and citizens. The descriptive information collected includes age, sex, education, and type of employment. The average of the respondents indicates that the citizens are dissatisfied with the urban managers. In the meanwhile, the efficiency and effectiveness index of managers and municipal officials with an average of 2.46 out of 3 was the highest and the participation index of 1.67 out of 3 was the lowest. Findings show that good governance in Sari city is in poor condition with respect to average (1.98). Out of the studied indices, the efficiency and effectiveness index of managers and officials was 2.46 out of 3, but it was lower than the standard average, indicating that the method of activity of managers in urban area was not effective, and the participation index. It had the lowest value of 1.67 out of 3.

    Conclusion

            The city of Sari faces some problems in implementing good governance: lack of centralized management to implement and enforce the governance approach, lack of citizens' trust in their participation, and ultimately inefficiency of urban management in employing citizens. It is a tangible city. Consequently, in order to strengthen good governance, the need to reinforce each of the indicators is needed, which ultimately provides a constructive interaction between managers and citizens to enhance urban management performance. The results show that due to lack of involvement of urban managers, lack of participation, lack of proper accountability of urban managers, poor accountability of urban managers and lack of transparency in decisions and planning, reduces citizens' trust. And ultimately, there has been a decline in cooperation between urban managers and citizens. Finally, the undesirable level of these factors has weakened the effectiveness and efficiency of urban management performance in the studied cities and the undesirable level of good urban governance. For this purpose, in order to strengthen the performance of urban management, in the planning and policy making of citizens as the main focus. This study found that it is not possible to form a good urban governance approach without considering the effective role of citizens, and this approach paves the way for developing and solving urban problems and ultimately enhancing the performance of urban management. Any major changes in the city and reduction of urban problems are subject to fundamental reforms in the approach and systems of urban planning and management.

    Keywords: Performance, Urban management, Governance, Citizens, Sari
  • Ahmad Asadi *, Mehdi Mododi, Saeed Hossein Abadi Pages 17-30

    The vitality is one of the main criteria for cities with high quality planning and design. Lively urban environments create social interactions, increase social capital and place attachment. The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between urban vitality and Place attachment in Qaen city. This study is a survey research and data collection tool is a questionnaire. The sample size is 382 citizens of Qaen city, which is calculated using the Cochran formula. Independent variables of this research are urban vitality indicators (access, social dynamics, economic vitality, urban security, street design, furniture, urban spaces lighting, urban landscape, and readability) and dependent variable, is sense of place attachment. For analysis of the relationship between variables, the k-Nearest Neighbors model (K-NN) and Randomized Forest Algorithm (RF)have been used. The vitality indicator consists of 28 items, that averages of 17 items are not at the appropriate level and 11 of them are at acceptable level. In general, the urban vitality is low in Qaen city. Also, the mean of the sense of place is at a moderate level. According to the output of the models, the K nearest neighbor method provides better results than the random forest model. K-NN model simulated impact of   vitality on   place attachment with a correlation coefficient of 0.82 and an error level of 0.66 and a risk of estimating of 0.435. Therefore, this model can correctly simulate place attachment in 57% of cases. Based on the model generated by the random forest algorithm, the access variable has the most and legibility has the least effect on the sense of place attachment in the city of Qaen. Extended Abstract

    Introduction

             Vitality as a component of the overall quality of urban design of an environment can affect the location Belong and Improve the social health of citizens Hence the need to enhance the vitality of urban spaces and urban neighborhoods emerge as one of the paradigms in urban planning. The ultimate goal of urban planning is to provide suitable living conditions in the city and urban residential environments that are closely related to the concept of vitality and livability of the city. A city where people live should be inviting and create a passionate environment. In the cities of Iran, the component of vitality has not received much attention. Influenced by the dominance meaningless without regard to the background and nature of traditional neighborhoods, the conquest of material factors over the spiritual, and the dominance of machines over humans. And used at the same level as urban divisions. The continuation of such a trend has made the civic life of neighborhoods and urban spaces lack vitality. At the same time, the physical spaces of neighborhoods in Iranian historical cities were influenced by various factors, including cultural, social, natural, and so on. Increasing urban vitality, on the one hand, makes the population living in a city more willing to stay, and on the other, it also attracts a population that intends to migrate to the metropolitan areas of the country. In this research, we try to study the relationship between the vitality of urban spaces and the sense of belonging of citizens to the city of Qaen. The importance of this research is that location belongs to an important role in the development of any city; On the other hand, location affiliation reduces migration from one region to another. This is largely felt in the South Khorasan region. The increase in location Belong is influenced by various factors, one of which is urban vitality. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to model the relationship between urban vitality and sense of belonging using k-nearest distance and random forest algorithm in Qaen.

    Methodology

            The research method is applied in terms of descriptive-analytic nature and the method of data collection is library and field method. The population of the study is the population of Qaen with about 42323 populations (according to the year 1395). The sample size is based on Cochran method of 382 persons and the sampling method is simple random. This study investigates the relationship between vitality index and sense of belonging. The vitality index includes variables such as accessibility, social dynamics, economic vitality, urban security, passage design, furniture, urban lighting, urban landscape and readability. In this study variables of vitality index are considered as independent variables and sense of belonging as dependent variable. In this study, K-nearest neighbor and random forest were used to model the independent variables of urban vitality and the dependent variable of sense of belonging.

    Results and discussion

             Among the variables related to the urban vitality index, urban access had the highest score and urban furniture had the lowest score. The sense of belonging in the city of Qaen is at a moderate level, with only "this is where I want it" somewhat lower. Thus, the level of satisfaction of the citizens of Cain is at a moderate level, and none of the sense of belonging is at a very high level. In this study, two methods of K nearest neighbor and random forest were used to model the independent variable (urban vitality) and the dependent variable (sense of belonging). Performance evaluation of the K-NN model shows that the model simulated the sense of belonging with a correlation coefficient of 0.82 with a 0.66 error rate and a risk estimate of 0.435. Therefore, this model was able to correctly simulate the sense of belonging in 66% of cases. Evaluation of other statistical indices shows that this model overall simulates the sense of belonging less than the observed value. That is, the model shows a negative bias. But this bias is not much to distort the model's results. As such, the mean and standard deviation of the sense-of-belonging variable simulated by the model have very little difference with the observed values of these two statistical indicators. Evaluation of model validation criteria shows that with 200 trees in addition, the best results are obtained with the least modeling error but also the error rate is stable and achieves a consistent trend. As this model was able to accurately simulate the sense of belonging based on independent variables with error of 0.82, 0.68 in 32% of cases. Important in this modeling process is the negligible bias. t is noteworthy that with respect to residual mass factor (CRM), although the model overall has a negligible bias, the simulation values are more than the observed values. But fitting the observed and simulated sense of belonging values and comparing the mean and standard deviation of these two data sets show that the random forest model failed to estimate the upper and lower values of the sense of belonging variable with a slight error, as in the K-NN model. In general, the K-NN model exhibits much higher flexibility than the RF model in simulating the sense of belonging. According to the outputs of the models, the K-nearest neighbor method had better results than the random forest model. The performance of the K-NN model show that the model simulated the sense of belonging with a correlation coefficient of 0.82 with an error rate of 0.66 and an estimated risk of 0.3535. Therefore, this model was able to correctly simulate the sense of belonging in 66% of cases.

    Conclusion

              According to the model created by random forest algorithm respectively accessibility variables, social dynamics, economic vitality, urban security, passage design, furniture, urban spaces lighting, urban landscape and readability have the most to least effect on sense of belonging in Qaen city. The reason that accessibility variables have the most impact on sense of belonging is due to the existence of proper passageways in the city of Qaen, and some variables such as simplicity and urban landscape and readability that have the least impact on sense of belonging are due to their weakness in the city. The vitality index consists of 28 items with an average of 17 not good and 11 items are acceptable. Also, the sense of belonging is at a moderate level. One of the reasons for the weakness of urban vitality in Qaen is the weak economy of the city. This is also due to the lack of appropriate potentials for private sector investment.

    Keywords: urban vitality, sense of place attachment, K-nearest neighbor, random forest algorithm, Qaen city
  • Majidreza Ashtianiaraghi, Rahim Sarvar *, Parvaneh Zivyar, Nasrollah Fallahtabar Pages 31-46

    The multiplicity of management and incoordination of governmental and private organizations – which are in charge of urban affairs – is of main issues in the area of urban management. The purpose of this study, which is an applied one, was to investigate and evaluate the realization of integrated urban management with emphasis on the role and power of different levels of urban management in Tehran. A descriptive-analytical approach has been used to achieve this goal. The statistical population of the study includes all experts, urban managers and university professors working in the field of urban development, urban planning and urban management in Tehran. 100 people were randomly selected and the necessary information was collected using the research tool. The tool used in this research is a researcher-made questionnaire whose validity was formal and its reliability was confirmed using Cronbach's alpha test (0.75-0.87). Data were analyzed by descriptive analysis and compar means (Fisher test and Duncan's test) using SPSS software. The results showed that the overall status of the implementation of integrated urban management in Tehran, based on the views of the experts (t = -3.2), is not at present on the path or is not going to be significant. On the other hand, the results of single-sample t test for urban governance factors (t = 6.9) and managerial structural conditions (t = 3.8) indicate that these two factors are appropriate for implementing integrated urban management. Also, the results of the study of the role and power of the actors in different levels of Tehran's urban management showed that state institutions, municipalities and city council have the most power at the levels of decision making of urban management and, in other words, have the most influence on the realization of integrated urban management in Tehran. Extended Abstract

    Introduction

           Tehran's metropolitan, as the of country's political administrative capital, has always faced various management challenges and problems, related to both urban managers and citizens. In this way managers and planners who plan and policy at different national, regional and local levels are important. Achieving sustainable urban development in Tehran requires, first of all, an integrated urban management system at all levels of policy making, planning, decision making, and implementation. Therefore, in order to achieve the purpose, local (urban) affairs and integrated urban management should be entrusted to a specific, relatively independent, unified government category within the whole system of government, and if it is municipality, it should be completely independent in all matters and answer all the urban issues. The main purpose of this study is to "realize integrated urban management with emphasis on the role and power of different levels of urban management in Tehran". And the main question of this study is "Who are the performers at the different levels of urban management affecting the feasibility of integrated urban management in Tehran? And how much is their influence (role and power) of each one?"

    Methodology

           This research is the quantitative in nature and in terms of data collection is descriptive-analytical research and with regard to the purpose is the applied research. Documentary and survey methods were used for data collection. The statistical population consists of experts and urban managers in Tehran and university professors who are studies in urban management, urban planning. Experts in this study include people who are employed in offices and organizations related to urban affairs (municipality, governorate, housing and urban planning, etc.) and hold a bachelor's degree. In selecting the sample size among the experts and managers, according to the law of minimum sample size in descriptive and survey research (Hafeznia, 2012: 165), 100 participant were selected by random sampling. The research tool is a researcher-made questionnaire that its validity has been confirmed by the opinion of experts and university professors. Cronbach's alpha test (greater than 0.7) was used to assess the reliability of the questionnaire. Descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (one-sample t-test, variance analysis) were used to analyze the data. SPSS software was conducted for data analysis.

    Results and discussion

            The results showed that the governmental institutions have the most influence on the realization of the determinants of Tehran's integrated urban management. According to the experts, the institutions can be very effective in achieving integrated urban management and accelerate this process or vice versa. Also, the municipality and Tehran's city council have been cited as other powerful and influential institutions in it. The participants acknowledged that the municipality was influential in issues such as management and planning of urban infrastructure and transportation. Because of the lack or not having the appropriate context and the possibility of citizens participate in the field of decision-making and management affairs, urban management is very effective in Tehran's integrated urban management. Also, in many cases in the current urban management system of the country, there is little belief in the status and citizen rights to participate and make decisions. Duncan's test results showed that, according to the average ratings and the groupings, government institutions will have a greater impact on the achievement of integrated urban management in terms of coordination factors of management actors (mean rating = 3.4), structural-managerial conditions (mean rating 3.5), urban governance (mean rating = 3.4), systemic attitude (mean rating = 3.5), organizational-communication structure (mean rating = 3.51), and unity Command (Cohesion = 3.54).  In other words, state institutions have the most role and power at different levels of the city to achieve integrated urban management. Also, according to the experts' perspective and the results of the Duncan test, the private sector and the public institutions and citizens have the least impact on the realization of integrated urban management.

    Conclusion

           Based on the results, urban management in Tehran is not integrated. Regarding the proper status of urban governance factors and structural-managerial conditions in the context of achieving integrated urban management in Tehran, it is nowadays found that in successful management systems, in order to improve the performance, productivity and proper use of services managed by the intended management and stakeholder interaction with that management and ultimately enhancing the trust, Preserving the credibility and legitimacy of the management system from the perspective of the stakeholders need processes that facilitate and guide stakeholders participation because those processes will lead to improved urban management to maximize the effective and active intervention of commercial, economic, private and even citizen and public sectors in providing services to the city. Thus, it can be said that the first steps have been taken towards achieving integrated urban management in Tehran. Therefore, differentiation and multifaceted decision making are prominent features of urban management in Tehran and his has caused the city's management system to be unable to cover an urban space where occur social, economic, political, physical, environmental processes systematically.

    Keywords: Urban Integrated Management, Actors at Different Levels of Management, urban governance, Governmental Institutions, Tehran
  • Ahmad Asadi, Azita Rajabi *, Gholamreza Janbazghobadi, Mohamad Komili Pages 47-58

    One of the most important factors in the system of development plan consists of the present damages in urban management a part of which stems from organizational damages in the urban establishments in the country and by identifying the pathology of the urban management, one can understand the barriers to growth and development of the city in different spheres of the country and effective measures should envisaged in order to overcome the impediments to development and planning. In line with this policy, this study investigates the pathology of the urban management in Pakdasht and its effects on the trend of developmental planning with a view to studying and identifying the pathology of urban management of the Pakdasht City.   In this study, by examining the administrative rules and regulations and bylaws as well as the administrative structure of the municipality, and by using the tripartite analysis, attempts have been made to the structural, behavioral and environmental damages. After identifying the pathology of urban management in Pakdasht, a questionnaire based on qualitative analysis and by distributing them among the staff of the municipality has been provided in the form of 349 questionnaires, then the transcripts of the interviews have  been analyzed by using the software MAXQDA 2018 and the dimensions of the pathology of the urban development of Pakadash have been identified. Then by using MAXQDA 2018, attempts have been made to draw the pattern of pathology in urban planning in Pakdash and by analyzing and prioritizing the damages in every field, the amount of their role has been evaluated and suggestions have been offered.       Extended Abstract:

    Introduction

            One of the most important factors in the system of development plan consists of the present damages in urban management a part of which stems from organizational damages in the urban establishments in the country. By identifying the pathology of the urban management, one can understand the barriers to growth and development of the city in different spheres of the country and effective measures should envisaged in order to overcome the impediments to development and planning. This study indicates that part of these damages stems from organizational damages because the proper function of an organization or institute such as municipality can be severely affected by its organizational structure. The supervising organization i.e. the interior ministry has not announced a certain structure for municipalities based on the current rules with different degrees, this structure In many municipalities, the structure has not been taken into account and this has caused disorganization and disorder, resulting in disruption in the structure and consequently in their inefficiency. By examining the organizational structure of municipalities across the country, we realise that municipalities have not been tailored to meet local and regional needs, and thus have failed to meet the needs of citizens. This structure is designed regardless of environmental conditions, sources of income, the need for skilled staff and the extent of city development and has been communicated to all municipalities with the same degree. Finally, what is to be seen is that the communicative structure is not very consistent with the existing structure of municipalities and in many cases is even contradictory with it, including those clashing structures whose intrinsic output reflects this structural inequality.Therefore, the questions addressed in this study and the answers to these questions are as follows: To what extent has the existing structure of the municipalities affected their performance and what has been the harm? What are the disadvantages of municipal employees' lack of awareness of organizational rules and behavior? What are the disadvantages of existing urban management laws? And what is the extent of the damage that each of the above causes to the performance of urban management?

    Methodology

            The damages are eventually categorized into three categories: structural, contextual or environmental and behavioral, and are identified by using a triaxial analysis model and by analyzing and prioritizing known damages in each case, their role has been measured and suggestions for improvement are made. The reason for choosing the tricuspid model is that it is one of the models of organizational damage identification. And in that analysis, the phenomena are analyzed into three structural, behavioral, and environmental or contextual categories. Given that the model can classify all the identified dimensions into the aforementioned frameworks, it is essential that the analysis performed on this phenomenon be appropriately comprehensive.      Consequently, by studying municipal administrative laws and regulations as well as the administrative structure of Pakdasht municipality and using triaxial analysis to identify structural, behavioral and environmental or contextual damages of this municipality, the information collected from interviews with experts have been investigated. In this way, the interviews are identified using the content analysis method and MAXQDA 2018 software and pathological analysis of Pakdasht urban development management and the research model is presented after damage identification. A questionnaire based on qualitative analysis was designed and implemented by Pakdasht Urban Development Management Distribution of necessary information to the municipality staff in the form of 349 questionnaires. Then we analyzed the text of the interviews using MAXQDA 2018 content analysis method and identified pathological aspects of Pakdasht urban development management. The results of the interviews were then presented using coding in the foundation data and the results of coding identified 96 open codes among 260 concepts. Then in the axial coding step, these 96 open codes were categorized into 3 categories and 17 subcategories, which are the same three structural, behavioral, and contextual dimensions.

    Results and discussion

            The results of the confirmatory factor analysis provide the pathological model of Pakdasht urban development management pathology. In this regard, the factor table shows the extent of the impact of the variable on the model, and the higher the factor load, the greater the impact on the model. According to the data of the mentioned model, the underlying pathology, structural damages, and behavioral damages, respectively, were ranked third, affecting the pathology of Pakdasht urban development management, respectively. It shows that inefficiencies, confusion and complexity and corruption are the influential elements of urban management along with the lack of awareness of the most important issues in the pathology of Pakdasht urban management.

    Keywords: City management, Pathology, Tripartite analysis, Urban Development, Pakdasht city
  • Taghi Heydari *, Shahram Mohammadi Pages 59-76
    Unofficial settlements are one of the unsustainability backgrounds especially in developing countries, and have been formed due to the inability of urban policies to solve housing problems for vulnerable sections of society and migrations control. Informal settlements are associated with aggregation of low-income people and often with informal occupations and unstable urbanization, so that underlie many social pathos. The purpose of this study is to identify the factors affecting social pathos caused by informal settlements and their status in informal neighborhood of Islamabad in Zanjan city. The research method is exploratory-analytical and the data were collected through library studies and questionnaire. The number of statistical sample consists of 382 people of Islamabad neighborhood settlers. The research indicators are structured in the form of six dimensions of social pathos including economic, environmental, socio-cultural, familial, individual-psychological and managerial as researcher-made, and have been adjusted by studying the research background and theories and social pathos approaches. Factor analysis, single sample t test, multiple linear regression test and ANP integrated analysis model were used for data analysis. The findings show that the most important reinforcementing factors to social pathos in Islamabad neighborhood are unemployment (with coefficient of 0.980), inequality (with coefficient of 0.988), and unequal distribution of wealth (with coefficient of 0.978). "Socio-cultural" (with the coefficient β = 0.627) have the highest correlation with the spread of social pathos. Means, as social-cultural conditions weaken in society, social pathos also spread.  Extended abstract
    Introduction
            Informal settlements as instability backgrounds of urban development, especially in developing countries, while creating a chaotic landscape in a particular part of the city, impose widespread social, economic and cultural damages on the whole city. So that there is a high percentage of illiteracy, unemployment, crime and mental disorders in these areas. Accordingly, informal housing is considered as one of the bases for social pathos and anomalies. The aforementioned pathos and anomalies can gradually disrupt the process of social life in the city, thus making urban management face with difficulty. In this regard, the present study is a scientific attempt to explain the interrelationships, mutual relationships and interactions between social structures and physical structures in the emergence of urban problems and pathos through understanding and analyzing the spatial patterns of human behavior and social pathos in Islamabad Neighborhood of Zanjan as one of the largest informal settlements in the city. Therefore, identifying the factors affecting the social pathos caused by the suburbs and their status in this area is the main issue of this study. Accordingly, the present study sought to answer these questions: What are the factors affecting the spread of social pathos in the informal neighborhood of Islamabad? What is the status of each of the factors affecting the spread of social pathos in the informal Neighborhood of Islamabad?   
    Methodology
              The present research is based on a retrospective strategy and it is an exploratory-analytical research. The statistical population of the study was the population of Islamabad neighborhood of Zanjan which was 35820 people in 1395. Then, using Morgan sampling method, 382 people were selected as the statistical sample for interviewing and distributing the questionnaire. The research indicators are research made and have been formulated in the form of six dimensions of social pathos including economic, socio-cultural, familial, environmental, individual-psychological and managerial and have been adjusted by background research and theories and approaches on social pathos. The required data and information were collected through library and field studies and questionnaire were used. Data analysis was performed through factor analysis test, single sample t test, multiple linear regression test and ANP integrated analysis model. SPSS and Expert Choice software were used to analyze the data.
    Results and discussion
             Survey of social pathos indicators based on factor analysis shows that most of the indicators and items of the research have higher than average factor score. As a result, the coefficients are of great importance in identifying social pathos from the statistical sample point of view. In this regard, economic indicators are the most important regenerator factors to social pathos in Islamabad neighborhood. According to the one-sample t-test, the average effect of indicators on the spread of social pathos in Islamabad neighborhood is 3.33. That is, on average, research indicators have a spreading impact on social pathos. A more detailed analysis of the indicators shows that each of these components does not have the same or similar effect on the neighborhood, the results of the single-sample T-test, and its generalization to the entire Islamabad neighborhood, show a significant impact of economic factors (t = 22.9) on the spreading of social pathos in the neighborhood. According to the results of multiple linear regression tests, the coefficient of R2 is 0.692 and R is 0.696. Therefore, it can be said that the relationship of economic, socio-cultural, familial, environmental, individual-psychological and managerial components with social pathos is high and acceptable. Since the significance level is less than 0.05, there is a significant relationship between the above indicators and the spread of social pathos, and the "socio-cultural" indicators with the coefficient (β = 0.627) had the highest correlation with social pathos. In addition, given the R value, it can be said that the six factors contributing to the spread of social pathos accounted for 69% of the social pathos variable in Zanjan in Islamabad neighborhood. Integrated analysis of social pathos status with ANP model shows that familial and economic components have a favorable status and high importance, managerial, environmental and social components have a poor status and high importance, the individual-psychological component has a favorable status but low importance.
    Conclusion
             According to the results, economic indicators have gained the most score and from the statistical sample point of view, these indicators are the most effective component in spreading social pathos in Islamabad neighborhood. While the most researches on informal settlements emphasize the role of managerial factors, particularly physical management, some studies also emphasize the role of social and cultural factors, especially the familial, and its problems in the spread of social pathos. As such, it cannot be considered just a factor contributing to the spread of social pathos in society. Regarding the organized and pervasive relationships of urban phenomena and elements with each other, a variety of factors in relation to each other leads to the creation of a structural-functional urban space, which is subsequently influenced by the space. Also, given the moderate spread of social pathos, the current process shows that from the residents’ viewpoint, social pathos have the worse status and the statistical community is more concerned about these conditions. In addition, a more detailed analysis of the indicators affecting social vulnerability suggests that socio-cultural indicators have the highest correlation with social pathos. This trend shows that due to poor urban management and lack of social services in informal settlements, families with numerous economic and family problems and sometimes family members' illnesses, migrate to these neighborhoods. And because of the cheap land and housing, Poor people with limited ability to solve socio-economic problems reside in these neighborhoods. In addition, the integrated analysis based on the ANP model indicates that the familial and economic factors have the greatest impact on the spread of social pathos with the coefficient of importance and the type of relationship and the impact on the indicators.
    Keywords: Social Pathology, Marginalization, Management, Prevention of Crime, Zanjan City
  • Asgard Shahmari Kalestan, Arash Farhoudi * Pages 77-90
    Considering the importance of the tourism industry and its competitiveness, it seems that tourism purposes, like other consumer products, seem to require the brand as a unique identity to create a distinction between itself and other competitors. The city of Khalkhal has become popular destination for tourists in recent years due to its many tourist attractions. This research seeks to study the components of brand equity from the point of view of domestic tourists visiting Khalkhal. This research is an applied research and a questionnaire was used for this purpose, which is based on the Konink research. To normalize the data, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used, assuming the normalization of the data for the brand image was 0.174, the perceived quality with 0.186, the brand awareness with 0.210 and the brand loyalty to 0.154. The research hypotheses show that three hypotheses from four authors' hypotheses were confirmed (brand awareness with T 5.22, brand image with 8.47 and brand loyalty with 12.54), and one of the hypotheses (perceived quality with a statistic of 0.594) Became One of the reasons why tourists did not appreciate the quality of the tourism destination of Khalkhal is that there is no proper infrastructure in the area of tourism in this city. On the other hand, the image of tourists is good from the destination of Khalkhal city, due to its good weather, beautiful landscapes, calm environment, hospitality people.... Therefore, it should be protected from the natural landscape. Extended abstract
    Introduction
              The tourism industry is one of the most important phenomena of the present century in the world (Dristiks, 2004: 28). With the growing demand for travel and the tourism industry becoming one of the largest industries in the world, each country needs to strive for socio-economic development and infrastructure growth in order to attract potential tourists (Arasli & Baradarani, 2014: 1417). Tourism marketers are trying to differentiate their tourism destinations from other destinations using marketing strategies. The competitiveness of a destination, along with sound management, can lead to the sustainable development of the tourism industry (Zarrouki & Oliasnab, 1396: 78). to reach this goal, Tourism marketers offer tourism destinations in the form of a brand. Companies, organizations, and goals need to identify the needs of their customers, Know their convinced customers, Adjust their marketing strategies, Maintain valuable customers and maximize customer loyalty. In general, there are four dimensions of customer-based brand that all of them are widely accepted by researchers: brand awareness, perceived brand quality, brand image, and brand loyalty (Chow et al, 2017: 72). The brand gives information to the tourist before traveling to identify the destination and differentiate it from its competitors and shape tourist expectations of its future journey. For this reason, brand determination for tourism destinations is one of the key aspects of brand management for tourism (Ghaffari et al., 2014: 846). Khalkhal city has many different attractions, including many natural, historical, cultural and social attractions that attract many tourists every year. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to measure the brand equity of tourism by using the Konkunik model which is derived from the Acer model from the perspective of tourists who have traveled to Khalkhal city.
    Methodology
        The method of this research is descriptive-analytical and the data is collected by survey and library and it is also a type of applied research in terms of purpose. The questionnaire addresses the dimensions of brand equity, which include brand awareness (including 3 items), brand image (including 13 items), brand loyalty (including 8 items), and perceived quality (including 10 items). The sampling method in this paper is based on Cochran formula. Descriptive statistics included adjusting for frequency tables, percentages for the demographic information of the questionnaire. The inferential statistics section also uses Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, correlation test, and structural equation model to test the research hypotheses. All the above steps were performed using SPSS and Smart PLS software. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to investigate the normality of the data distribution. The results indicate that the normality assumption is accepted for the research variables because their significance level is greater than 0.05. Cronbach's alpha test was used to test the reliability of the questionnaire in Smart PLS software, the findings indicated that the questionnaire had good reliability and all factors were confirmed by reliability and were above 0.7. structural equations based on partial least squares (reflective measurement model) were used to investigate the research hypotheses.
    Results and discussion
        The results show that the reliability coefficient of all variables is between 0.550 and 0.920 and all variables in this study have good reliability. In order to evaluate divergent validity, the extracted variance was used in this study. Since the AVE root of each factor is higher than the correlation between the factors underlined and the other factors, the divergent validity is confirmed. Structural equation modeling uses model fit indices to evaluate the structural part. The coefficient of determination is the criterion that indicates the extent of change in each of the model's dependent variables, which is explained by the independent variables. by standard, determination coefficient higher than 0.25 is poor, above 0.5 is moderate and above 0.75 is strong and because the coefficient of determination is close to 0.7, we consider it medium-strong. finally, Smart PLS structural equation software was used to test the research hypotheses.
    Conclusion
         Three hypotheses out of the four hypotheses considered (brand awareness with T statistic 5.22, brand image with 8.47 and brand loyalty with 12.54) were confirmed and one of the hypotheses (perceived quality with 0.594) was rejected. tourists considered loyalty to Khalkhal tourism brand important and very important which indicates their satisfaction with the journey to this city. Brand awareness is also one of the important dimensions of brand equity so that the purpose of marketing the tourism destination is to increase the awareness of the tourism destination by creating a unique brand. Also, one of the reasons that tourists did not rate well the perceived quality of Khalkhal city tourist destination was their dissatisfaction with inappropriate communication infrastructure, poor living conditions, poor service quality, etc., that all of which resulted from the lack of a plan to exploit this tourism asset.
    Keywords: tourism, ecotourism, brand equity, structural equation modeling, Khalkhal city
  • Zahra Kaghazadlou, Alireza Ladanmohadm *, Saeed Akbari Pages 91-106

    The spread of modernity has led to the widespread use of cars around the world. So that in urban environments that were human-dominated before the Industrial Revolution, spaces became a priority for car traffic, but planning scholars began to pay attention to the priority of human traffic over cars in urban spaces  As a solution to reduce air pollution and create lively human environments. The present study, with this approach, has evaluated the quality of urban spaces (with emphasis on urban landscape) in Ramian city, Golestan province. In this regard, descriptive-analytic method and factor analysis model have been used. Citizenship questionnaire and statistical sample number of 380 cases were identified. The validity of the tool was confirmed by the teachers of urban planning and design and the reliability of the research was confirmed by the KMO test. Finally, eight factors related to the quality of public spaces and urban landscape have been identified using factor analysis. The results indicate that visual qualities play an undeniable role in promoting pedestrian orientation in public spaces (given that the first factor identified is physical-visual, social, and environmental factors, including aesthetic dimensions). And functionality is: the status of urban furniture, green space and park, the status of specific cultural monuments such as exhibitions, the status of tourism spaces. Using these factors can be considered as a major strategy for creating pedestrian urban spaces.
    Extended Abstract:

    Introduction

             Urban public areas (street, sidewalk, square, park, etc.) are the most important part of cities and urban environments. In such areas, most contact, communication and interaction occur between humans. These spaces encompass all parts of the urban context that people have physical and visual access to. The literature on urban development has focused on the relationship between human-built environments and citizens' traffic behavior, But considering the dimensions of the urban landscape and answering the question of whether the urban landscape (and its elements and factors can influence the quantity and quality of the urban landscape) has not received much attention; Therefore, the answer to this question has been the focus of this study. Ramian city with a population of 86210 is located in the south of Golestan province. The city has two subdivisions (Central and Fndarsk), four cities (Ramyan - Deland - Khan Bain and Upper Tatars) and four districts (Miran Castle, Deland, North Fndersk and South Fndersk).The area of the city consists primarily of agricultural lands, then grassland and finally forest. The average city height is 291 meters and the average rainfall is about 700 mm per year. The city of Ramian (case study) The center of the city of Ramian has a population of 13,000 and an area of 5 square kilometers.The city's natural welfare and natural-climate capabilities have led to a population growth rate of 1.6 percent over the last two censuses (Iran Statistics Center Web site, 2016).A survey of demographic trends for small towns (including the city of Ramian) shows that although such cities comprise the majority of the country's cities, they do not account for a significant proportion of the urban population. The situation can be explained by the phenomenon of migration (village-town and small town-metropolis).The root cause of the migration of environmental hazards (drought, floods, earthquakes), the elimination of biological-biological needs, access to livelihoods and facilities, along with the acquisition of new jobs and higher incomes, the elimination of poverty and unemployment economically and economically Socio-cultural needs such as education, raising the level of culture, and a desire to live in specific areas are the most important motivations for migration; So part of the needs that lead to migration to metropolises (congestion, pollution and social problems, etc.),It comes from cultural-social needs. Research suggests that promoting physical and urban qualities (as part of socio-cultural needs) can be a factor in promoting urban quality, Increasing physical and visual attractiveness and its direct and indirect effects are of great importance in terms of population sustainability in small towns in the country and can increase population survival and attract rural immigrants to these cities, ultimately The preservation of the productive foundations of the country has resulted in the prosperity of the regional economy.
     

    Methodology

          The descriptive-analytical method and the factor analysis model are used. Citizenship questionnaire was used to collect data and 380 statistical samples were identified. The validity of the instrument was confirmed by the teachers of urban planning and design and the reliability of the research was confirmed by the KMO test. Finally, eight factors related to the quality of public spaces and urban landscape have been identified using factor analysis.
     

    Results and discussion

          After performing various stages of the factor analysis process, eight factors should be identified in terms of grooves. In fact, the more components that are present in the primitive factors, the more important and influential the end result is.
    In order to name the extracted factors, the extracted components and characteristics must be specified. Earlier factors are more important in this process. The eight extracted factors are presented and presented in the following table and are proportional to the number of duplicate indices named for the selected factors. In the following, in order to identify the dimensions related to the dimensions and factors related to pedestrian (also related to landscape and street qualities) using the results of factor analysis test is presented and presented. In fact, identified factors can lead to improved overall street quality.
     

    Conclusion

          The evaluation showed that 8 key factors play a key role in the creation of public spaces (in Ramyan Street Imam Street). The most important identified factor is named as physical, social and environmental factor. The interpretation of this factor indicates that the improvement and improvement of the quality and quantity of pedestrian traffic depends on the improvement of visual-physical quality (aesthetic and functional status such as urban furniture, status of specific cultural monuments such as exhibitions, status of tourism spaces) and socio-biological Is the environment (park and green space suitable for all age groups and ... and spaces and furniture at certain intervals for people to rest), so the research hypothesis is based on the relationship between urban landscape quality and pedestrian quality. Confirmed. Other identified factors that are significant but less important than the primary factor are identified and ranked as follows: Factor 2: Security, Traffic and Environment, Factor 3: Environmental, Factor 4: Socio-cultural and Security, Fifth Factor: Visual-Physical, Fifth Factor: Public Safety and Traffic Safety, Fifth Factor: Traffic and Access, and finally Factor eight: Socio-Cultural and Leisure.

    Keywords: urban landscape, pedestrian, public spaces, Ramyan city, Visual qualities
  • Seyedmohammad Ahmadpour, Gholamreza Jafarinia *, Habib Pasalarzadeh Pages 107-122

    There are many factors that affect people's quality of life, including the degree of industrialization of life. Continuing one's commitment to the social system rooted in satisfaction with one's quality of life, community status, and overall living conditions. Anyone can analyze and evaluate their situation by analyzing their own circumstances. Although positive emotions about one's condition is a mental element, rooted in objective conditions Considering the importance of discussing the feeling of quality of life, this study by using field method, surveys technique and questionnaire research, tries to answer the main question if there is any  connection between  the environmental consequences of oil and gas industry with the life quality of citizens in Pars area.The statistical population of this study is all citizens over the age of 18 in Asaluyeh and Kangan, 376 person's were surveyed by cochran formula as sample. SPSS software and Smart PLS structural equations were also used for data analysis. The results indicate there is negative and inverse relationship between the quality of life and environmental consequences of oil and gas industry with total quality of life (P = -0.34) and its indicators social (P = -0.37), mental (P = -0.36)  physical (P = -0.30) and quality of family life (P = -0.39). Also the results of Structural Equation Model (Smart PLS) show that environmental impacts of oil and gas industry have moderate effect (-0.513) on quality of life and variable environmental consequences of oil and gas industry Explains the variance of (0.263). of quality of life in total. Extended Abstract

    Introduction

             Quality of life is One of mental health the indicators. In debate about quality of life, not only life, but quality is important. Concern for quality of life is one of the hallmarks of contemporary society, and the scope for quality of life and its measurement may not have been as wide as it is today. Eeach of economists, scientists, and governments look at it from a different point of view. Quality of life is a complex and multidimensional concept influenced by components such as time and place and individual and social values, So it has different meanings for individuals and different groups. Some have interpreted it as the viability of an area, others as a measure of attractiveness and some as general welfare, social well-being, happiness, satisfaction, and so on. Continuing one's commitment to the social system rooted in satisfaction with one's quality of life, community status, and overall living conditions. Anyone can analyze and evaluate their situation by analyzing their own circumstances. Although positive emotions about one's condition is a mental element, rooted in objective conditions.

    Methodology

               The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between environmental consequences of oil and gas industry and quality of life of citizens in South Pars area. The present study is a quantitative research based on the type of data collected and analyzed, and is a field study in terms of the type of approach to the problem under study. The technique used in this study is surveying. In the field study, a questionnaire was used to collect the required information. Prior to the beginning of the survey, the initial questionnaire was tested initially and using the results, the deficiencies were remedied and the final questionnaire was adjusted. The population of the city of Assaluyeh in 2016 is 73958 and the population over 18 years of age is about 58,000. The population of the city of Kangan in 2016 is 8 and the population and people over 18 years of age are about 80,000. Using the Cochran formula we obtained the sample size. The sampling method in this study is quota and two-stage random. In this way, the sample size is selected by proportion of the population of each town . In the next step a number of neighborhoods and subdivisions of Assaluyeh and Kangan are selected randomly and then the final sample selected randomly from each neighborhood and area. Extracted. After data collection, data were analyzed using SPSS and PLS Smart statistical software in order to ensure the validity and reliability of consulting and using the opinions of relevant professors and experts as well as Cronbach's alpha test for reliability of the questionnaire. Based on the alpha coefficient, the reliability coefficient of all variables is above 0.7.

    Results and discussion

             A structural equation model has been used to determine the severity and impact of the oil and gas industry on the quality of life of citizens in different dimensions. In this research, using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) is tested. The approach in this section is a two-stage approach. That, after formulating the theoretical model of the research is necessary to discuss the model estimation or in other words estimation of free parameters in the model and to analyze the general and partial indices of the model to determine whether the empirical data collectively supports the theoretical model. Are they edited or not? The findings indicate that there is a negative and significant relationship between the environmental consequences of the oil and gas industry with the quality of life and its dimensions from the citizens' point of view. Among the relationship between oil and gas industry environmental consequences and family life quality (P = 0.39), the highest correlation coefficient and relationship between environmental consequences of oil and gas industry and physical quality of life had the lowest correlation coefficient (0.30). - = P). Also, the relationship between environmental consequences of oil and gas industry with social quality of life (P = 0.37) and mental quality of life (P = 0.36) has a negative and significant correlation coefficient. Also, there was no significant relationship between environmental consequences of oil and gas industry and quality of economic life. Therefore, it can be argued that the more the environmental consequences of the oil and gas industry (P = 0.34) and its dimensions, the lower the quality of life from the citizens' point of view, and all the hypotheses of the present study are confirmed. Conclusion         The results of the present study on the relationship between environmental consequences on quality of life has consonant with findings of Gholami and others (2018), Hosseini and Abbaspour (2016) and Amanpour et al (2016). Each of the above researchers found in their results the relationship between environmental status and quality of life of citizens. Considering the above, it can be concluded that one of the areas affected by the introduction of quality of life industry is the South Pars region (Assaluyeh and Kagan). This region is one of the most deprived areas of Iran in terms of infrastructure facilities and is one of the areas traditionally traded by sea and with the Persian. The findings of the present study indicate that the environmental status of the oil industry not increased the quality of life and not even the quality of economic life. Because in past and before the development of South Pars, in the region, the livelihoods natives were mostly through fishing, ranching, and sometimes agriculture and gardening. And changes in the social context and workforce have greatly diminished the prevalence of such activities. on the other hand, existed companies, generally require specialized or semi-skilled workforce and do not employ local residents. Therefore, this group of residents generally has problems with their livelihoods and their quality of life is not particularly economically viable.

    Keywords: Oil & Gas Industry_Environmental Consequences_Quality of Life_South Pars Basin
  • BABRAZ KARIMI, YAEGHUB PEYVASTEHGAR *, M. Taghvaei Pages 123-136
    The increase in population and the expansion of urbanization have led to increasing pressure on the land and has caused the destruction of land around the cities and has been a major challenge to urban planning in recent decades. The present research is based on descriptive-analytical method and is applicable in terms of purpose. To analyze the spatial development trend of Shiraz metropolitan area, satellite imagery from 1365 to 1395 was used and for modeling changes in 1410, effective parameters in urban development and land transformation model were used. The results of the analysis of satellite images for the years 1365 to 1395 indicate the increasing changes in agricultural use and green spaces to land use. And in the course of 30 years it has destroyed more than 508 hectares of green space and more than 3373 hectares of agricultural land. The results of the Holdoren model indicate that 59 percent of the city's physical growth was attributed to the city's population increase and 41 percent to the horizontal and sparse growth of Shiraz. Continuing this trend, the future development of Shiraz will face increasing environmental and ecological problems. And with this trend, urban green spaces and more agricultural lands around the city of Shiraz will be under construction until 1410, and urban problems will double. Also, after 1410, new urban development will require an increase in urban areas and, as a result, environmental degradation around the city and agricultural land.       Extended abstract
    Introduction
               Population growth and urbanization have put increasing pressure on the land, causing the destruction of land around cities, and have been one of the major challenges in urban planning in recent decades. In recent years, the development of sprawl and the growth of low-density housing along the transportation corridors have caused many problems and environmentally inefficient housing patterns and have had a negative impact on the periphery of the settlements. Analyzing the trend of spatial development of Shiraz metropolis and evaluating the uneven growth of the city with the existing population can reveal more effective factors in the uneven development of Shiraz. In the past two decades, it seems that the development of the periphery of the city has been the focus of most city managers and decision makers. This is supported by the development of the city in the northwest and other peripheral areas with favorable agricultural lands and gardens. The main purpose of the study will be to examine the urban spatial development of Shiraz in the past decades and what pattern it has followed and its impact on the future development of the city.
    Methodology
            The present study is an applied developmental and a descriptive-analytical methodology based on library studies and field studies. Satellite imagery and available statistics have been used to analyze urban land use changes in the past decades. To study and evaluate urban development and to match urban expansion with urban population growth, the Holderen model has been used and analyzed based on this urban sprawl development model over the past half century. Research software include ARC GIS, ERDAS, Matlab. Also, land transformation model is used to model and predict urban land use changes.
    Results
           Analysis of satellite images in the context of Shiraz city development process was performed in the land transformation model. After preparing the data in the ERC GIS, ERDAS IMAGING software suite, data were prepared in ASCII format for entering the model. In the learning cycle evolution model, learning was performed using root mean squared results, adaptation metric percentage, and kappa coefficient. The learning rate was evaluated from 100 to 30,000 cycles, the error rate was reduced to 10,000 cycles and the Kappa and adaptation coefficients were adjusted. Therefore, the basis of learning to avoid over-learning was selected in the 10,000 cycle, with RMS, PCM and KC of 0.693838, 0. 135858 and 75.788646, respectively. The results of the study from 1986 to 2016 indicate that during this 30-year period 25488 cells were developed 50 by 50 square meters and the result was used as an input to predict future development.        Following the development of the city in the past, most of the potential development has occurred on the west and northwest, and the southwest side has received some development. And the built-up areas of the city will increase by 27 percent in the year, from 12272 hectares in 2016 to 16501 hectares in 1410. Greenery will be reduced to 1276 hectares by 63% demolition and will have more severe forecasting horizons this year. Agricultural and wilderness areas will also decrease by 69 percent to 1545 hectares.  But in the mid-rise development model, the amount of land use change reflects a 52 percent change in agricultural and waste land. However, no change has been made due to the conservation of existing urban green space designated as protected areas in the model.Built areas also accounted for 20% of the more rational development, reaching 15020 hectares. Therefore, using this model, not only will urban sprawl be halted and urban landscapes protected, but also the improvement of inappropriate urban land uses will be prioritized and a dynamic urban form will be formed. The results of Holderen model in Shiraz show that between 1335 and 1395 about 58.9% of the city growth is related to population growth and the remaining 41.1% is to the horizontal and spherical growth of the city which results in a decrease in gross density. Population has been the increase in GDP per capita and, finally, the horizontal expansion of Shiraz.
    Conclusion
            The results show that the perception of land as a commodity and private property has strongly influenced the urban development of Shiraz and has expanded the city around and increased the urban area. In the IDP model, compared to the PDP model, the built-up area is reduced and the agricultural and green space degradation is reduced. The user class built in the IDP model is 15020 hectares, while in the PDP model it is increased to 16501 hectares, indicating that 1481 hectares is the difference in models of urban development, representing an 11 percent difference. Also in the IDP model, the green space user interface does not change. While in the PDP model, 37% of the degradation was achieved, and urban endogenous development in the IDP model reduced the development pressure on the peripheral and agricultural land, reaching 52%. But in the PDP model, more than 69 percent of this type of user changes. This means that in the IDP model, 1181 hectares of this land use have been preserved. Helderen's results show that between 1335 and 1395, about 59 percent of urban development was due to population growth and 41 percent to urban sprawl. Is.  With the continuation of this situation and the lack of a proper policy to maintain this land use, the sustainable development of Shiraz will face serious risks. The results indicate that as this type of development continues, more urban green areas and agricultural lands around the city of Shiraz will go under construction and alleviate existing urban problems. Also after 1410, new urban development will need to increase the urban area, resulting in the destruction of the environment around the city and agricultural land.
    Keywords: spatial, development, LTM, Holdoren, Shiraz
  • Farshid Hashemzadeh Ghal&Amp, Rsquo, Ejough *, Saman Ebizadeh, Esmaeil Safaralizadeh Pages 137-154
    Cities which have been one of the habitats and places for human life since the beginning, are a collection of living and dynamic factors and considered as a source of development. The role of urban management is very important and decisive in the development and improvement of urban settlements, and today, due to the rapid urban development process in the country, the provision of a living environment proportional to these changes has become a crucial part of urban management. In recent years, in order to meet these needs, urban old textures, in which the originality and identity of each city are more evident, have become very important and they are highly considered. The main objective of the present research is to identify, evaluate and analyze the key factors affecting the process of Maku's old texture planning. This research is practical based on the goal, and the nature of the data is qualitative. It is documentary and survey, based on the data collection and its research method is structure analyze. Primary data in order to achieve the research goal, includes 22 factors and variables in the form of five categories of criteria which are analyzed by using of MICMAC software and the help of Analytical Hierarchy Process(AHP) for prioritization to identify the key factors. Finally, 11 factors and variables of management style, renovation of old textures, specialist directors and staff, availability of basic infrastructures and facilities, coordination of executive organs, land and housing, economic-environmental capacities, environment and ecological resources, investment(public and private), research and development, and participation have been identified as key factors, and they are the basis for providing suggestions and strategies to advance plans and achieve the future goals of urban management in the context of the mentioned texture. Extended abstract
    Introduction
      The countries in the world, whether developed or developing, have faced or will face the phenomenon of urban population growth. It is predicted that 64 percent of the population of developing countries and 86 percent of the developed countries will be urbanized by the year 2050. Such unprecedented growth will affect the urban facilities and cause them to be disproportionately distributed. The rapid growth of the cities in Iran has also caused many problems and affected all aspects of the urbanization. One of these problems is the existence of the old textures, and due to the lack of a proper urban management, these textures have faced many problems, therefore a proper planning to improve their quality of life is inevitable. Maku is the most northern city in the West Azerbaijan Province and also has old texture, and requires a rigorous and comprehensive approach to the factors which are connected to achieve the vision and goals of the organization. Therefore, the main issue of the research is identifying and prioritizing the key factors which are affecting the planning of the old texture of maku.
    Methodology
    This research is practical based on the goal, and the nature of the data is qualitative. It is documentary and survey, based on the data collection and its research method is structure analysis. Required data were collected from development plans, related organizations and also using questionnaire and Delphi method. Prioritization of factors is done by AHP analysis and and identifying key factors is based on the Interactions Matrix and it is done by the MICMAC software.  
    Results and discussion
    Initially, the basic factors influencing the planning process were analyzed by Micmac and it was found out that the planning and management requirements, financing mechanisms, science and technology, are the influential factors in  planning process, and environmental and population-social variables are two Affective factors. Management method and tourism capabilities are also the most effective and affected factors, respectively.In the next step, AHP analysis is used to rank the factors, and the results indicate that the planning and management requirements, environmental factors, and financing mechanisms are the system's most important criteria with the significance coefficients of 0.553, 0.159 and 0.153, respectively. and population-social factors and science and technology are also less significant with significance coefficients of 0.076 and 0.059. Among the variables, management method, development plans and investment are ranked first, respectively, and migration, natural hazards and technological developments are less important and ranked in lower places. By comparing and combining the results of both analyzes, finally 11 important factors were selected as the target variables. These include management method, old texture development plans, expert managers and manpower, infrastructure and facilities, coordination of organizations, land and housing, economic potential, environment and ecological resources, investment, research and development, and Participation.
    Conclusion
    In this study, 22 primary factors were collected in the form of five criteria of planning and management requirements, financing mechanisms, science and technology, environmental factors and population-social factors. In the next step, the effective factors of planning system and their prioritization are identified using cross-effects matrix in MICMAC software and AHP analysis. Finally, 11 factors were identified and selected as target variables. In this paper, the urban management is considered as a planning system and the factors affecting the management of the old texture are evaluated in the study case of Maku through structural analysis, which is one of the Foresight research methods, and the relationships between these variables are analyzed based on cross-effects matrix. The results of the influencing factors and their prioritization have been evaluated and rated by the academic professors and experts of the field of study, which Indicates that the results are practical and paying attention to them can make a big progress in implementation of the programs.
    Keywords: Urban Development, Planning, Old Texture, Key factors, Prioritization
  • Malihe Taghipour * Pages 155-174
    Organizing Space can regulate the pace of activities and strengthen relevant concepts as well as human relations, and ultimately, result in behaviors that are consistent with the environment. In spite of the customary practice adopted in Iran in recent years, construction of single buildings is not recommended in zoning of urban blocks since individual buildings disrupt the urban landscape. The preferred method is to construct several buildings together as a collective assembly or cluster. The individually constructed buildings create torn-apart spaces and separate houses where the residents and constructors use all their personal power, potential, and possibilities by way of laws and regulations in order to serve their own interests and provide better lighting and further distinction for their buildings against the urban environment. The purpose of this study is to understand space organization, its different schemes, and its effect on the formation of residential complexes. This study was based on typology since typology can influence the classification of various organization schemes and since many other studies are also based on typology. The combined approach was implemented using library resources and comparative methodology. For this purpose, those residential complexes in Shiraz which complied with the project requirements were studied. Various residential complexes were classified in terms of scale and height by studying their aerial photographs, satellite maps and GIS pictures. Field visits were also conducted for this purpose. Based on the conducted studies, it was observed that the following organization schemes were implemented in Shiraz: 1) individual, 2) centralized, 3) clustered, 4) linear, and 5) mixed. Ultimately, typology tables were presented based on the organization scheme used as well as the building scale and height. The results showed that the clustered organization scheme was the governing organization scheme used in Shiraz for residential complexes. Also, the following results were obtained: 1) The most prevalent tendency in Shiraz was towards constructing irregular clusters rather than regular ones. 2) The second most prevalent tendency was towards constructing linear building clusters. 3) The central scheme (which can be adapted to building around a central courtyard, the architectural form used in traditional Iranian houses) was not very popular, perhaps due to the hindrances associated with providing adequate light and ventilation or the problems related to overlooking from the neighboring properties in this type of building. Extended Abstract
    Introduction
            Today, the relationship between man and space is reduced to a material pattern and the public spaces are reduced as a space for traffic and transport.The accuracy and review of the relationship between man and space can lead to strategies to improve the quality of this relationship.The emergence of residential complexes in Iran happened so fast that there was no opportunity to match the existing ideas in the traditional architecture of the Iranians with their architecture. This mismatch causes some problems between the residents of these complexes which include the cultural diversity, cultural conflicts, lack of proper social relationships, population density, social alienation, lack of cultural, educational and recreational spaces and lack of green spaces and etc. These problems are a reason to reduce the social interactions between residents (Samadifard et al 2013). Thus the recognition of residential complexes can reduce their qualitative problems.
    Methodology
             The research method used in this study is combined. The effective strategy is the use of library resources as the literature which helps the researcher to get familiar enough with the subject of typology and organization. A comparative study was conducted in the final stage of the research and the classification was made by SPSS software after collecting data through observation and field research and the use of GIS and satellite maps.
    Result and discussion
            The layout of residential complexes in Shiraz is based on a shape and epistemological approach. This study in which the classification criterion is the layout of blocks next to each other according to the different spatial combinations of plans in Shiraz five different types were found in the city, including the following ones: single, linear (strip), central (environmental) with two approaches having a central element and several central elements, a series with two regular and scattered approaches and finally a mixed types. The research criteria and limitations have led to the selection of four main types of this category by removing the single group (because in this category there is no specific organization due to the presence of an element).Linear (strip) organization represents the direction due to their length and indicates the motion, continuity and growth (Ching 2003). This organization in complexes is mostly based on the urban arteries. Most of the complexes that were created with this type of organization are parallel or perpendicular to the surrounding streets. Linear organization creates street-like spaces due to their shape nature. In the central organization (environmental) that the residential complexes are formed around an open space, a central open space will result. According to the studies, two different types of this organization can be seen in Shiraz complexes. The first type of residential complexes has a large central element and the second type the central element is as multiple and the residential spaces are placed around several cores. These cores are not large and wide as the first type but have the ability to be placed in the category because of the special atmosphere of the organization. The third type is a collection of residential blocks put together as a complex. This type can have two approaches: regular or irregular. In the regular approach the blocks are placed under the laws of geometry, while in the second approach, the placement of blocks do not follow a particular approach. The fifth identified type does not comply with any of the organizations presented above and is mostly a mixture of two or more types and so is named as mixed.  
    Conclusion
         In the complex layout which has been highly received among other types, the advantage can be seen that there is the possibility of ventilation for the block through the four sides, while the made open space does not create any specific boundary for the residents and does not create a sense of ownership in them. Open space will be mostly public. The strip layout which was made of connecting the blocks provides the possibility of skylight and ventilation from two sides and the number of units is more in a block. The open space is mostly as regular streets and is not widespread.     The central layout (environmental) is in accordance with the principles of the traditional central courtyards in Iran. One of the advantages of this method is creating large communal areas such as basketball and football lands and the residents will be deprived of this advantage by dividing the land into smaller pieces. Also in this case, different spaces with different functions can be assigned to families by expanding the uses. One of its disadvantages is that these large spaces require increased costs for their maintenance; while the residents protect the separate lands especially when the buildings are in the use of the groups with their relatives, colleagues or friends. In the design of such areas for residential complexes it is better to use the both methods and obtain a combination of them. It means that the area is divided into a central space for shared activities and the space next to the building is considered for the specific activity of each building and also the neighborhood groups are very effective in the relationships inside the building that provides the semi-private realm for residents. But according to the results obtained in this study, this type is not well received so much. Further studies on the effectiveness of this type can better identify the degree of acceptance or non-acceptance of this type.    In the primary types of Shiraz, two complexes with linear type are seen: one as central and another as mixed. Given that the primary types had a diverse range, it seems that a detailed study about their impacts on human relationships in the construction of residential complexes could help the officials to make decisions more easily. The study, which could be the basis for many subsequent studies attempted to provide an appropriate ground for achieving this goal in a variety of organizations used in the residential complexes.
    Keywords: residential complex, spatial organization, typology, Shiraz, spss
  • Zarir Salehpour Servak * Pages 175-188
    Expanding cities is unavoidable, and this growth becomes problematic when the expansion process is spontaneous. As a result, urban development monitoring, analysis and forecasting planning has been considered. The purpose of this study is to develop the city of Yasuj using a GIS-based cellular automata model to evaluate urban horizontal development by 1410. At first, physical fitness parameters, communication paths and neighborhood effect were calculated. Then, according to the demand of different land uses, the developed and undeveloped areas were identified. In the next step, the allocation of demand-side land uses has been made using the interaction between demand and the overall proportion of each real estate and proportional to the maximum value obtained among the land-use maps. The results showed that the proposed modeling increases the development of Yasuj city from its outer radius and especially from the southwest area, because the natural obstacles in the north and east of the city prevent its expansion. Cellular automata modeling evaluation indicates 61% accuracy for horizontal growth. In general, the results of this study can be a reference for future urban planning.         Extended Abstract
    Introduction
          Human civilization is currently entering the urban century (Korit et al., 2014). Urban areas are experiencing rapid growth, mainly as a result of population growth, rising incomes, and declining travel costs (Brochner and Larji, 2008), especially in developing countries, as cities grow rapidly and the number Metropolises have increased significantly. According to the United Nations in 2014, 54% of the world's population is urban. That number was about 30 percent in 1950. In 2050, it is projected to reach 66 percent, making population control and urban area a major challenge (World Urbanization Prospects, 2014). Also, according to the census of the Statistics Center of Iran in 2016, 74% of the population is urban, while the growth in 1390 was equal to 71.4% and the urban population in 2016 compared to 1390 has grown by 2.6% (center) Statistics of Iran, 2016). The city of Yasuj is an immigrant city due to its low urbanization history and being located as a political, administrative and service center and favorable weather conditions, and it is facing a large increase in population every year. So, this city is moving towards development and growth, willingly or unwillingly. In recent years, the development of the city of Yasuj is one of the most important proposals on the agenda of the authorities.        In this article, we seek to answer the question of how modeling urban space patterns can provide a good view of the development of cities under different social, economic and environmental conditions. Therefore, the purpose of this article is the horizontal development of Yasuj city with GIS-based cellular automatic model. By the way, it is adjacent to developed urban areas. Some areas such as green spaces, gardens, military areas and zoos are not expandable.
    Methodology
          Steps must be taken in modeling the horizontal development of the city using the cell automation model. In the first phase of the study, the overall fit of the undeveloped parts with the parameters of the physical fitness factors, access to the transport infrastructure, and the neighborhood effect were calculated. In the next step, the allocation of demand-driven applications is done using the interaction between demand and the overall fit of each property and in proportion to the maximum value obtained among the fitness maps. Using physical fitness factors, access to transportation infrastructure and neighborhood effects, overall fit of underdeveloped parts was calculated and a separate map of each factor was prepared. Finally, according to statistical relationships, they are combined using multi-criteria evaluation method.
    Results and Discussion
          Criteria for urban growth and development of these cells are the result of a combination of environmental and environmental criteria (slope, land capability) and physical (distance from the communication network and land use). Combining these criteria using the raster model creates 3 modes suitable for development, somewhat suitable and unsuitable for development for cells. Therefore, 6 features are expressed for cells, including: urban development, rural development, communication network, suitable for development, somewhat suitable, unsuitable for development. In order to calculate the neighborhood effect, all neighboring parts of the desired piece up to a radius of 700 meters (Optimal radius) Selected and tailored to the type of use and level of service (neighborhood, district and region), the interactions of the target user and the neighboring user are extracted in three categories of adaptation, dependence and centralization and based on the distance and area of ​​use. Neighbor to the target property piece, the final score of compatibility, dependency and centralization was calculated. Finally, after standardization and application of the weight of expertise, they were combined. In this section, the cellular automatic model with the characteristics specified in the study area was simulated in 10 two-year time periods on the data of 1390 and the future growth path of Yasuj city until 1410. The area of the city extends from the outer areas of its radius, especially from the southwestern part, because in the north and east of the city, natural barriers have prevented its expansion. The inner development of the city has occurred to a small extent in the northeastern parts. But an important part of the future growth of Yasuj city has taken place in the form of development outside the area and in the southwest.
    Conclusion
           The city of Yasuj expanded in three axes during 1986-1995, and as a result, a large number of neighboring villages merged with the city. Yasuj is an immigrant city due to its low urbanization history and being located as a political, administrative and service center and favorable weather conditions, and it is facing a large increase in population every year. Therefore, in this study, the horizontal development of Yasuj city was investigated using cellular automatic model. The results of modeling the development of Yasuj city using cellular automata showed that the city increases its radius from the outer areas and especially from the southwestern area, because in the north and east of the city, natural obstacles prevent its expansion. It can help urban planners and decision makers understand the implications of their decisions about urban growth and development. Urban planners also use dynamic systems to control urban growth, given that the factors influencing the formation and change of cities change over time and even vary from city to city and from region to region. , It is suggested that in future studies, different parts of the city be considered to find the optimal parameters of cellular automation. Also, in this article, cellular automata have been used to model the horizontal development of Yasuj city. Therefore, in the next step, the mentioned model can be used to model the vertical growth of Yasuj city.
    Keywords: Modeling, Urban Horizontal Development, Cellular Automata, Yasuj
  • Alireza Abdolahzade Fard * Pages 189-200

    Security involves two critical elements: threat and opportunity. Establishing security necessitates freedom of threat and optimum exploitation of opportunities. Moreover, passive defense is discussed alongside saving lives of others, giving security, protecting the territorial integrity and national government in any moment against any situation, condition and invasion to defend the city against any kind of threat. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the role of urban security in passive defense of Shiraz. Using Delphi method, a questionnaire was prepared and then answered by 30 experts. In order to analyze the statistics, SPSS software was used and the statistical analysis of data was done descriptively and analytically. According to the data, the following factors are respectively the affective factors on improving the passive defense of Shiraz: safety and security (18.5%), environmental and physical aspects (4%), social and cultural aspects (2%) and economic aspects (0.9%). Also, the indices of passive defense and urban security had a significance level of 0.000 which shows there is a significant relationship between indices of passive defense and security.
    Extended Abstract

    Introduction

              Security has visual and mental aspects. The visual aspect is related to the statistics of crime commission and shows the degree of security in the environment (Jafari Shams Abadi & Marofi, 2018:121). From conceptual point of view, protection against intrusion and seizure is without consent and it means that people have no fear or panic in terms of their legal rights and freedoms and their rights are not at risk and nothing threatens their legal rights (Richard, 1999: 8). Also, as systemic attitude to phenomena is done by considering the whole phenomena and mixed attitude is done by comparative and inductive methods, both the totality of phenomena and the relation between the components are taken into consideration (Darwishi, 2016: 1). Security (total) aims to protect the rare values of humans or societies (human and natural risks) regardless of being mental or visual (an attitude mixed of comparative and inductive methods) and it is regarded as the most important motivation of human and is based on the nature of human which has an inseparable link (Mottaghi, 2015: 558).
           What is so important today in urban system is the ability of this system to be internally flexible and to use the principles and rules of passive defense and to meet the external needs of the system and this necessitates urban designers and planners who are aware of these issues to make a healthy city. With regards to the increase of costs and complexities of projects in one hand, and the increase of uncertainty and risks on the other hand, the project managers have decided to use risk management in their plans and project controls to reduce the risk taking and deviation of the project form its objectives (Modiri et all, 2017: 165). Defense includes two types of passive and active (Akhbari & Ahmadi Moghaddam, 2014: 38) This study investigates the passive defense which is one of the most important approaches and strategies in urban risk management and have always been taken into consideration in urban residence management and planning.  The actions in passive defense system are considered by taking a look at the present political structure and atmosphere to increase the power and authority of the system and reduce the physical and human vulnerability against possible invasions. Passive defense refers to the actions which do not need special weaponry (Hosseini Amini, 2017: 281).

    Methodology

           urban security and passive defense are among specialized issues in Shiraz, the present study includes a statistical population of 30 experts in the realm of urban development and architecture. Selection method was used to choose the samples and criteria and variables include: 1) urban security (urban infra structures, environmental design, life quality, legal organizations' functions, physical environment influences, population growth or reduction), and 2) passive defense. In the next step, Cronbach's alpha was used to specify the reliability of the questionnaire. Finally, the Cronbach's alpha in the reliability test was 93% which is more than 0.82, then the SPSS software was used to analyze the data. Data analysis was done in two descriptive and analytic ways. In the analytic phase, with regards to the type of data and the possibility to use parametric tests in this study, Pearson Correlation Coefficient was used to find the significant relationship between indices of urban security and passive defense. Stepwise regression test was used to investigate the indices of passive defense and urban security and the influences of factors (security and safety, social and cultural aspects, environmental and physical aspects and economic aspects) which lead to development of passive defense in shiraz.

    Results

           In order to get exact and practical results, shiraz city was chosen for this analysis. According to the results, it can be mentioned that safety and security had the most influence in improvement of passive defense in Shiraz with 18.5% of influence; after that, environmental and physical aspect, cultural and social aspects and economic aspect had respectively the most effect on improvement of passive defense with 4%, 2% and 0.9% of influence, respectively. In order to evaluate the internal relationship between the two indices, security and passive defense, Pearson correlation coefficient test was used. According to table 5, the significance level between security and passive defense was lower than 0.05 which shows that there is a significant relationship between these two indices and the results of the study have no contradiction with the above mentioned theoretical foundations; so it can be said that passive defense affects security.

    Conclusion

     there are some strategic suggestions based on the indices of passive defense:
    Designing a system to notify and quench the fire in gas and CNG stations in Shiraz,
    Studying and reducing the risks of dams neighboring Shiraz,
    Planning the studies to strengthen the bazaar in Shiraz,
    Planning the studies to strengthen the residential buildings of worn texture in Shiraz,
    Studying the comprehensive plan to make Shiraz more safety against eartchquake, flood, fire and explosion,
    Studying and providing some plans to strengthen the buildings to reduce the risks of earthquake,
    Designing a system to notify and quench the fire in central building of National Iranian Gas Company in shiraz,
    Studying the rivers and watercourses of Shiraz to prevent the flood.

    Keywords: Security, City, Passive Defense, Shiraz
  • Mohammad Rasool Darvishi, Mohammadreza Ghaedi *, Garine Keshishian Sirki, Mohammad Tohid Fam Pages 201-216

    Migration from cities to villages has led to the development of urbanization and the creation of new concepts that can be taken the step into sustainable urban development based on components such as social capital and public trust. From doing this the present study is aimed at sustainable urban development by relying on social capital and public trust indices. The research method this research is a case study and descriptive-analytic type and is executed through the correlation coefficient. The data gathering tool is a questionnaire that is used to measure public trust by Piran Nejad's Public Trust Questionnaire (2008), the social capital by Grotert et al. Questionnaire (1998) and urban sustainable development by Glend and Eka Questionnaire (2001). The statistical population is the citizens of the 2nd district of Tehran. District 2 has 21 neighborhoods and 9 regions. According to the Iran Census 2017, the population of this region was 701,303 (239,742 family) consists of 343.033 males and 358.270 females. District 2 of Tehran Municipality is divided into 4 regions, 30 neighbors and 14 councils. 374 questionnaires were analyzed by SPSS software and statistical methods such as Pearson's correlation analysis, and mean analysis. According to the results, social capital and public trust affect sustainable urban development (p=0.000). Social capital indices affect sustainable urban development (p=0.000). Public confidence indices affect urban sustainable development (P=0.000). It can be concluded that in urban sustainable development, two components of social capital and public trust are considered.



     


     
     



     
    Extended Abstract

    Introduction

             Rapid urbanization is one of the most major challenges of the present century and has created complex problems, especially for developing countries. Therefore, for achieving a balanced harmonious and sustainable urban development, the use of existing economic and social physical capacities within the legal limits of the cities, balancing population deployment, preventing the unnecessary expansion of cities (internal development), and providing a healthy, safe and standard life is inevitable for a significant portion of the urban population. Hence, we should try to identify the factors affecting sustainable urban development. According to the provided definition in the Brundtland Report, most researchers examine sustainable development in three environmental, economic and social scopes. According to the cultural and social developments of Iranian society as a transitional society and given the importance of public trust in the social interactions of citizens in recent years, the issue of trust in individuals, groups, and organizations is of great importance (Ztompka, 2009: 53). Trust can be divided into three categories including trust in the individual, trust in the group, and trust in the organization. These three categories are closely linked. Our trust in an organization can be created by our trust in the individual or employed people in that organization. Also, our trust in an individual can be due to our trust in the organization in which that person works. Trust in the individual and trust in the organization are linked through the duties and situations that individuals have in the organization and the roles they play in that organization (Ghaffari, 2011: 21). According to the above-mentioned issues, the present study seeks to investigate what is sustainable urban development based on social capital and public confidence indicators. The research hypotheses are as follows.
    -        It seems that social capital and public trust effects on sustainable urban development.
    -        It seems that social capital indicators effects on sustainable urban development.
    -        It seems that public trust indicators effects on sustainable urban development.

    Methodology

              The research method is a case study and is executed through a descriptive-analytic type and correlation coefficient. The statistical population consists of citizens residing in district 2 of Tehran (239.724 households). The sample size of 383 people was estimated using the Cochran formula. By eliminating incomplete questionnaires, 374 questionnaires were analyzed. Then it distributed using simple and systematic sampling.
    The data collection tool is a questionnaire. The Pirannezhad’s public trust questionnaire (2008) is used to measure the public trust, Grotert et al. questionnaire are used to measure social capital, and Glend and Akaya questionnaire (2001) is used to measure the sustainable urban development. The data analysis tool is the SPSS software.

    Findings

              According to the results concerning the mean of the research variables, in the social capital scope, trust and alliance had the highest mean (3.844) and information and communication have the least mean (3.124). Also, in the social capital scope, all items are above average. Honesty & integrity and risk-taking have the highest and lowest mean, respectively. The honesty and integrity and reliability items are above average and the risk-taking variable is below the average. Regarding the results of the sustainable development scope, sustainable development has the lowest average (3.197) and sustainable environmental development has the highest average. Also, all Sustainable Development Items are above average.
    According to the results concerning the impact of social capital and public trust on sustainable urban development, it can be said that the correlation coefficient and the significant degree of the component such as social capital (r = 0.887), (p = 0.000) and public trust (r = 0. 841), (p = 0.000) has an impact on sustainable urban development. The significance level of all variables is less than 0.01.
    According to the results concerning the impact of social capital and sustainable urban development, it can be said that the correlation coefficient and the significance degree of the components such as groups and networks (r = 0.745), (p = 0.000), trust and alliance (r = 0.752), (P = 0.000), collaborative activities (r = 0.687), (p = 0.000), information and communication (r = 0.452), (p = 0.000), dependency and social inclusion (r = 0.845), (p = 0.000), empowerment and political activities (r = 0.712), (p = 0.000) affect the sustainable urban development.
    According to the results concerning the effect of public trust and sustainable urban development, it can be said that the correlation coefficient and the significance degree of the components such as risk-taking (r = 0.287), (p = 0.000), honesty and integrity (r = 0.643), (p = 0.000) and reliability (r = 0.825), (p = 0.000) affect sustainable urban development.

    Conclusion

              According to the results, social capital and public trust impact on sustainable urban development. In explaining the research hypothesis, it can be stated that when social capital has a high level in society, it has an effective role in the sustainable urban development through participation, empathy, trust, and empowerment and leads to its development. On the other hand, public trust has an impact on sustainable urban development. People's public trust promotes sustainable urban development. When people in society see honesty and integrity in the authorities and trust them, they promote the same factors of sustainable urban development. According to the results, social capital indicators have an impact on sustainable urban development. In a stable society, there is a higher degree of social capital. Social capital is the product of social interactions, which quantitatively and qualitatively has greater breadth and depth across the social network at the city level. The sense of social solidarity, trust between citizens, and informal controls that nowadays are all considered as social capital components are formed and regulated at the level of urban development. When groups and networks are present in the community, individuals trust each other and have unity, and also strive to engage in activities and sought to gain information and communication and social inclusion and finally, they can empower, strive for sustainable development and work with greater interest, therefore, from the perspective of sustainable development, social capital along with other capital consider as an integral part of any nation's wealth portfolio and one of the factors contributing to the development of the societies.

    Keywords: Urban Sustainable, &quot, Social Capital&quot, Public Confidence
  • Anahita Zarifpour Langeroudi, Fariba Alborzi *, Jamalodin Sohili Pages 217-232

    This study investigated residential facades as well as explaining the role of facade in creating attachment to place in Tehran and its emphasis was on recognizing the role of selected facades of architectural competitions on citizens' sense of attachment to place and their connection and interaction with the environment. Based on the content analysis method in examining the theories in this area, a special conceptual model has been developed that offers a role model for promoting attachment to place. The basis of selection of buildings in this study was based on the criteria of arbitration, housing, locating in Tehran and emphasis on facade components. The research paradigm, the hybrid paradigm and the research method were based on qualitative and quantitative methods. Based on field visits, initial discussions and conceptual models of targeted questionnaires have been prepared. The results of quantitative and qualitative analyzes show that building facades can be examined in the form of physical dimensions (beta: 0.322), perceptual-emotional (beta: 0.284) and performance-activity (beta: 0.217). Also, the physical factor with a beta coefficient of 0.322 plays the most important effect on the attachment to the place. Based on the findings of the Friedman test, the components of the type of materials with an average rank of 16.98, a facade color with an average rank of 16.88, coordination with local dimensions and backgrounds with average of 16.64, the existence of full and empty levels of 16.88 are the most important physical criteria. , Interaction with the building with an average rank of 16.63, proportionality of form and performance of 15.67 and people's participation of 15.55 in the place of the most important functional aspects and memorable factors of the facade with an average rank of 16.60 and attachment to the building with average of 16.68 And mental experiences with an average of 15.33 have the highest average rank in the perceptual-emotional factor.
    Extended abstract

    Introduction

               This study investigated residential facades and explaining the role of facade in creating attachment to place in Tehran and its emphasis was on recognizing the role of selected facades of architectural competitions on citizens' sense of attachment to place as well as connecting and interacting with the environment. Also, extensive studies have also been conducted on different scales of place on attachment, but the specific feature of this study was to investigate the role of residential views on attachment to place. The building facade refered to a number of facades of buildings that were adjacent to the open space. Since the facade of the building was the first external component of the building and its first communicating space with the surrounding environment, this study has been analyzed. Therefore, in order to investigate the role of residential views on the feeling of attachment to the place in Tehran, the selected buildings of Architect Magazine have been selected as a case study in a 3 year period from 1 to 5 years. During this time period, 27 winning designs belonged to the residential group of apartments in the geographical area of ​​Tehran. 15 examples of these buildings could be examined with more emphasis on the facade.Finally, ten buildings including Government (Government) Residential Apartment, Koye Parvaneh Residential Complex (Ahmad & Chamran intersection), Ajorbaft House (Azadi), Chizari Residential Apartment, Ilkhaneh Residential Apartment (Zafarani), Chelgere House (Sattarkhan), Residential Complex 911 (Anderzgou), BW7 Residential Apartment (Kamaraniyah), Building C (Sheikh Bahai), and Residential Complex 1 + 5 (Aqdessia), based on a review of effective components from the judges' perspective (simplicity, innovation) , Understanding of materials, spreadable urban pattern, terraces, vacancies, lack of display, indoor lighting, communication with adjacent buildings, economics, facilitating implementation, etc. Dot field, were selected as case studies.

    Methodology

              In this research, in line with the purpose and research questions, along with the collection of quantitative data, the qualitative data required by observation methods, visual documentation, and the content analysis of the judgments criticized for views in Architectural journals and then visual analysis of the elements (elements and components) of selected buildings were collected. This is common to increase the validity and reliability of qualitative data, under the heading of three biases, or by using different collection methods. Also, due to proper sample size determination (statistical validity) and selection of appropriate sampling method and existence of homogeneity in sample group of statistical population (environmental validity) external validity or good generalizability is obtained and validity or internal validity of this study, In addition, Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to assess the reliability of the research instruments.

    Results and discussion

           The results of this table showed that the coefficient of correlation (R) between the variables was 0.828, indicating that there was a strong correlation between the set of independent variables and the dependent variable of the research; Another coefficient of adjustment (R Square) was 0.685%, which indicates that 68.5% of the total location attachment component changes to the three general variables of physical dimensions, functional-activity dimensions and perceptual dimensions. Also, the survey of the attachment to the location in the selected building views showed that the altar building had the highest attachment to the place and its components and components induce the highest degree of attachment to the citizens. , The reason for this feature could be assessed by the high average rating of physical and communication characteristics that one perceives emotionally and functionally.
     

    Conclusion

            By examining the role of building facades and their importance for place attachment through the analysis of selected architectural facades of Architectural Magazine and the results of field studies, a series of generalizable conclusions about the role of different building facades in relation to people's behavior was presented. Some of the findings were used as research purposes to discover the emotions of visitors to selected building views so that they could be used as key components in designing building views as one of the responsible and influential parts of the city's visual and conceptual structure. The findings of the study indicated that based on the results of statistical studies, all conceptual variables of the study, including physical, perceptual-emotional and functional-activity dimensions had a significant relationship with the concept of attachment to place. It played a more important role in promoting attachment to the place. Investigation and analysis of the physical dimensions of the building facades showed that the most important components in the facades that have an impact on the attachment of the citizens are the type of materials, the color of the facade, the coordination with the indigenous and contextual dimensions, the existence of high surfaces and empty, terrace and veranda were textured, aesthetically pleasing and green. Investigation of the functional-activity components affecting the feeling of attachment to the place in the selected building facades showed that interaction with the building was the most important criterion for affecting the place attachment feeling in the selected building facades. After that, the proportion of form, function and participation of people in the place were the most important components that architects and designers need to consider when designing building facades. An examination of the mean ratings of perceptual-emotional components Selected constructive facets affecting place attachment indicate that the most important perceptual-emotional components were memory, attachment to the building, and mental imagination and accumulation of experiences and mental background. Affecting attachment to the place where things that should be taken into consideration in design.

    Keywords: Interaction between person, building, facade, attachment to place, residential building, Tehran