فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:3 Issue: 1, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/10/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Hamidu Usman *, Blessing Oluchukwu, Faisal Bello, Muhammad Tijjani, Kyari Sanda, Halima Umar, Sule Ibrahim Pages 1-8
    This study reports the phytochemical constituents and anti-diarrhoeal potentials of leafextracts of Corchorus olitorius Linn. (Malvaceae) and that of aerial part of Scoporia dulcis Linn. (Lantaginaceae) in rats. Samples were collected in December, 2016 from Nnewi-ichi, Nnewi, Anambra State and Mandara-Abdu, Biu- Borno State, Nigeria, respectively. The phytochemical screening of the C. olitorius and the aerial part of S. dulcis extracts were conducted using standard methods; the results revealed the presence of cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, free and combined reducing sugar and tannins. Saponins was only found in S. dulcis. The diarrhoea was induced in rats by castor oil-induced method. The rats were grouped into 3 rats of 5 groups for each extract; groups I and II served as negative and positive control, while groups III, IV and V as treatment groups. The results showed a non-dose dependent but significant (p<0.05) effects with the lowest mean number of defecations at 6.67±1.70 and 10.33±0.94; and highest protections of 75.00% and 61.27% respectively at the same dose of 300 mg/kg bd. wt. for C. olitorius and S. dulcis. Comparatively, C. olitorius showed significantly (p<0.05) low severity of diarrhoea relative to S. dulcis. Thus, it showed reduction in the faecal output and protection of the rats from diarrhoea induced by castor oil. These observed results could explain their use as anti-diarrhoeal agents in African Traditional Medicine especially in Nigeria where the plants are used.
    Keywords: Castor oil, Corchorus olitorius, diarrhoea, Extract, Rats, Scoporia dulcis
  • Adeyanju Olusola *, Joshua Ebuka Chukwu Pages 9-14
    Nutritional and structural analysis of S. mycrophylla were investigated using standard methods. Elemental analysis of the  purified  S. mycrophylla gum sample  revealed the content of potassium, sodium, calcium, manganese, magnesium, iron and zinc to be 600.0 ± 1.52 mg/g, 300.23 ± 0.2 mg/g, 0.31 ± 0.00 mg/g, 410.33 ±1.0 mg/g, 149.6 ± 4.60, 8.7±0.00 mg/g and 61.1±0.22 mg/g respectively. Gum had high content of potassium, sodium, magnesium and zinc and lower concentration of calcium, manganese and iron. Proximate analysis shows moisture content to be 5.70 ± 0.15%, Ash content 2.80±0.05%, Protein content 1.43 ± 0.01%, crude fiber 4.30 ± 0.01%, and crude fat 1.50. ± 0.03%, and carbohydrate 85.98±1.10%. These results compared favorably with acacia senegal gum (gum arabic) and makes this exudate gum highly recommendable for use in food and pharmaceutical industries. NMR spectroscopy revealed that the gum is a galactomannan type polysaccharide with mannose/ galactose ratio of 2.60. Due to its good physicochemical properties and mannose/ galactose ratio, Sweitenia mycrophylla galactomannan could be a useful polysaccharide for food and pharmaceutical industry.
    Keywords: Sweitenia mycrophylla, exudate gum, Food additive, excipient, NMR
  • Mehdi Tavancheh, Asadollah Beiraghi * Pages 15-23
    A simple, rapid, and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of selenium (IV) based on the formation of a 1:2 complex with 4,5-diamino-o-xylene (DAX) as a new sensitive and selective chromogenic reagent is developed. The DAX reacts with selenium (IV) in the presence of citric acid to form a complex in the pH range of 1.0 2.2. The experimental conditions for determining selenium including the influences of pH, reagent concentration and time were evaluated and optimized. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the molar absorptivity of the complex was 1.27×104 L/mol–1 cm–1 at 340 nm. Beer's law is obeyed in the range of 1≃12 µg/mL–1. The limits of detection and quantization were 0.948 µg mL-1 and 3.16 µg/mL-1 respectively. The interfering effect of some cations and anions was also studied. This method can be applied to the direct and easy determination of selenium species as organic, inorganic, Se(VI) and Se(IV) in a variety of real samples.
    Keywords: 4, 5-Diamino-o-xylene (DAX), Spectrophotometry, Selenium (IV), Selenium (VI)
  • Naglaa Mahmoud Mohamed, Yousry Moustafa Issa, Nabila Shehata Mohamed, Hussein Shaban Mohamed *, Sayed Abdelkader Ahmed Pages 24-35
    The evaluation of oxomemazine hydrochloride (OXCl) prepared in carbon paste electrodes is reported in detail. There are many practical techniques and experiments for electrode preparation one of them is mixing of the ion-pair with ion pairing agent. Prepared  electrodes gave satisfactory data in ranging from (0.018 to 18.35) mg based on Nernstian cationic slopes, the used electrodes refer to the standard data obtained at (slope 58.7±2.1 mV decade-1) by using sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) and rapid response time equal to 15 s and lifetime approximately equal to (4 weeks). The prepared electrodes can be counted as end point indicator electrode for potentiometric titration of oxomemazine Hydrochloride OXCl resulting in a high percentage of accuracy.
    Keywords: Oxomemazine hydrochloride, Carbon paste electrodes, Oils
  • Abdul Wasif Shaikh *, Sarika Deokar, Khudbudin Mulani, Nayaku Chavan, Chelanattu Raman Rajan, Surendra Ponrathnam Pages 36-48
    Polymeric monoliths based on acrylonitrile-divinyl benzene were synthesized successfully by high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) polymerization. Highly porous polyHIPEs were prepared by variation in oil to water ratio as well as type and concentration of porogens. The porogens  evaluated were toluene, chlorobenzene, heptane and chloroform. The effect of oil to water ratio and porogen type and concentrations on morphology and surface area of polyHIPEs were investigated. The polyHIPEs were modified to amidoxime functionality by treating base catalyzed reaction with hydroxylamine hydrochloride in presence of base. The treated and modified polymeric monoliths were characterized by FT-IR, SEM and surface area analysis. The modified porous polyHIPEs were tested for adsorption of Cr(VI) metal ions at various pH.
    Keywords: PolyHIPEs, Amidoxime, Chromium (VI), Adsorption Isotherms
  • Kiumars Hashemi Fard *, Mojtaba Shafiee Pages 49-57
    In this study, the economical value of flared gases in gas phase 12 gas refinery was investigated. The economy itself has been examined from two perspectives. The first view on the conversion of fired gases to electrical energy and its revenue generation using the McLaren method. In the second view, the volume of flared gases is equivalent to the amount of gas consumed in industries, households and exports. According to the results, the gross profit from flaring gas to electric energy was $ 123,125 per year. The volume of flared gases was equivalent to the consumption volume of power plants at 0.77%, the equivalent of 3.3%, the consumption volume of the industries was 1.24%, and the domestic and commercial consumption was 0.3%, and it should be noted. Carried out in 2017 and 2018.
    Keywords: Flare gas, Economic value, Electrical Energy, equivalent volume
  • Mehdi Nabati *, Vida Bodaghi Namileh Pages 58-69

    In this study, the electronic properties of the novel medicinal compound 3-(1,3-dioxoisoindolin-2-yl) benzyl nitrate as a treatment of sickle cell disease are obtained using density functional theory (DFT) method. In first step, the molecular structure of the title compound is optimized at B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory at room temperature. Then, its stability and reactivity properties are calculated by frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) energies. The global reactivity indices show this medicinal molecule is a more stable compound and the nitrogen atom of the nitrate group has positive charge. So, the nitrate group can quit nitric oxide molecule in binding to Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) enzyme. On the other hand, the docking analysis of the ligand-enzyme complex shows the steric interactions play the main role in this complex formation. Also, the data shows the PDE5 residues containing Phe [A] 820, Gln [A] 817, Ile [A] 768, Val [A] 782, Gln [A] 775, Phe [A] 786, Ile [A] 778, Leu [A] 765, Met [A] 816, Ala [A] 767 and Tyr [A] 612 play main role in the ligand-enzyme complex formation.

    Keywords: Benzyl nitrate, Molecular docking, Molecular Simulation, Phosphodiesterase-5, Sickle cell disease
  • Fawad Ahmad * Pages 70-93

    Research in the area of electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 to value-added products has grown briskly in the past few decades. This is due to the increasing amount of CO2 in the atmosphere and a steady rise in global fuel demand. Serious efforts are urgently needed to minimize to CO2 emission and enhance sources of global energy demand. Electrochemical reduction (ECR) of CO2 is considered to be the best solution which not only reduces the increasing CO2 accumulation but also produces valuable fuels and chemicals. Sluggish kinetics, high over potential, low selectivity, low durability and competitive side reactions are the focal issues, to overcome these problems an efficient electrocatalyst is needed. Here in this mini review we had tried to discuss the fundamental factors that greatly influences catalytic activity of the catalyst in the light of updated experimental and computational data, which include size, crystal plane, grain boundary, metal metal-oxide interface and finally a brief note on metal free catalyst and future perspective of ECR of CO2.

    Keywords: Electrochemical Reduction, nanomaterial, metal free catalyst, ECR CO2, metal alloys, value-added products
  • Ogbuneke Christian Chika, Ezeibeanu Amara Prince * Pages 94-104
    The analysis of heavy metals in drinking water from different sources in Lagos state, Nigeria were determined with a view of comparing the effects of level of Industrialization, population density and urbanization on the water quality in the centre of Lagos and off town of Lagos (Ikorodu LGA, a relatively less Industrialized and less Urbanized town of Lagos state) as a case study. The different sources of drinking water considered were wells, boreholes, surface water and tap water. In each of Lagos and Ikorodu. The heavy metals were analysed; Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, Cr, Zn, Na, Ni, Mg and Ca using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Perkin-Elmer 305B model with air-acetylene flame).  The results show that Pb, Ni, and Mg values exceeded the permissible limits set by WHO, EU and NIS for all the samples from all the sources in all study area while Fe has values above the standards set by all the regulatory bodies in Ikorodu boreholes (i.e. 1.804 mg/L) but all other sources as well as all Lagos samples have values of Fe within the permissible limits (0.2-0.3 mg/L) and this could be traced to the geology of the area. Cu, Zn, Na, Cr, and Ca all have higher values in Lagos centre samples than in Ikorodu samples but are all within the permissible limits. Cd was not detected in any of the samples at all.
    Keywords: Comparative, Quality, Standards, Water, borehole, Well
  • Kadam Tadzabia, Blessed Jen Dimas * Pages 105-110
    The elemental contents of Ficus sycomorus, Celtis interifolia, Balanites eagyptiaca, Vitex doniana and Haemtostaphis barteri leaves were investigated from Hong Local Government Area of Adamawa state. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) was used to determine the elemental level in the plants. For essential elements, sodium was recorded highest in the plant investigated followed by potassium, magnesium and calcium. Zinc was observed highest in Ficus sycomorus followed by Haematostaphis barteri, Vitex doniana. Balanites eagyptisca and Celtis integrifolia. The concentration of copper was recorded highest in Vitex doniana. The levels of cadmium in the plants are in the order: Haematostaphis bareri > Balanites eagyptiaca > Vitex doniana > Ficus sycomorus > Celtis integrifolia. Lead was below the detectable limit of the analytical method used. The elemental compositions of the plants were within the recommended safety limit of WHO, except for cadmium which was slightly above the recommended level.
    Keywords: Element, edible plants, total means, safety, consume