فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:2 Issue: 4, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/09/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 18
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  • Ahmad Taheri, Ali Taghipour Zahir*, Parivash Jafari Pages 1-9
    Purpose

    The aim of this study was to identify the main components of school performance evaluation in desirable condition.

    Methodology

    The present study was a descriptive cross-sectional study. The statistical population of the study consisted of 1980 high school principals who were selected based on Cochran's formula of 322 students using cluster-cluster sampling method. Educational management (including 15 university professors, 20 administrators and 15 school administrators) selected through purposive sampling, semi-structured interviews were conducted, primary components identified and then identified by the researcher to determine the final components. It had 172 items and its face validity and content validation by Tidopa experts for it was 75/0 using Cronbach's alpha, was used. Data were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis and structural equations.

    Findings

    The findings indicated that the following components could be considered for evaluating the performance of 12 components and 172 sub-components: 1- Management and leadership 2- Administrative and financial affairs 3- Teaching processes- Learning and planning 4-Axis programs 5-Information technology and intelligence 6-Physical space and equipment 7-Empower teachers and staff 8-Supplemental, extracurricular activities 9-Organizational climate and organizational culture10-Interaction with school environment and Gaining Experiences11- Physical Education, Health and Well-being 12- Staff Involvement, Parents and Students in School Affairs

    Conclusion

    School management has a very important role in school performance. Therefore, school management and leadership as the main pillar of schools should play a scientific role and with respect to good human relations which will play an important role in enhancing school performance.
    Keywords: Evaluation, Performance, Schools, Desire.

    Keywords: Evaluation, performance, schools, desirable status
  • Fatemeh Rouhani, Alireza Chenari*, Kourosh Parsa Moein Pages 10-23
    Purpose

    The purpose of this study was to present a model of organizational empowerment based on knowledge management among employees of Sepah Bank branches in Tehran.

    Methodology

    The present study was applied in terms of purpose, and in terms of data collection, it was a mixed research (qualitative and quantitative). The statistical population consisted of academic and organizational experts including senior managers of Sepah Bank in Tehran and the quantitative department included all employees of Sepah Bank in Tehran. Sample size was estimated in theoretical saturation (20) in qualitative section and 343 in quantitative section. Purposeful sampling and stratified random sampling were used for quantitative sampling. Data were collected through qualitative interviews and quantitative researcher-made questionnaires based on 5-point scale. The face and content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by several experts, validity was calculated by means of variance mean and divergent validity was calculated by AVE. The reliability of the questionnaire was 0.968 through Cronbach's alpha. Data were analyzed using Cronbach's alpha, AVE, AVE root matrix, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, confirmatory factor analysis, and one-sample t-test.

    Findings

    The results resulted in the identification of 17 components and 66 indicators, including 14 affective components including trust, motivation, commitment, emotional intelligence, participation, communication, structure, education, culture, leadership, technology and reward and 3 affective learning components. Organizational, organizational entrepreneurship and performance, a moderating variable (personality traits) and knowledge management as independent variables affect organizational empowerment based on knowledge management. Other results showed that the status of identified components in organizational empowerment based on knowledge management is desirable. In addition, mechanisms, facilitators, and barriers to organizational empowerment based on knowledge management were also presented. Finally, a research model consisting of influencing factors, content phenomena (constituents, facilitators, barriers, and effective mechanisms for organizational empowerment based on KM) was presented and the degree of fit was confirmed by experts with 95% confidence.

    Conclusion

    Choosing important and effective knowledge and capabilities in the organizational field and enhancing organizational skills is a very effective way of empowering organizational personnel that can lead to enhancing organizational efficiency and organizational integrity of an organization's personnel.

    Keywords: organizational empowerment, knowledge management, organizational, performance
  • Behrouz Farid Marandi, Keivan Kakabaraee*, Saeede Sadat Hosseini Pages 24-32
    Purpose

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of problem solving on preschool children 's maladaptive behavior.

    Methodology

    The method of this study was practical and quasi-experimental with pretest-posttest design with control group. The statistical population of this study was preschool children of Kermanshah kindergartens. Twenty-four of these eligible volunteer children were selected using available sampling method and were assigned to experimental and control groups. Gresham & Elliott (1990) Social Skills Rating Scale was used to collect the data. Pre-test was administered to both groups, then the experimental group received 16 sessions of problem-solving skills training Intervention sessions were held 3 times a week with the presence of a trainer and an assistant for 45 minutes. The control group did not receive targeted intervention. Then, post-test was performed on both groups. After four months, follow-up tests were performed for both groups to evaluate the reliability of the results over time. Data analysis was performed using multivariate analysis of covariance at the significant level 0.05 and Spss24 software.

    Findings

    The results showed that there was a significant difference between preschool children in maladaptive behavior (internal and external behavior) (P<0/01).

    Conclusion

    Maladaptive behavior in preschool age is a normal behavior and a developmental characteristic that many parents consider this behavioral model to be age-appropriate and thus does not form a cycle of maladaptive behaviors in parents and children

    Keywords: Problem Solving, Maladaptive Behavior, Preschool Children
  • Ziba Sherafati*, Amir Hoshang Mehryar, Mohammad Khayyer, Hojatollah Javidi Pages 33-43
    Purpose

    The purpose of this study was to compare the personality characteristics of single-child, two-child and multiple-child students in Sari.

    Methodology

    This study was a descriptive-comparative study. The statistical population of this study included all male and female students of first, second and third grade high schools of public and private schools in Sari in the academic year of 2018-19. The sample of the study population was 370 people using random sampling method based on Morgan table. In order to predict the decrease of subjects, the tests were performed on 500 people, but finally 324 questionnaires were completed. Demographic and personality questionnaires were completed by the 5-item Neo. Data was analyzed by SPSS software using descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis of variance at the significant level of 0.05.

    Findings

    The results showed that there was a significant difference between the characteristics of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness of students belonging to single-parent, two-parent and multi-child families (p <0.05). Also, no significant gender differences were found among the five personality traits of male and female students of single, two and multiple children (p <0.05).

    Conclusion

    Student personality traits of single-child, two-child and multiple-child families. Happiness, life satisfaction and hope for the future are higher in single-parent families than single-parent families. In the present study, the agreement and extraversion of single children were higher than two children and multi children. Extraversion also includes traits such as positive thinking, happiness, life satisfaction and hope for the future. To illustrate this incongruity, it can be stated that single children in their families do not have conflicts with their peers and always remain in the strong position of the first child who has no successor and who has not been affected by the birth of the next child. Cause higher extravasation of this stratum.

    Keywords: Personality traits, students, single children, two children, multiple children
  • Sedigheh Shirvani, MohammadHossein Fallah*, Najmeh Sedrpoushan Pages 44-55
    Purpose

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of integrated parenting based on Acceptance and Commitment (ACT) and Compassionate Focus (CFT) approach enriched with Islamic teachings on the self-esteem and compassion of their first parents.

    Methodology

    The research method was quasi-experimental with pretest-posttest with control group. The statistical population of the study consisted of all mothers of first elementary school children in Isfahan city. Then, 30 of them were selected by available sampling method and were divided into two groups of control and experimental, each group of 15. The research tool was a checklist for measuring self-esteem in preschool children and the Compassion Self-Esteem Scale. For the experimental group, the training was held in 10 sessions of 120 minutes. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of covariance.

    Findings

    Findings showed that integrated parenting based on acceptance, commitment and compassion-based approach enriched with Islamic teachings increased child self-esteem and compassion for parents (p <0.05).

    Conclusion

    The conclusion of the study is that increasing self-esteem in children is related to parenting style. Therefore, with this combined parenting education, mothers have been able to improve their self-esteem and compassion and improve their child's self-esteem.

    Keywords: Children's self-esteem_Self-compassion_Acceptance & Commitment_Parenting_Islamic's Teachings
  • MohammadHossein Arabani, Cyrus Bavar* Pages 56-63
    Purpose

    The purpose of this study was to compare social interaction and communication in autistic children with the approach of architectural spaces and ordinary centers.

    Methodology

    The data were causal-comparative. The statistical population was all children with autism in centers with architectural spaces approach and children with autism in normal centers of Tehran. The statistical sample consisted of 3 centers with architectural approach and 3 normal centers selected by available sampling method. Data collection was done based on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (GARS) and Edited Autism Checklist in Toddlers (M-CHAT) Robins, Feln & Barton (1999). Data analysis was performed by SPSS software in descriptive and inferential statistics at the significant level of 0.05 using independent t-test.

    Findings

    According to the data analysis, the significance level in both variables of the study is greater than 0.05, which means that the scores of social interaction variables and the relationship of both groups follow the normal distribution. Independent t-test was then used to compare the mean social interaction of children with autism with the centers of architecture spaces and ordinary centers and showed that the obtained t was significant at the level of 0.01. Therefore, the null hypothesis can be rejected at the level of 0.01 in favor of the research hypothesis and with 99% confidence that there is a significant difference in social interaction between the two groups. Comparison of means indicates that social interaction of children with autism in architectural centers is higher than that of children with autism in normal centers.

    Conclusion

    Social interaction and communication rate in children with autism in centers with architecture approach were more than children with autism in normal centers. As the number of these children is increasing, especially in Iran, it seems necessary to design centers and spaces appropriate to the needs of these children.

    Keywords: Social Interaction, Communication, Architecture, Autism Children
  • Alireza Tajari, Samere Shojaei*, Mahmoudreza Mostaghimi, Fereydoon Azma Pages 64-72
    Purpose

    The purpose of this study was to present a model of educational citizenship behavior among teachers.

    Methodology

    The present study was applied in terms of purpose, in terms of data collection, Induction and exploration in terms of qualitative method with the data base method. The statistical population of this study consisted of all first grade High School teachers in the academic year of 2018-19 who were selected by snowball method. In this study, we interviewed 42 teachers and teachers from the northern provinces of the country who were interviewed from seventeen onwards, repeatedly on the received information, and after the twenty-four interviews, the data were completely duplicated and theoretically saturated, but to be sure of the interview. 42 continued. In-depth interviews started with questions about "Teacher Citizenship Behavior among Teachers" and the rest of the questions were based on the answers of the interviewee. In this study, systematic method (open coding, axial coding and selective coding) was used for data analysis.

    Findings

    Data analysis based on content analysis and Grounded Theory method using data base theory showed that educational citizenship behavior in teachers was related to five components: economic needs, organizational justice, teacher organizational characteristics, education strategic plans, respect So we can base on these five factors. Developed a model of educational citizenship behavior in teachers.

    Conclusion

    Teachers need mutual respect for power and social base. Teachers who have this need seek education, learning and teaching, and tend to have the learning environment under their control.

    Keywords: Education, Citizenship Behavior, Teacher
  • Seyed Masoumeh Nasser Sheikholeslami, Nazila Khatib Zanjani* Pages 73-82
    Purpose

    The purpose of the present study was to present a predictive model of MOOC at Payam-e-Noor University based on the components of management and professional competence.

    Methodology

    The research method was by purpose, applied; in terms of data type, (quantitative); in terms of data collection method or nature, and the research method was non-experimental - correlation. The statistical population of this study was 900 faculty members of Payam Noor University in Tehran. Due to the different nature of Payame Noor University, 270 people were selected as the subjects using Cochran formula and simple random sampling. The research tool consisted of a researcher-made questionnaire with 37 questions related to MOOC and two standard questionnaires of 20 and 15 questions for management variables (Wiele & Boselie Questionnaire, 2002) and professional competence (Molaeinejad questionnaire, 2012). The reliability and validity of the questionnaire were confirmed by Cronbach's alpha and reliability coefficient (MOOC, management and scientific / professional competence) of 0.7. Structural equation modeling (confirmatory factor analysis) was used to analyze the data.

    Findings

    The results showed that the components of management, scientific / professional competence, were effective factors on the implementation of the music in Payam-e-Noor University.

    Conclusion

    With the presence of mock-ups, it facilitates the access of institutions and organizations to inclusive learning and facilitates the virtual learning process. In the field of MOOC management, the university can be effective in providing MOOCs courses by preserving and developing fair behavior and speech.

    Keywords: MOOC, management, academic, professional competence
  • Ayatollah Karimi Baghmalek* Pages 83-92
    Purpose

    It has been well established that personality traits and self-compassion are associated with psychological well-being, thus, the current research aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms in a collectivist culture.

    Methodology

      The present study was a descriptive correlational one in terms of purpose and in terms of data collection. Quantitative research approach was used. Male and female University students of Ahvaz Farhangian University were considered as a studies population. For the purpose of the research, 150 students were selected as a sample using voluntary-available sampling method. for measurement Ryff Psychological Well-Being Scale, the NEO Personality Inventory, and Neff's Self-Compassion Scale.

    Findings

    The results of correlation analysis showed that there were significant relationships between the personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) and self-compassion (self-kindness, isolation, mindfulness, and the total score of self-compassion) with psychological well-being. The regression analysis showed that neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness significantly predicted psychological well-being.

    Discussion

    The current research was one of the first Iranian studies which addressed to the issues with a cultural point of view. Also, this research tried to direct attention to other social factors influencing gender differences (e.g., traditional socialization) as well which are not discussed in other similar studies. The cultural implications and future orientations have been discussed.

    Keywords: personality traits, psychological well-being, self-compassion, cultural differences, gender differences
  • Reza Gholamian, Seyed Ahmad Hashemi*, AliAsghar Mashinchi, Mohammad Behroozi Pages 93-105
    Purpose

    The purpose of this study was to design an integrated social education curriculum model in elementary school.

    Methodology

    The research method was a mixed (qualitative-quantitative) type of sequential-exploratory design. The statistical population consisted of 85 teachers and educational experts in the qualitative section and 830 teachers of social sciences in the quantitative section in the academic year of 2019-2020. The sample size was 40 and 263, respectively. Cluster sampling was selected. The instrument used in the qualitative part was interviews and document summaries, which extracted 70 codes and 18 themes using the content analysis sequential modeling method, and in the quantitative section, the tool used a researcher-made questionnaire. Using the factor analysis method, the extracted concepts were analyzed and analyzed into 21 sub-categories and 10 main categories.

    Findings

    The results showed that with respect to features such as attention to learners 'educational knowledge, revision of curriculum content formulation and emphasis on flexibility components, interdisciplinary understanding, learners' abilities, and implementation of upstream education curriculum documents, modifying content-organizing approaches from subject-based approaches to integrated approaches can reinforce the elementary curriculum integrated curriculum.

    Conclusion

    interdisciplinary and logical curriculum integration are essential in the academic and personality development of learners because Can knock Wit to lead learning transfer.

    Keywords: Curriculum, Social Education, Integrated Approach, Elementary
  • Fatemeh Kohkan, Alireza Mohseni Tabrizi*, Meysam Mosaei, Seyed Reza Moeini Pages 106-115
    Purpose

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the sociological components of human development in male and female employees of Maskan Bank.

    Methodology

    The method of the present study was descriptive-correlational in terms of data collection method and in terms of purpose, it was applied and in terms of quantitative method, it was retrospective in terms of time horizon. The population of Maskan Bank was statistical population (12300) throughout the country and the Cochran formula was used to determine the sample size of the population, based on which the sample size was 372. Size-proportional stratified sampling with one-fifth sample ratio used. For the first time, the country was divided according to the provinces (31 provinces) and then according to the sample size 372 employees were selected as sample according to the total number of employees in the housing banks of each province. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and analysis of variance for gender differences between the two groups of men and women. Human Development Index Questionnaire was used to measure the research variables.

    Findings

    The results of Pearson correlation test, Mann-Whitney test and analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences between men and women in terms of variables of education, quality of life and health and human development. The results also showed that men's mean scores on all variables of education, quality of life, health and human development were in favor of men. So men are in a better position than any woman in the housing bank for all indicators.

    Conclusion

    The increasing presence of women in the executive and employment market and their remarkable success in university examinations has given the Iranian society a different picture and it seems that the process of social change continues to promote the role of women. Going forward.

    Keywords: Gender Differences, Sociology, Quality of Life, Education, Human Development
  • Maryam Mohammad Taheri*, Gholamreza Veissi, Seifollah Fazlollahi Pages 115-126
    Purpose

    The present study was conducted with the aim of "providing a model for creating happiness and vitality in high schools".

    Methodology

    The present study was a descriptive (qualitative and quantitative) method in terms of practical purpose, field method and data collection method in terms of practical purpose. The statistical population of this study was 30 experts in the field of happiness, 30,000 high school students, 4800 high school teachers in Alborz, about 80 high school girls and finally high school experts in the general administration. The education department has about 55 members. Based on the principle of saturation in the interview, a sample number of comments from 21 experts was recorded. Based on the Cochran's formula, 380 high school students, 355 high school teachers, 67 high school principals, and 48 school principals were appointed. Data collection method was used in the qualitative part of the field method for semi-structured interview and in a small part of the researcher-made questionnaire. The formal validity and content of the questionnaire were performed by experts, supervisors and advisors, and its reliability was obtained by Cronbach's alpha. The total questionnaire was 0.98, which was distributed and summarized. The influential components were extracted and based on it, the proposed research model consisted of four main sections including the philosophy and objectives of the model, theoretical foundations, conceptual framework and executive steps.

    Findings

    According to the results obtained from the perspective of the participants in the research, 5 factors of physical space (physical), educational activities (cultural-artistic), educational activities, comprehensive characteristics, and the financial situation of the school in the form of 10 components, physical space, component of exciting situations, holding extracurricular workshops, job skills and individual characteristics of school staff, quality of educational content, scientific-research activities, ethical-social, characteristics Emotional-psychological, family, and school financial status have contributed to the creation of happiness and vitality in high schools and educational settings.

    Conclusion

    Student happiness as an important part of teaching if students need education and emotional needs can lead to academic achievement and better student performance.

    Keywords: Happiness, Joy, Secondary Schools
  • Zahra Alizadeh* Pages 127-133
    Purpose

    There is no doubt that one of the most important educational management and planning tasks of schools is to encourage youth to participate and cooperate in all matters. They can engage students in various school affairs by developing appropriate educational planning. This can help youth feel useful and get away from isolation and boredom as one example of fulfilling a happy and joyful life. The present study was aimed at investigating the relationship between academic self-regulation and metacognition with students’ academic achievement.

    Methodology

    This was an applied research and followed a descriptive correlational method in terms of data collection. The statistical population included all students in Gilan-e-Gharb. 110 of them were selected through multi-stage cluster sampling method to participate in the study. To collect data, the self-regulatory questionnaire and Connell Ryan (1989) and O’Neill and Abedi metacognition questionnaire were used.

    Findings

    The results showed a significant relationship between self-regulation and its dimensions including internal self-regulation, external self-regulation, cognitive self-regulation and internal motivation with student’s academic achievement. In addition, there was a significant relationship between metacognition and components of innovation and collaboration with students' academic achievement and the components of innovation and collaboration could predict students' academic achievement (P <0.05).

    Conclusion

    Teachers can play an effective role in students’ academic achievement by creating a climate of collaboration and assistance among students in addition to creating a positive attitude toward the environment.

    Keywords: Academic self-regulation, metacognition, academic achievement
  • Shiva Masoumparast, Mahdi Zare Bahramabadi*, Fatemeh Khoeini, Hojjatollah Moradi Pages 134-142
    Purpose

    The present study aimed to develop a model of psychological well-being based on social capital with the mediation of emotional intelligence in education staff.

    Methodology

    The research method was descriptive and descriptive-correlational and the method of modeling structural equations. The statistical population of the study was all education staff in Tehran in 1997-98. To determine the sample size, the principles of sample size determination were used in multivariate regression analysis in structural equation modeling, in which 610 people were selected by stratified sampling method. The Ryff and Keys Psychological Welfare Questionnaire (1989), the Putnam Social Capital Scale (2000) and the Schutte & Et al Intellectual Intelligence Questionnaire (1988) were used to measure and evaluate the status of employees. Structural equation modeling and Amos software were used to analyze the data.

    Findings

    The results of data analysis showed that the model of predicting psychological well-being based on social capital had a favorable fit considering the mediating role of emotional intelligence based on experimental data.

    Conclusion

    In order to promote the mental health of vital assets of a society, it is very important to pay attention to the psychological well-being of education staff and the factors affecting it.

    Keywords: Psychological well-being, social capital, emotional intelligence
  • Zeinab Mirshekari, Zohreh Sa'adatmand, Narges Keshtiaray Pages 143-157
    Purpose

    The purpose of this research was to design and validate the appropriate art teaching model for elementary school students in Iran.

    Methodology

    The present study was descriptive-correlational in terms of applied purpose, correlational in terms of data collection and qualitative in terms of qualitative research method. This research was aimed at designing the model and using this qualitative method, the dimensions, components and indicators of the art teaching model were obtained. The statistical sample in the qualitative part of the study, ie in the method of thematic analysis, is 54 articles or dissertations or dissertations in this field, all of which have been studied. The present study was used by qualitative research method, thematic analysis method with exploratory inductive approach to extract themes and template formats. In the first stage of coding, the researcher discovered 8 comprehensive themes and 28 organizational themes and 71 basic themes. In the second coding, he discovered 7 comprehensive themes and 24 organizational themes and 65 basic themes. 7 comprehensive themes, 24 organizational themes and 61 basic themes have been obtained.

    Findings

    The results of the present study were a model based on 61 themes as basic themes and 24 organized themes and 7 comprehensive themes were extracted. Based on the results of this model, 7 indicators of art teaching model include teaching method index including group and individual dimensions, student index which includes dimensions of knowledge, attitude, skill, intelligence and thinking, teacher index which includes dimensions of teaching method, scientific development and promotion. , An index of opportunities that includes the dimensions of culture, heritage, art and art in society, an index of weaknesses that includes the dimensions of parents, education, time, equipment and books and an index of strengths that includes upstream documents and the status of art and finally an index of principles that includes The principle of moderation, the principle of creation, the combination of art with goals and the principle of freedom.

    Conclusion

    By teaching art, you can explore children's skills, creativity, talent, intelligence, and imagination, and discover the hidden points in a child's mind and teach them to look at their surroundings with a new perspective and to realize their imaginations with their abilities.

    Keywords: Design, validation, art teaching pattern, elementary students
  • Monirolsadat Navabi, Kourosh Goodarzy*, Mahdi Rouzbahani Pages 158-165
    Purpose

    The aim of the present study was Examining the effectiveness of problem solving skills training on psychological Hardiness and cognitive emotion regulation strategies of high school students in Tehran.

    Methodology

    Method of research was an applied one in terms of purpose and a quasi-experimental in terms of data collection, with pretest-posttest, control group, random assignment of subjects. Statistical population included all female students studying in Tehran in 2017-18. Forty students were assigned through convenience sampling. That is 40 students were split into two groups, assigning 20 to each, one group as control and the other as experiment group. The experiment was trained problem solving (8 sessions, lasting 90 minutes each); the control group received no treatment (training). To collect data, the Psychological Hardiness Scale (Kobasa, 1979) and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies (Garnefski et al, 2001) were used. Data analysis based on the data obtained from the questionnaires through SPSS-v22 was done at 0.05 significance level in two parts, descriptive and inferential (Covariance analysis).

    Findings

    Results showed that problem solving skills training affected adolescent’s psychological hardiness and cognitive emotion regulation strategies (p<0.001).

    Conclusion

    Therefore, Problem-solving skills training can be used as an effective intervention to improve psychological hardiness and cognitive emotion regulation strategies in high school students.

    Keywords: Psychological Hardiness, Cognitive Emotion Regulation, Problem Solving
  • Seyed Yahya Ghorashi, Bahram Kheiri*, Mirahmad Amirshahi Pages 166-178
    Purpose

    Nowadays personal branding is considered a very important issue for specialists like the university professors, as one of the important classes of experts in the society, and the success criteria of personal branding activities is their perceived brand equity by the students. The purpose of present study is to investigate the effective factors involved in personal brand equity of university professors.

    Methodology

    This is an applied study in terms of purpose and it is a survey-analytical study in terms of method. The statistical population consists of the students at Azad University Central Tehran Branch in Iran, Faculty of Management and the data were collected from 275 students using probability convenience sampling method. Structural equation modeling and SMART PLC has been used to test the hypotheses.

    Findings

    The results show that competence of professors, the students' awareness of them and the instruction perceived quality by the students affect the professor brand equity through affecting the extent of attachment between the students and professors and the effect on the communicative variables such as commitment, trust and loyalty.

    Conclusion

    Today being good in what we are doing as an expert doesn’t pay off enough and we can’t expect others to know our competencies and respect that while we are not communicating that thing properly through personal branding. Findings show that university professors must take a good care of their awareness, competencies and perceived instructional qualities which all let them have higher brand equity through communicative variables and benefit a lot from that.

    Keywords: personal branding, brand equity, competence, perceived quality, awareness, professors
  • Yadegar Mohammadi Armandi, Alireza Shirvani*, Iraj Soltani Pages 179-187
    Purpose

    The present study aimed to recognize and analyze effective factors on authentic leadership in Iranian National Tax Admission Organization.

    Methodology

    The paper was of a qualitative type in terms of nature which was administered through Delphi method. Statistical population included experts, and professional managers in tax affaires who were eight people experienced in authentic leadership. They were selected through targeted sampling method. In data collection, a questionnaire was used in 3 phases. Firstly, having collected their points of view, we combined the similar views recognizing the basic components. Secondly, after discovering concepts and factors, a structured questionnaire was designed and used afterwards. At last, in the third phase, ranking the views was implemented, a statistical summary was prepared then, and finally effective factors on authentic leadership in tax admission organization were identified. In data analysis, the results of the first phase of preparing Delphi questionnaire were analyzed and the key items and concepts were extracted.

    Findings

    Findings obtained from Delphi indicated that 16 factors affected leadership in tax affaires. In other words, according to the highest loading value, the research model was well fitted having factor load (.98) showing as the most important determining factor in authentic leadership.

    Conclusion

    The foundation of authentic leadership presented some conditions in which individuals behaved according to values, beliefs, and the sublime nature of man.

    Keywords: authentic leadership, self-awareness, balanced processing, transparency of relationship, inner conscience