فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:9 Issue: 1, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/02/08
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Mahdi Mohamadi *, Shokrollah Khakrand Pages 3-20
    The battle of Muslims with the Crusaders took place when disturbances in the region of Sham, especially in the north, prevented their confrontation with European forces; as a result, the circumstances were brought about for the establishment of European rule in Edessa, Antioch, Jerusalem and Tripoli.  Internal conflicts in the northern cities of Sham and prolonged encounters with the Turkmens, Crusaders, and rulers of Mosul and southern Sham caused insecurity in these areas.  This insecurity was intensified by factors, such as epidemics, consecutive famines and the maladministration of governors. In this paper, the researcher attempts to use statistical data to evaluate the impact of war, famine and disease on insecurity in Northern Sham on the verge of the Crusaders’ attack.  For this purpose, primary sources such as “al-Kāmil fī al-tārīkh”, Ibn al-Qalanisi’s “Mudhayyal Ta’rikh Dimashq”, and “Zubdat al-halab min tarikh Halab” were examined; cases of insecurity were extracted and the severity of their impact was analyzed based on the words these sources used to describe the “insecurity” and its underlying factors.
    Keywords: Sham, Crusades, Famine, Disease, Aleppo, Cholera
  • Bilal Dadayev * Pages 21-34
    It is noteworthy to mention that cultural ties intensified in the relations between the Ottoman Empire and Azerbaijan in the fifteenth century. It is possible to say that some political and socio-cultural events, in particular, increasing interaction and travel with the occupation of Azerbaijan (after 1386) and then the Ottoman Empire (1402) by Tamerlane (Timur the Lame-1370-1405) further intensified after the conquest of Istanbul in 1453. The ongoing reforms in education during this period in the Ottoman Empire mainly coincided with the reign of Fatih Sultan Mehmet (1451-1481). For this reason, the Ottoman Empire attracted a great number of scientists from neighboring Muslim countries, amongst which there were many Azerbaijani physicians, satisfied their needs in accurate and positive sciences such as mathematics, geometry, astronomy and medicine. Ottoman sources also mentioned that the doctors from Azerbaijan were given great respect and glory.The article examines activities of 10 physicians operating in the Ottoman Empire. These physicians are Mahmud Shirvani (1439), Shukrullah Shirvani (1485), Amirek Tabib, Kamaladdin Tabrizi (1507/1508), Ahi Muhammed Chelebi Tabrizi (1431-1524), Muhammad Shah Gazvini (1523), Mevlana Nuraddin, Dervish Ali Kahal (Ophthalmologist), Osman Chelebi, and Abu Talib Tabrizi. Some of these physicians are mentioned for the first time in this research. Some of the physicians are meanwhile known to be close friends as well as personal physicians of the Ottoman sultans. They are well-known as the great thinkers of the time and have written many works of art.
    Keywords: Mahmud Shirvani, Shukrullah Shirvani, Ahi Muhammed Chelebi, Mevlana Nuraddin, Dervish Ali Kahal, Azerbaijan, Ottomon Empire, Physicians
  • Azam Fooladi Panah, Jamal Moosavi* Pages 35-42

    Carmelite missionaries as the Vatican’s ambassadors and representatives arrived in Iran since the reign of Shah Abbas I. They were engaged in the extension of catholic Christianity in Iran in various political, religious, cultural, and social arenas. Carmelite missionaries came to Iran in order to strengthen the relationship between European states and the Safavids to form a coalition against the Ottoman Empire. As one of the most active missionary groups in Iran, Carmelites were able to identify the needs and shortcomings of the country in that period and penetrated among different classes of Iranian society. Through meeting the requirements of different social groups, Carmelite missionaries were pursuing their own religious and cultural objectives. Medical activities were among the most effective and important activities of Carmelite priests in Iran during the Safavid Period. As the most active Christian missionaries in Iran, Carmelite Fathers endeavored to provide medical and health services for the Safavid Court, ruling classes, and people from different walks of life in order to develop and expand Christianity in the Iranian Society. During their residence in Iran, many Carmelite priests, including Fr. Angelus of St. Joseph, wrote different books in order to introduce Iranian medicine to Europe. Some of them even translated Iranian medical books into European languages and published them in Europe. By taking advantage of analytical methodologies, authors of the present article intend to analyze the medical activities of Carmelite priests in the Safavid Period and then elaborate on the repercussions of such activities.

    Keywords: Carmelite, Extension of Christianity, Safavid, Missionary activities, Persian medicine
  • Reza Mohammadinasab, Javad Ghazi Sha’Rbaf *, Hamid Movasaghian Pages 43-48
    Ibn al Jazzar as the first Muslim physician has done works on medical sciences in North Africa. Apparently, he has had accessed to some of works in Greek and used them to compile over forty books. He has also made them more productive by his own experiences. Works of Ibn al Jazzar has been used by some well-known Muslim physicians, namely Razi‚ Ibn Sina, etc.  In addition, his works has been translated into Latin and Greek in later years as well and his books, Zad al Mosafer, has become very important in Europe. Thus, its translation into Latin for the first time has caused medical sciences of ancient Greeks returned to Europe. He has also written Tib al Foqara va al Masakin for the poor who could not have access to any doctors or medicine because of their poverty. He has trained many students in Islamic sciences, namely Abuhefz Ibn Tariq Andalusia, a physician in Kairouan, in Tunisia. Abuhefz has brought Zad al Mosafer to Andalus and Muslim‚ Jewish and Christian doctors began to use it.
    Keywords: Islamic golden age, Iranian medicine, Muslim physicians
  • Hamid Kavyani Pooya *, Ali Jahanshahi Afshar Pages 49-62
    Since long times ago, cinder of different plants has been used for medical and health purposes. It has been referred to as one of the best medical approaches in pharmacy in old scrolls and tablets dating back to millennium before Christ. Nevertheless, no research has been performed on the properties and features of cinder, especially cinder as a medicine for therapeutic and health purposes, its utilization and instructions. In this regard some experiments conducted in the traditional medicine can come to aid the conventional medicine in the mentioned fields.In this study, first, having reviewed written sources, the researchers found some evidence of cinder therapy in the literature. Next, oral history was utilized as a research method to develop and maintain original historical information form memory of individuals witnessed certain historical events, although some information found was already mentioned in contemporary reports and field studies. Therefore, in general, multiple witnesses and cases for medical applications of cinder were explored. To reinforce the comments, opinions of ancient medics are referred to.Cinder was used as a medicine in multiple cases including: wounds disinfection, bleeding prevention, sour stomach reduction, pain and contusion therapy, toothache therapy, wen and warts therapy, and gum therapy. In the cases mentioned, cinder was sometimes prescribed alone and sometimes in combination with other substances. Moreover, it was sometimes emphasized to be used warm/hot to function efficiently.
    Conclusion
    however the use of cinder as a medicine in traditional Iranian medicine differs from that of traditional medicine, but with the help of ancient medicine, people can be helped in disinfect wounds, and prevent bleeding, stomach ache, pain and contusion treatment, toothache, doom and warf treatment, and gum treatment.
    Keywords: Cinder, therapy, Methods, Bleeding, Infections, Iran
  • Kamran Mahlooji, Mahsima Abdoli, Arman Zargaran * Pages 63-68

    Keeping old documents from damage is of considerable points in protecting national resources. Recently, some studies performed to find out ways of protecting manuscripts from defecting of some biologic or chemical factors. Searching through the Iranian manuscripts remain from 15th century (AD) until about the second decade of 17th century (AD), which was Contemporary with the rule of Safavid government, demonstrate a word written frequently by the writer in several parts of documents and in different forms, as “Gabigaj”, which is the name of a Persian plant belonging to Ranunculaceae family.Historical studies show ta prevalence of magic in different aspects of life through Safavid era in Iran, especially in the case of the magic usage of some plants. In this study we discuss about the magic usage of the name of the plant of “Gabigaj” in Safavid era, to protect manuscripts against fungies and insects.

    Keywords: Traditional medicine, Persian medicine, Herbal medicine, industrial fungicides
  • Ali Vatanparast * Pages 69-70