فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:11 Issue: 2, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/02/04
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Farrokh Habibzadeh, Tom Lang Pages 63-64
  • Parham Habibzadeh_Emily K Stoneman * Pages 65-71

    The novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak, which initially began in China, has spread to many countries around the globe, with the number of confirmed cases increasing every day. With a death toll exceeding that of the SARS-CoV outbreak back in 2002 and 2003 in China, 2019-nCoV has led to a public health emergency of international concern, putting all health organizations on high alert. Herein, we present on an overview of the currently available information on the pathogenesis, epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of this virus.

    Keywords: Coronavirus, Novel coronavirus, 2019-nCoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, SARS coronavirus, Outbreak, China, Wuhan, Emerging viruses
  • Richard L Neitzel_Stephanie K Sayler_Aubrey L Arain_Kowit Nambunmee* Pages 72-84
    Background

    Informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling is an increasingly important industry worldwide. However, few studies have studied the health risks in this group of workers.

    Objective

    To assess the associations between occupational exposures to metals and genetic instability and renal markers among e-waste recycling workers.

    Methods

    We recruited informal e-waste recycling workers from a community in northeastern Thailand. Participants completed a questionnaire, several health measurements, and provided urine and blood samples, which we then analyzed for a number of metals including lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and manganese (Mn). Samples were analyzed for a marker of RNA and DNA damage (ie, oxidative stress), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and fractional excretion of calcium (FECa%) were measured as markers of renal function. Correlations and regression models were used to assess associations between these various factors.

    Results

    We found significantly higher levels of Cd and Pb in blood of men compared with those in women. Men who worked >48 hours/week had significantly higher levels of 8-OHdG compared with men who worked ≤48 hours/week. Smoking was significantly associated with higher blood Pb and Cd concentrations among men.

    Conclusion

    Our results suggest gender differences in both blood concentrations of metals associated with e-waste recycling and smoking and highlight potentially elevated oxidative stress associated with longer work hours. Health promotion efforts are needed among informal e-waste recyclers to reduce possible risks of renal damage and cancer.

    Keywords: Electronic waste, Oxidative stress, Thailand, Renal insufficiency, Heavy metal poisoning
  • Basma Hussein Mourad*, Yasmin Adel Ashour Pages 85-94
    Background

    For many years, several studies drew attention to the possible nephrotoxic effects of silica and distinct renal dysfunction involving glomerular and renal tubules in workers exposed to silica.

    Objective

    To determine the early signs of subclinical nephrotoxic effects among some Egyptian workers exposed to silica in the pottery industry.

    Methods

    This study was carried out in El-Fawakhir handicraft pottery area, in Greater Cairo, Egypt. The studied population included 29 non-smoking male workers occupationally exposed to silica in addition to 35 non-smoking administrative male subjects who represented the comparison group in the study. Measured urinary parameters were concentrations of total protein (TP), microalbumin (Malb), activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and silicon (Si).

    Results

    Silica-exposed workers showed significantly (p<0.05) increased levels of urinary TP, Malb, ALP, γ-GT, LDH, and KIM-1 compared with the comparison group. Among the silicaexposed group, increased urinary Si levels were positively and significantly correlated (Spearman's ρ>0.60, p<0.001 for all variables) with the elevated urinary proteins (including KIM-1) and enzymes levels. All measured urinary parameters were positively and significantly correlated (ρ>0.75, p<0.001 for all variables) with the duration of work among exposed subjects. No significant correlation was observed between the measured variables and the age of workers.

    Conclusion

    There is associated subclinical glomerular and tubular affection among silica-exposed workers, which is related to the duration and intensity of exposure.

    Keywords: Silicon dioxide, Occupational exposure, Kidney diseases, Renal insufficiency, Kidney glomerulus, Kidney tubules, Proteinuria
  • Vahid Gharibi, Hamidreza Mokarami, Rosanna Cousins, Mehdi Jahangiri*, Davood Eskandari Pages 95-107
    Background

    Sleep disorders and excessive daytime sleepiness negatively affect employees' safety performance.

    Objective

    To investigate the relationship between excessive daytime sleepiness with obstructive sleep apnea and safety performance at an oil construction company in Iran.

    Methods

    661 employees consented to participate in this study. Excessive daytime sleepiness was measured with the STOP-BANG questionnaire and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). To determine how sleepiness would affect the studied occupational incidents, accidents causing injury and near misses, both reactive data and proactive safety performance indices were measured. Demographic and predictor variables were analyzed with hierarchical multiple linear regression.

    Results

    Employees who met the criteria of excessive daytime sleepiness and obstructive sleep apnea had significantly poorer safety performance indicators. STOP-BANG and ESS were significant predictors of safety compliance (β 0.228 and 0.370, respectively), safety participation (β 0.210 and 0.144, respectively), and overall safety behavior (β 0.332 and 0.213, respectively). Further, occupational incidents were 2.5 times higher in workers with indicators of excessive daytime sleepiness and 2 times higher in those with obstructive sleep apnea compared with those without.

    Conclusion

    These findings confirmed that excessive daytime sleepiness is a serious safety hazard, and that both reactive and proactive measures are important to understand the relative contribution of predictor variables

    Keywords: Sleepiness, Sleep apnea, obstructive, Accidents, occupational, Occupational health
  • Sai Krishna Gudi*, Komal Krishna Tiwari Pages 108-112

    In a short span, a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has captured global consciousness by significantly affecting the day-to-day life of humans and emerged as a public health emergency. Undoubtedly, it indicates that lessons learnt from the past epidemics of coronaviruses such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), had not enough and thus left us ill-prepared to deal with the challenges that COVID- 19 pandemic is currently posing. Currently, as a global pandemic, COVID-19 poses major challenges and thus forcing the entire world to lockdown. However, the disease has prepared humankind in facing such outbreaks at present as well as in the future. Besides, it has also taught numerous lessons that are worth considering and implementing to make the world a better reality

    Keywords: Coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2[Supplementary Concept], COVID-19 [Supplementary Concept], Pandemics, Disease outbreaks, Social distancing, Universal precautions
  • Hadi Ghasemi*, Azadeh Masoudirad Pages 113-114
  • Pages 115-116