فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 125 (زمستان 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/12/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • اسماعیل حلیمیان، مانی مجدم*، نازلی دروگر صفحات 1-15
    به منظور بررسی عملکرد کمی و کیفی دانه ذرت رقم سینگل کراس 704 در واکنش به محلول پاشی عناصر ریزمغذی آهن و روی در شرایط تنش کم آبی، آزمایشی در سال زراعی 1395 در شهرستان اهواز به صورت کرت های یک بار خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار اجراء گردید. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل تنش کم آبی در سه سطح (60، 90 و 120) میلی متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر کلاس A در کرت های اصلی و محلول پاشی کود کامل ریزمغذی در سه سطح (عدم محلول پاشی، محلول پاشی دو در هزار و محلول پاشی پنج در هزار) در کرت های فرعی بودند. نتایج نشان داد که تنش کم آبی و محلول-پاشی عناصر ریزمغذی تاثیر معنی داری در سطح احتمال یک درصد بر عملکرد دانه، تعداد دانه در بلال، شاخص کلروفیل، درصد آهن و روی دانه دارد. بیشترین و کمترین عملکرد دانه به ترتیب با میانگین (8/5750 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و (3/4140 کیلوگرم در هکتار) از تیمار 60 و120 میلی متر تبخیر از تشت بدست آمد. در این آزمایش محلول پاشی عناصر ریزمغذی موجب افزایش به ترتیب 29 و 31 درصدی آهن و روی دانه گردید. براساس نتایج حاصل از این آزمایش به منظور دست یابی به حداکثر عملکرد پروتیین و دانه، کشت گیاه ذرت با محلول پاشی عناصر ریزمغذی روی و آهن به میزان دو در هزار در تیمار 60 میلی متر تبخیر مناسب پیشنهاد می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: شاخص کلروفیل، عملکرد دانه، درصد آهن، عملکرد پروتئین
  • سعید جواهری، علیرضا آستارایی*، رضا خراسانی، حمیدرضا ذبیحی، حجت امامی صفحات 16-32

    چچکیده به منظور بررسی اثرات نانواکسید آهن، نانو اکسید روی، ترکیبات آلی ورمی کمپوست و اسیدهیومیک برعملکرد و جذب برخی از عناصرغذایی در گوجه فرنگی، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوکهای کامل تصادفی انجام شد. عامل اول، ترکیبات آلی در سه سطح: صفر، 5 تن در هکتار ورمی کمپوست و 5 کیلوگرم در هکتار اسیدهیومیک، و عامل های دوم و سوم، نانوذرات اکسیدآهن و اکسید روی، هر کدام در دو سطح: صفر و 6/2 کیلوگرم در هکتار بود. نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان دادکه غلظت نیتروژن در برگ به طور معنی داری تحت تاثیر مصرف ورمی کمپوست و غلظت نیتروژن در میوه تحت تاثیر مصرف توام نانواکسید آهن و روی و نیز نانو اکسید روی به تنهایی قرار گرفته، و به حداکثر مقدار رسید. مصرف ورمی کمپوست همراه با نانواکسید آهن و روی، غلظت آهن را در برگ و میوه به طور معنی داری افزایش داد مصرف نانواکسید روی توام با ترکیبات آلی، غلظت روی در میوه را به طور معنی داری افزایش داد.اثرات متقابل ترکیبات آلی و نانو اکسید آهن و روی بر عملکرد میوه معنی دار شد. با کاربرد نانواکسید روی و ترکیبات آلی، عملکرد میوه 74 درصد ه فزایش یافت و از 620/61 تن در هکتار در تیمار شاهد به 193/107 تن در تیماردارای نانواکسید روی و اسید هیومیک افزایش پیدا کرد. به طور کلی، نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که نانواکسیدآهن و روی منابع مناسبی برای تامین نیازگیاه گوجه فرنگی به این دو عنصر بودند و مصرف نانواکسید روی همراه با اسید هیومیک نیز در افزایش عملکرد میوه گوجه فرنگی معنی دار بود.

    کلیدواژگان: تغذیه، عناصرکم مصرف، ورمی کمپوست، اسیدهیومیک
  • سلمان دستان*، مجتبی احمدی، حسین عجم نوروزی، ناصر لطیفی صفحات 33-58

    استفاده از کودهای شیمیایی در بوم نظام های زراعی نه تنها باعث تخریب ساختار فیزیکی، شیمیایی و زیستی خاک می شود، بلکه کیفیت محصول را نیز به شدت تحت تاثیر قرار داده و دارای اثرات سوء زیست محیطی نیز است. از این رو، این تحقیق با هدف بررسی اثر منابع مختلف کودهای آلی و شیمیایی بر عملکرد کمی و کیفی توتون گرمخانه ای در دو شرایط دیم و آبی انجام شد. آزمایش در قالب پایه بلوک های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار در مرکز تحقیقات تیرتاش در سال 1394 اجرا شد. تیمارهای کودی در هشت سطح شامل شاهد (عدم مصرف کود)؛ کاربرد 100 درصد کود شیمیایی توصیه شده؛ کاربرد 10 تن کود گاوی در هکتار؛ کاربرد 30 تن کود گاوی در هکتار؛ کاربرد 450 کیلوگرم کود مرغی غنی شده در هکتار؛ کاربرد 650 کیلوگرم کود مرغی غنی شده در هکتار؛ کاربرد 850 کیلوگرم کود مرغی غنی شده در هکتار و کاربرد 650 کیلوگرم مرغی غنی شده در هکتار + 150 کیلوگرم سولفات پتاسیم در هکتار بود. نتایج نشان داد که عملکرد و شاخص های اقتصادی در کشت آبی و دیم تحت اثر تیمار کودی قرار گرفتند. در کشت دیم حداکثر عملکرد و درآمد خالص برای تیمار کود مرغی 650 کیلوگرم به علاوه 150 کیلوگرم سولفات پتاسیم در هکتار بود. لذا، از نظر اقتصادی در شرایط کشت آبی بهترین تیمار کود گاوی 10 تن در هکتار بود. بهترین تیمار کودی در کشت دیم و آبی ترکیب کودی کاربرد 650 کیلوگرم مرغی غنی شده در هکتار + 150 کیلوگرم سولفات پتاسیم در هکتار بود که منجر به بالاترین میزان عملکرد کمی و کیفی شد.

    کلیدواژگان: پرولین، توتون، غشاء سیتوپلاسمی، کشاورزی پایدار، نیکوتین
  • اسدالله زارعی سیاه بیدی*، عباس رضایی زاد صفحات 59-75

    به منظور شناسایی ارقام متحمل به خشکی آخر فصل تعداد 13 ژنوتیپ کلزا شامل کرج1، کرج2، کرج3، طلایه، زرفام، اوکاپی، لیکورد، اس.ال.ام.046، مودنا، دابل یو. پی.ان.5 ، اپرا، دابل یو. پی.ان.2 و جی.کا.اچ.305 به صورت دو آزمایش جداگانه در شرایط نرمال و تنش خشکی آخر فصل (قطع آبیاری از مرحله گلدهی) در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با 3 تکرار در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی اسلام آباد غرب از مهر 1391 به مدت دو سال زراعی مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. نتایج تجزیه واریانس مرکب داده ها نشان داد که اثر تنش خشکی آخر فصل بر همه صفات به جز درصد روغن دانه، تعداد شاخه های فرعی و وزن هزار دانه معنی دار بود. عملکرد دانه در اثر تنش خشکی به میزان 20 درصد کاهش یافت به طوری که میانگین عملکرد دانه ارقام کلزا در شرایط آبیاری کامل 4586 کیلوگرم در هکتار و در شرایط تنش 3736 کیلوگرم در هکتار بود، این کاهش حاصل تاثیرپذیری اجزای عملکرد دانه یعنی تعداد خورجین در بوته و تعداد دانه در خورجین از تنش خشکی بود. بیشترین عملکرد دانه در شرایط آبیاری کامل و تنش خشکی متعلق به ژنوتیپ جی.کا.اچ.305 به ترتیب با 5230 و 3941 کیلوگرم در هکتار بود. نمودار دوبعدی حاصل از تجزیه به مولفه های اصلی نشان داد ژنوتیپ های جی.کا.اچ.305، زرفام و دابل یو. پی.ان.5 دارای پتانسیل عملکرد بالایی هستند، ضمنا متحمل به تنش خشکی نیز هستند. در این مطالعه ژنوتیپ های شناخته شده لیکورد، طلایه و اس.ال.ام.046 نسبت به سایر ژنوتیپ ها در هر دو شرایط از میانگین عملکرد کمتری برخوردار بودند.

    کلیدواژگان: کلزا، شاخص های تحمل، درصد روغن، عملکرد دانه
  • سید کیوان مرعشی*، فلورا شامرادی صفحات 76-90

    به منظور بررسی تاثیر منابع نیتروژن زیستی و شیمیایی بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد ذرت، آزمایشی بصورت کرت های یک بار خرد شده در قالب طرح آماری بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در تابستان 1395 در منطقه اهواز اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل کود نیتروژن در سه سطح صفر، 60 و 120 کیلوگرم نیتروژن خالص از منبع اوره در کرت های اصلی و کودهای زیستی نیتروژنه شامل ازتوباکتر، نیتروکارا و عدم مصرف کود زیستی در کرت های فرعی بود. نتایج نشان داد که کود شیمیایی و کود زیستی نیتروژنه تاثیر معنی داری بر کلیه صفات مورد مطالعه شامل تعداد ردیف در بلال، تعداد دانه در ردیف، وزن هزار دانه، عملکرد دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیک، شاخص برداشت و درصد پروتیین داشت. تاثیر برهمکنش کود شیمیایی و زیستی نیتروژن بر عملکرد دانه، وزن هزار دانه و درصد پرتیین معنی دار ولی بر سایر صفات تاثیر معنی دار نداشت. بیش ترین عملکرد دانه و درصد پروتیین مربوط به تیمار تلفیقی120 کیلوگرم در هکتار کودشیمیایی نیتروژن و کود زیستی نیتروکارا حاصل شد که از لحاظ آماری اختلاف معنی دار با شرایط مصرف تلفیقی 120 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود شیمیایی نیتروژن و کود زیستی ازتوباکتر نداشت. نتایج کلی نشان داد که در شرایط این آزمایش، مصرف نیتروژن از طریق شیمیایی و یا زیستی در افزایش عملکرد کمی و کیفی ذرت تاثیر دارد و بیشترین تاثیر در شرایط مصرف 120 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود شیمیایی نیتروژن توام با مصرف کود زیستی نیتروکارا و یا ازتوباکتر حاصل شد.

    کلیدواژگان: ازتوباکتر، پروتئین، عملکرد دانه، کود شیمیایی، نیتروکارا
  • حسین زینل زاده تبریزی*، سعید سیف زاده، امیرحسین شیرانی راد، اسماعیل حدیدی ماسوله، حمیدرضا ذاکرین، میترا خیبری صفحات 91-108

    به منظور تعیین مناسب ترین تاریخ کاشت و ژنوتیپ پایدار در ارقام و لاینهای امیدبخش کلزا با استفاده از روش تجزیه گرافیکی GGE بای پلات، آزمایشی به صورت کرت های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوکهای کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در زنجان در دو سال 95-1393 اجرا شد. مواد گیاهی شامل ارقام اپرا و احمدی و 8 لاین امیدبخش کلزا بود. نتایج تجزیه واریانس داده ها نشان داد که بین تاریخ کاشت، ژنوتیپ و اثر متقابل آن ها اختلاف معنی داری در سطح احتمال یک درصد وجود دارد. با تاخیر در کاشت میانگین عملکرد دانه ژنوتیپ ها از مقدار 4547 کیلوگرم در هکتار در تاریخ کاشت 15 مهر به مقدار 2118 کیلوگرم در هکتار در تاریخ کاشت 15 آبان کاهش یافت. تجزیه گرافیکی بای پلات ژنوتیپ های کلزا نشان داد که دو مولفه اول درمجموع 93 درصد تغییرات مربوط به عملکرد دانه در تاریخ های مختلف کاشت را توجیه کردند. بای پلات نمایش بردار روابط متقابل بین تاریخ های کاشت مورد آزمایش نشان داد که تاریخ کاشت اول نسبت به دو تاریخ کاشت بعدی تاثیر بیشتری در تمایز و گروه بندی ژنوتیپ های موردبررسی از نظر عملکرد دانه داشت. نتایج این آزمایش نشان داد که تجزیهGGE بای پلات روش مناسبی در انتخاب ژنوتیپ بهتر و پایدارتر در تاریخ های کاشت مناسب و تاخیری بود. بر اساس نتایج حاصل، ژنوتیپ G9 با عملکرد دانه 5437 کیلوگرم در هکتار بهترین ژنوتیپ برای تاریخ کاشت اول و ژنوتیپ G7 با عملکرد دانه 2608 کیلوگرم در هکتار بهترین ژنوتیپ برای کشت تاخیری کلزا در منطقه مورد آزمایش بود.

    کلیدواژگان: پایداری، تاریخ کاشت، عملکرد دانه، GGE بای پلات
  • سروش کیانی*، جواد شهرکی، احمد اکبری، علی سردارشهرکی صفحات 109-127

    کشاورزی یکی از مهم ترین بخش های اقتصاد ایران بوده که باتوجه به تداوم تغییرات اقلیم و موقعیت جغرافیای خشک و نیمه خشک ایران اثرات منفی بسیاری از این تغییرات دیده و می تواند به خود ببیند. در این پژوهش با تفکیک اثرات مختلف تغییر اقلیم و در نظر گرفتن چهار سناریو به ترتیب شامل تغییر نرمال اقلیم، تغییر اقلیم، تغییرپذیری اقلیم و تغییر توامان اقلیم و تغییر پذیری اقلیم به بررسی اثرات هر یک بر میزان بارندگی و در ادامه بر سطح زیر کشت، میزان درآمد و قیمت محصول گندم به عنوان مهم ترین محصول زراعی ایران پرداخته شده است. از این رو با بکارگیری روش برنامه ریزی ریاضی مثبت و با استفاده از اطلاعات آب و هوایی ایران و همچنین داده های مربوط به هزینه و تولید گندم طی سال های 1394-1379 روند 20 ساله موارد فوق بررسی شده است. نتایج تحقیق نشان می دهد که در شرایط تغییر توامان اقلیم و تغییر اقلیم به نسبت دو شرایط دیگر کاهش شدیدتری در بارندگی رخ خواهد داد. همچنین در این دو شرایط اقلیمی کاهش در سطح زیر کشت، کاهش در درآمد و افزایش قیمت شدیدتر از دو شرایط دیگر خواهد بود. متوسط سطح زیرکشت گندم به صورت سالانه به ترتیب 15/2467، 89/1994، 23/2473 و 59/1993 هزار هکتار، متوسط درآمد سالانه کشاورزان گندم ایران نیز به ترتیب 4/13247، 59/10711، 07/13280 و 61/10704 میلیارد تومان و متوسط قیمت هر تن گندم در سال 79/14، 85/17، 77/14 و 87/17 میلیون تومان خواهد بود.

    کلیدواژگان: تغییر پذیری اقلیم، درآمد، برنامه ریزی ریاضی مثبت، محصولات زراعی
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  • Esmaiel Halimiyan, Mani Mojaddam *, Nazli Derogar Pages 1-15
    Introduction
    The corn (Zea mays L.) is one of the tropical cereals and one of the family of grasses (Gramineae) belongs to monocotyledonous plants. Corn is considered to be the most widely-used corn in the world, and it is in terms of production after wheat and rice. Corn is one of the strategic cultivars due to the high importance of human and livestock feed and has a high adaptability to temperate and tropical climatic zones (Normohamadi et al., 2010). Although water is the most composition the earth of the plant. One of the main causes of decline in crop yields around the world is water constraints and its lack of proper distribution during the growing season. In other words, for optimal water allocation in crop production, there should be an appropriate correlation between the amount of water used and the amount of production. Among the abiotic stresses in nature, water scarcity is the most important factor in reducing the growth and production of crops. Corn is susceptible to dryness at all stages of development, but the pollination stage has been introduced as the most sensitive plant growth stage to drought stress. Due to drought stress, the leaf area of the plant decreases more than the final leaf number and the biological function and its components decrease (Ma et al., 2012).
    Materials and Methods
    This research was carried out in Ahwaz in 2016 with a longitude of 48 degrees and 40 minutes east and a latitude of 31 degrees and 20 minutes north with a height of 22.5 meters above sea level. This experiment was carried out as split split plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments included irrigation stresses at three levels (60, 90 and 120) mm evaporation from class A evaporation pan in main plots and spraying of complete fertilizer in three levels (non-spraying, spraying two in a thousand and spraying five in a thousand) were in sub plots. The results showed that irrigation stress and micronutrient spraying had a significant effect on yield, kernels/ear, chlorophyll index, protein yield, percentage of iron and zinc.
    Results and Discussion
    The results showed that the highest grain yield (575.85 g/m2) was obtained from 60 mm evaporation from the pan and the lowest (414.4 g/m2) from 120 mm evaporation from the pan. The main cause of grain yield reduction in drought stress treatments was the reduction in the number of seeds per ear. On the other hand, micronutrient spray application caused a significant increase in grain yield. The highest grain yield (562.51 g/m²) was obtained from 5% seedling application and the lowest grain yield (455.65 g/m2) was obtained from non-spraying (control). Also, the results showed that zinc and iron micronutrients played a positive role in grain yield and corn grain protein, especially in water deficit conditions (Ghotavi et al., 2011).
    Conclusions
    Since in the field of crop production, the true value depends on the quality of the crop, this study found that the micronutrient spray application plays an important role in the growth of corn, and also, considering that the highest grain yield and protein yields quantitative and qualitative applications of zinc and iron fertilizers that are considered as micronutrient elements were obtained, it can be concluded that by using such fertilizers, we can provide the best conditions for obtaining the maximum yield and yield in corn. On the other hand, soluble micronutrient elements reduced the damage caused by stress on grain yield. Due to the restriction of iron and zinc intake in iron and zinc in arid and semi-arid soils, spraying of elements to increase the amount of micronutrient elements in the plant is a logical method of application of fertilizer. Therefore, in general, the results of this research can be argued that in order to achieve maximum quantitative and qualitative yield, corn plant cultivation with micronutrient foliar application of two liters per thousand is recommended in appropriate moisture conditions.
    Keywords: Chlorophyll index, Grain yield, iron percentage, Protein yield
  • Saeid Javaheri, Alireza Astaraee, Reza Khorassani, Hamidreza Zabihi, Hojat Emami Pages 16-32
    Introduction

    Nano particles are unit materials smaller than 100 nm(Hong et al.2015).The study and application of nanoparticles has rapidly grown in the last few years. Applications for nanoparticles are found in a wide verity of disciplines, including medicine biology, electronic and agriculture (Zolfi and Norowzi, 2005). Application of nanoparticles as a fertilizer is a new era of interest, while application of vermicompost and acid humic is now a source for plant nutrition. Vermicompost and acid humic improve soil physical and chemical properties (Samavat et al., 2007)

    Materials and methods

    Field experiment was conducted at Torough agriculture station ,Mashhad.Experiment was laid out In a randomized complete block esign in a factorial arrangement, with three replications. First factor was organic fertilizer at 3 levels(vermicompost,5 ton/ha; humic acid,5 kg/ha and control without application), second factor was application of zinc nanoparticles at 2 levels (nano zincoxid,1kg/ha; no application), third factor was application of fe nanoparticles at 2 levels (nano feoxid,1kg/ha; no application). Tomato seedlings were planted on 22 may in plots and fertilizers were applied according to soil test. yield of tomato fruit was determined at three harvest and tomato leaf and fruit samples were taken and analyzed for nutrient element concentration.

    Results and discussion

    The results of analysis variance showed that nitrogen concentration in leaf was significantly affected by vermic ompost application and nitrogen concentration in fruite was significantly affected by combined application of nano oxide of Fe and Zn and application of only nano Zn oxide.Effect of vermi compost along with Fe and Zn nano oxide on leaf Fe concentration, fruit Fe concentration ,Zn fruit concentration indreased significantly. . The application of Zn nano particle along with organic componeds increased fruit Zn concentration significantly. Interaction effects of organic componeds and Fe and Zn nano oxide was significant on fruite yield.Application of Zn nano oxide and organic componds increased yield 74% and from 61.620 ton per hectare in control reached to 107.193 ton per hectare in Zn nang gxide and humic acide treatment.

    Conclusion

    The results of this study showed that, simultaneously the use of organic compounds with the use of zinc nanoparticles could provide suitable conditions for better absorption of nitrogen by the plant The results of this study showed that, Fe and Zn nano oxide are suitable sources for providing tomato plants with these two elements. Application of Zn nano oxide along with humic acid increased yield of tomato significantly.

    Keywords: Nutrition, Micronutrients, Vermi compost, humic acid
  • Salman Dastan *, Mojtaba Ahmadi, Hosein Ajam Norouzi, Naser Latifi Pages 33-58
    Introduction

    Tobacco cultivation is commonly used as a specialized product in Mazandaran province and has achievements for employment, income, and livelihood of villagers in the region. Investigation the status of tobacco cultivation in this province in recent years has shown the cultivation of this product with many challenges which has reduced tobacco production in Mazandaran province (Iranian Tobacco Company, 2016). According to the official statistics released by Iranian Tobacco Company, the tobacco cultivation area in Iran is over 6,000 hectares and tobacco production is about 9,000 tons (Iranian Tobacco Company, 2016). Mazandaran province with 1,000 hectares of tobacco cultivation in 2014 has a first rank in Iran (Iranian Tobacco Company, 2016). The same amount is predicted for 2016. The use of chemical fertilizers in agro-ecosystems not only damages the physical, chemical and biological structure of the soil, but also greatly affects the quality of the product and also has adverse environmental effects. Considering the importance of organic manures in the growth and increase of crops’ qualitative and quantitative yield and protection of environment, it is necessary to use organic manures in growing tobacco; this research actually seeks answers for different aspects of applying organic manure (poultry and cow) with the purpose of investigating the effect of different resources of chemical and organic manures in the two rain-fed and chemical conditions on the qualitative and quantitative yield of greenhouse tobacco.

    Material and Methods

    The study was conducted in the Tirtash Research and Educational Center, Mazandaran Province, Iran in 2015. This experiment was carried out based on randomized complete blocks design with four replications under rain-fed and irrigated conditions for flue-cured tobacco K326 in Tirtash Research and Educational Center in 2015. Fertilizer treatment chosen as eight levels which includes: control (non-consumption); application of 100% recommended fertilizer; application of 10 ton cow manure per hectare; application of 30 ton cow manure per hectare; application of 450 kg poultry manure per hectare; application of 650 kg poultry manure per hectare; application of 850 kg poultry manure per hectare and application of 650 kg poultry manure per hectare plus 150 kg potassium sulfate per hectare. After normalization, the data analyzed by the SAS statistical software and the comparison of averages were calculated by Duncan tests at a 5% probability level.

    Results and Discussion

    Result showed that yield and economical under rainfed and irrigated conditions indices got significant effect by fertilizer treatment. Nitrogen and phosphorous concentration, protein percentage was significant only in rainfed condition and color concentration got significant effect under rainfed and irrigated conditions. Physiological indices including relative water content, cytoplasmic membrane and extinction coefficient under rainfed and irrigated conditions were significant by fertilizer treatments, but prolin and percentage of non-soluble sugar got significant effect by rainfed condition. In rainfed condition the highest yield and net income were achieved with application of 650 kg poultry manure per hectare plus 150 kg potassium sulfate per hectare treatment. The most extinction coefficient was related to application of 450 kg poultry manure per hectare. For relative water content the best treatment was application of 30 ton cow manure per hectare. In irrigated condition maximum fresh leaf weight and yield was obtained by application of 30 ton cow manure per hectare and application of 100% recommended fertilizer. In attention to finding results, the most net income was observed by application of 10 ton cow manure per hectare.

    Conclusion

    Therefore, in terms of economic issues in irrigated condition the best treatment was application of 10 ton cow manure per hectare. According to finding, the best treatment under rainfed and irrigated conditions was application of 650 kg poultry manure per hectare plus 150 kg potassium sulfate per hectare treatment that caused the highest quantitative and qualitative yield.

    Keywords: Cytoplasmic membrane, nicotine, prolin, Sustainable agriculture, Tobacco
  • Asadolah Zareei Siahbidi *, Abbas Rezaizad Pages 59-75

    In order to determine tolerant oilseed rape genotypes to terminal drought stress, 13 oilseed rape genotypes including Karaj1, Karaj2, Karaj3, Talaye, Zarfam, Okapi, Licord, SLM046, Modena, WPN5, Opera, WPN2 and GKH305 were evaluated in agricultural research station of Islamabade Gharb since 2010 for two growing season. Oilseed genotypes were planted using randomized complete block design with three replications under normal and drought stress conditions so that irrigation was cut from flowering stage. Combined variance analysis showed that the effect of terminal drought stress was significant for recorded characters except oil content, the number of branches and 1000 seed weight. Results showed that mean of seed yield decreased by 20% due to drought stress so that seed yield in normal and terminal drought stress conditions was 4586 kg/ha and 3736 kg/ha, respectively. This reduction was because of drought stress effect on yield components i.e. pods per plant and seed per pods. Genotype GKH305 had the highest seed yield with 5230 and 3941 kg/ha in normal and drought stress conditions, respectively. Bi plot derived from principal components showed that GKH305, WPN5 Zarfam and had high seed potential meanwhile were tolerant to drought stress. In current study, well known genotypes namely Licord, Talaye and SLM046 had low seed yield under both conditions. Introduction Environmental stresses are the most important factors reducing the yield of agricultural products worldwide. Drought is one of the most common environmental stresses that have limited agricultural production and decrease the efficiency of using dry and dry areas. In the field of drought stress, many experiments have been carried out in the world, but in most cases, the severe interaction between the environment and the genotype, selection of drought tolerant varieties is difficult. Improvement of drought tolerant cultivars is also one of the research priorities of the country. The effect of drought stress on plant depents on genotype, length of drought period, climatic conditions and plant growth stage (Roa & Mandham, 1991). The occurrence time of drought stress is more important than severity of drought stress (Kazi et al., 2002). Rapeseed plants, which are cultivated like wheat in both dry and wet conditions, generally experience drought stress during their life cycle. In irrigated areas and areas where surface water is used for irrigation, due to the reduction of rainfall and the use of water resources for the lucrative spring crops, the amount of water is severely depleted. As a result, the intervals between irrigation periods will be long and and plants encounter with water stress during filling seeds. According to some studies, the most sensitive time for irrigation is the flowering and early flowering stage (Richard, 1978; Richard & Thrling, 1978; Richard & Thrling, 1979; Richard & Thrling, 1979b; Pouzet, 1995). the country's largest cultivation of rapeseed belongs to the northern provinces of the country due to the presence of humidity and rainfall in these areas. However, cold and temperate cold regions like Kermanshah have a good potential for growing canola. In these areas, one of the main problems of canola cultivation is the lack of proper rainfall during the flowering stage of rapeseed and later. In these areas, rapeseed farmers who, in addition to canola, cultivate corn or wheat, canceled the canola irrigation in April, and irrigate wheat and corn, and the cut off of irrigation of canola at flowering and seeding time caused Stress and reduction of canola production. Therefore, identifying genotypes tolerant to late season drought stress in rapeseed is of great importance. In this study, in addition to investigating the effects of drought stress on yield and yield components of rapeseed, the most resistant genotypes to late drought stress were identified.

    Keywords: oilseed rape grain yield, oil content, tolerant indices
  • Seyed Keyvan Marashi *, Felora Shamoradi Pages 76-90
    Introduction

    One of the most important aspects of crop management is the supply of nutrients through the use of fertilizers to increase the quality and quantity of yield. Nitrogen is one of the most widely used chemical fertilizers and its deficiency limits the quality and quantity of plants yield more than other nutrients. In the past half century the consumption of chemical fertilizers increased the yield of many products, but due to the high consumption of fertilizers decreased environmental stability. In sustainable agriculture, attention to bio-fertilizers as an alternative to chemical fertilizers has been suggested as an approach to increase soil fertility. Azotobacter and Nitrokara are two bio-fertilizers containing many microorganisms. Therefore, considering the importance of biological and chemical nitrogen sources effects on yield and yield components of corn, this experiment was conducted to determine the effect of these sources on yield, yield components and qualitative yield of corn.

    Materials and Methods

    This experiment was carried out in a split plot arrangement in a randomized complete block design with three replications in summer 2017. The treatments consisted of chemical fertilizer nitrogen at three levels of zero, 60 and 120 kg.h-1 of pure nitrogen from urea source allocated to the main plots and three nitrogen bio-fertilizers including Azotobacter, Nitrokara and non-biofertilizer application were assigned to the sub plots. In this experiment, 30 ton.ha-1 sugarcane compost was used to supply some of the nutrients requied by the crop. 50 percent of chemical fertilizer nitrogen was applied at sowing and remaining nitrogen was applied at 4 to 6 leaf stages of crop growth. The first irrigation was done after seed sowing. Azotobacter biofertilizer from Green Biotechnology Company and Nitrokara from Kara Biotechnology Company were used as spraying on the seeds before planting. According to the recommendation of the producers, the amount of Nitrokara and Azotobacter biofertilizers were considered as 500 ml.ha-1 and 100 g.ha-1, respectively. The corn cultivar of S.C 703 was used in this study. The cultivation was under furrow and ridge method. Planting was done on top of ridges. The row to row spacing was 75cm, with plant spacing of 20 cm.

    Results and Discussion

    The results showed that chemical fertilizer had a significant effect at the probability level of 5% on number of rows per ear and on other studied traits including number of kernels per row, 1000- kernel weight, grain yield, biological yield, harvest index and protein percentage had a significant effect at the probability level of 1%. The effect of bio-fertilizers on all studied traits were significant at the 1% probability level. The effect of interaction between nitrogen bio-fertilizers and chemical fertilizer on 1000-kernel weight and protein percentage was significant at the 1% probability level and on grain yield was significant at the 5% probability level. However, it was not found to be significant on other traits. The average maximum grain yield (7228 kg.ha-1) and protein percentage (9.9%) were obtained from 120 kg.ha-1 nitrogen fertilizer and Nitrokara fertilizer, respectively, which show no statistically significant difference with those of the combined application of of 120 kg.ha-1 of chemical fertilizer nitrogen and bio-fertilizer of Azotobacter and the average minimum grain yield and protein percentage by 4726 kg.ha-1 and 7% were obtained under no consumption of chemical fertilizer nitrogen and bio-fertilizer (control), respectively.

    Conclusion

    In general, the results of this experiment showed that under application of sugarcane compost, either chemical or biological nitrogen, the quantitative and qualitative yields of maize were increased and the greatest effect was observed with the consumption of 120 kg.ha-1 nitrogen fertilizer in combination with Nitrokara fertilizer or Azotobacter fertilizer. This was probably due to the lack of nutrients in the soil and not enough time to decompose sugarcane compost for release and absorb the elements.

    Keywords: Azotobacter, chemical fertilizer, Grain yield, nitrokara, protein
  • Hossein Zeinalzadeh Tabrizi *, Saeid Saifzade Saifzade, AmirHosein Shirani Rad, Esmaeil Hadidi Masuleh, HamidReza Zakerin, Mitra Kheybari Pages 91-108
    Introduction

    The average yield of rapeseed in each country depends on climatic conditions, production methods and cultivar types. Proper planting dates provide adequate growth and development for crops and minimize the damage caused by stresses (Shirani-Rad et al., 2015). In the analysis of data collected from on-farm trials, environment can be defined as any management practices such as planting date, plant density, and fertilizer application that are recommended for crop producers (Balalić et al., 2012). Several methods have been proposed to analyze the genotype-by-environment interaction and to determine stable cultivars in different environments. However, each of these methods are based on certain statistical procedures and has their own advantages and disadvantages. In experiments, which are used to determine the interaction between genotype and environment, it is often difficult to establish the response patterns for the genotype-by-environment interaction without the aid of graphical representation of the data. The objective of this study was to use GGE Biplot graphical analysis and its efficiency to (1) determine the most suitable planting date for rapeseed 2) to determine the most stable genotype in the normal and delayed planting dates among the rapeseed cultivars and promising lines in the studied region.

    Materials and Methods

    The experiment was conducted over two cropping years (2014-2016) at the experimental farm of Hassan Abdali village, southwest of Zanjan, Iran (48°32'E, 36°37'N, altitude 1770 m). Each experimental plot consisted of four 6 m-long rows spaced 30 cm apart with 5 cm distance between plants on the rows. The experiment was arranged in split-plot based on a random complete block design with planting dates (D1: Oct. 7 as normal planting date, D2: Oct. 22 as semi-late planting date, D3: Nov. 6 as late planting date) in the main plots and genotypes G1 to G10 in the sub-plots with three replications. After eliminating the marginal effect, seed yield of each plot was estimated and finally seed yield/ha was determined. The outlier data detection and normality test of data were done before variance analysis using Grubbs’ test and Shapiro-Wilk test, respectively. Then the data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SAS software. GGE Biplot analysis was performed on the seed yield in order to determine the proper planting date and stable genotype among the cultivars and promising lines of rapeseed.

    Results and Discussion

    The results revealed that there were significant differences between genotype, planting date and their interaction (P<0.01). Seed yield of the investigated genotypes were declined from the highest yield of 4547 kg ha-1 in the first planting date (Oct. 7) to the lowest yield of 2118 kg ha-1 in the third planting date (Nov. 6). These results were similar with those of Singh et al. (2017) and Shirani-Rad et al. (2015). GGE Biplot analysis indicated that first two components explained 93 % of the total variation in seed yield in the three different planting dates. Based on which-won-where pattern, genotype G9 had the maximum seed yield (5437 kg ha-1) in the first planting date (Oct. 7) and genotype G7 had the maximum seed yield (2608 kg ha-1) in the second (Oct. 22) and the third (Nov. 6) planting dates. Based on vector view, the interaction of three different planting dates revealed that the first planting date (Oct. 7) with longer vector length and having more angle than the two subsequent planting dates had a greater effect on the genotypic distinction in terms of seed yield of the studied genotypes. On the other hand, the second and third planting dates had a smaller angle, indicating a positive and high correlation with each other.

    Conclusion

    Having an understanding of visual patterns is very important in analyzing agricultural data as compared to numerical results and numerous statistical tables. The GGE Biplot software, with a user-friendly graphical interface, can analyze various types of two-way data and provide a quick and complete understanding of the relationships between genotypes, environments, and their interactions. It can be concluded that GGE Biplot was a good method in identifying the suitable planting date and stable genotype in normal and late planting dates.

    Keywords: Stability, Planting date, seed yield, GGE biplot
  • Sroush Kiani *, Javad Shahraki, Ahmad Akbari, Ali Sardar Shahraki Pages 109-127

    Introduction:

     Climate change, with less access to water, results in product yields, and as a result of declining production, the economic consequences are affected by these changes, and the farmer experiences a reduction in income resulting from a decline in his performance (Gohar & Kashman, 2016) . Iran's presence in the dry and semi-arid belt of the world has always been caused by dehydration and alternate droughts. Climate change, with a decline in access to water, yields products, and as a result of declining production, the economic consequences are affected by these changes and the farmer experiences a decline in income resulting from a decline in his performance. Wheat is one of the products affected by these changes. In Iran, this product is considered to be the most important and most cultivated crop. In the 2012-2015 crop year, the level of wheat cultivation in Iran was 5928728 hectares and its production was 14592003 tons. It is a statistic that indicates both the level of cropping and the production of this product in a high level and volume. This product is 50.39% of the total cultivation and 17.58% of total crop production in the mentioned crop year (Agricultural Statistics, 2017).

     Materials and Methods: 

    Using a positive mathematical programming as well as information on the wheat crop during the years 1339-1394, the trend of cultivars, incomes and prices of wheat climatic assumptions over 20 years is discussed. This goal was pursued using GAMS software in the present study. CROPWAT software was used to calculate the need for water in the cost and product sector. The method of pmp was first introduced by Hawait. As the most commonly used method for calibration, a mathematical programming model is performed in three steps. In the first step, the linear programming model is determined by considering the calibration limitations, and in the second stage, with the help of the dual values of the previous stage model, a nonlinear objective function is formed. In the third step, the calibrated target function is used as a nonlinear programming model for policy analysis (Moghadasi & Bakhshi, 2014). Climate scenarios in this study will be achieved with regard to climate variability and change in average annual rainfall. Research scenarios include: normal climate change, climate change, climate Variability, and Double Exposure.

    Results & Discussion:

     Climate change can be mentioned as an unavoidable phenomenon around the world, which is unlikely to be much more severe in Iran due to its particular geography and dry and semi-arid climate. In the meantime, the agricultural sector has been and will be more vulnerable to these natural changes due to the strong dependence on natural phenomena. Following the variability of this part of the climate change, agricultural production is affected first and foremost. In fact, climate change will change the price of products and income of farmers by changing production levels. In this study, the effects of climate change on agricultural production have been evaluated to study the effect of four different climate scenarios on rainfall, cropping area, yield and price of wheat products as one of the most important agricultural products in Iran. The results show that among the four scenarios studied, climate change and climate change scenarios have more severely affected the studied cases. The first issue is the effect of different scenarios on rainfall, which results in a significant reduction in precipitation over a period of 20 years. This would be to a degree where the average rainfall in both the climate change and climate change will decrease by an average of 50% annually, as compared to two other situations. Under these two scenarios (climate change and climate change), cropping levels and income levels will fall further than the other two scenarios. In these two scenarios, wheat prices will be higher than other scenarios. Based on the results of this study, the continuation of climate change and the lack of appropriate policies to confront and adapt to these changes will be unavoidable. Reducing income and rising prices will lead to a reduction in the welfare of producers and consumers. Key words: Climate change, Climate variability, Wheat production, Iran.

    Keywords: Climate variability, income, Positive Math Planning, Crops