فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:8 Issue: 2, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/02/17
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Seyed AmirHosein Hoseini, Mostafa Ghaderi *, Alireza Gholami, Seyed Dawood Mousavi Nasab, Payam Purnoor, MohammadHassan Firouzjani, Nasrin Gharenaz, Ava Asadi, Maryam Fazeli, Nayebali Ahmadi Page 1

    Up to now, several attenuated measles virus vaccine strains derived from the Edmonston B vaccine consisting of Schwarz/Moraten, Zagreb, and AIK-C have been introduced for the rescue of their relative viruses through reverse genetics. In most studies, the measles virus rescue was done by supplying a cell line that expresses T7 RNA polymerase and measles virus N and P proteins as accessory proteins. The present study aimed to evaluate the rescue efficiency of the recombinant measles virus AIK-C vaccine strain by using a tricistronic expression plasmid. In this study, the rescue of the recombinant measles virus AIK-C vaccine strain was performed by co-transfection of three plasmids, including the cloned antigenomic cDNA of measles virus, a tricistronic expression plasmid that contained T7 RNA polymerase and measles virus N and P genes, and measles virus L polymerase expression plasmid. To increase the rescue efficiency, the transfected HEK-293 cells were co-cultured with Vero cells. As a result, the use of tricistronic expression plasmid that concomitantly encoded three necessary genes for the rescue of the measles virus led to the viral cytopathic effect with high efficacy five days post-transfection. Finally, the co-culture of transfected HEK-293 cells with Vero cells showed a relatively fast induction of viral cytopathic effect.

    Keywords: Cytopathic Effect, AIK-C Strain, T7 RNA Polymerase, Measles Virus, Reverse Genetic
  • Abas Solgi, Abdollah Karimi, Shahnaz Armin * Page 2
    Background

    Several surveys have been conducted on the seroprevalence of viral infections caused by Chikungunya and West Nile viruses in humans. However, there is a paucity of studies on the seroprevalence and spread of these viruses in children.

    Objectives

    We aimed to investigate the seropositivity of IgG antibodies against Chikungunya and West Nile viruses in a group of Iranian children aged one month to 14 years.

    Methods

    A cross-sectional study was performed on blood samples collected from children aged one month to 14 years in Tehran who attended the outpatient clinics of a children’s hospital from March to December 2018. The serum IgG levels against Chikungunya and West Nile viruses were assessed using the ELISA technique.

    Results

    Of 180 serum samples assessed for positivity, four (three from boys and one from girls) had positive IgG for Chikungunya and 11 (seven from boys and four from girls) had positive IgG for West Nile, causing overall seropositivity of 2.2% and 6.1% for Chikungunya and West Nile infections, respectively. Moreover, Chikungunya and West Nile viruses showed no significant association between seropositivity and sex. High seropositivity was observed predominantly in the age groups of below two years and over 10 years in Chikungunya and West Nile infections, respectively. However, the difference was not significant (P-value > 0.05). In the age group of one month to two years, all cases with positive IgG were less than six-month-old.

    Conclusions

    The results of the seroprevalence of Chikungunya and West Nile viruses among children in Tehran showed the prevalence of these viral infections in this region. Therefore, these infections should be considered in the differential diagnosis for children with clinical symptoms of viral diseases.

    Keywords: Seroprevalence, Virus, Chikungunya, West Nile
  • Rostam Pourmousa, Fatemeh Varshoi, Mehdi Nikkhah, Parisa Ebrahimzadeh, Shaghayegh Rezai, Nasim Ahmadi, Fatemeh Hosseinzadeh, AliAsghar Nadi Ghara, MohammadSadegh Rezai* Page 3
    Background

     Adenotonsillar hypertrophy (ATH) is a common problem in children that causes the obstruction of airways and other relevant complications. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is considered one of the microbial causes of ATH development.

    Objectives

     The study aimed to determine the H. pylori colonization in patients with adenotonsillar hypertrophy and assess the prevalence and clinical characteristics of colonized patients and possible association with complications.

    Methods

     This study was carried out on 114 children with ATH referring to the Bouali Hospital of Sari from December 2017 to December 2018. Adenotonsillar samples were prepared from the right and left tonsils and adenoid of each patient. The Rapid Urease test (RUT) and nested-PCR were performed on the samples. Data analysis was performed with SPSS version 20 software.

    Results

     The participants included 52 females and 62 males with a mean age of 7.19 ± 3.08 years. The RUT was positive for 59 participants: 26 in right tonsil, 31 in left tonsil, and two in adenoid samples. Helicobacter pylori was detected in the adenotonsillar tissue of 95 patients using nested-PCR. No significant association was found between the PCR results and gender (P = 0.123).

    Conclusions

     This study approved the presence of H. pylori in the adenotonsillar tissue of children with ATH and highlighted the concept that the pharynx could be an extra gastric reservoir of H. pylori. However, we failed to prove an association between H. pylori adenotonsillar colonization with ATH and acute otitis media.

    Keywords: Polymerase Chain Reaction, Helicobacter pylori, Hypertrophy, Palatine Tonsil
  • Jayashree Rajasekaran, Sangeetha Geminiganesan *, Dinesh Kumar Jayapalan, Ramachandran Padmanaban, Vaishnavi Saminathan Page 4
    Objectives

     This study aimed to estimate serum zinc levels in children with pneumonia according to the WHO criteria and compare them with age-, sex-, and nutrition-matched controls.

    Methods

     The study was carried out in a pediatric tertiary care hospital from September 2014 to July 2016 after obtaining approval from the Institutional Ethics Committee. Children between 1 to 59 months of age admitted with pneumonia according to the WHO criteria were included as the case group (n = 50) and other non-pneumonia cases as the control group (n = 50). Various etiologies were analyzed, such as pneumonia, severe pneumonia, bronchiolitis, and viral infection-associated wheezing based on clinical and X-ray findings. Blood samples were collected for zinc estimation in both case and control groups. All children were investigated and treated as per our unit protocol for the particular condition.

    Results

     Serum zinc level was significantly low in the case group (n- 31; 62%) compared to the control group (n- 9; 18%). The mean zinc level in the case group was 60.36 ± 29.23, and that of the control group was 80.54 ± 25.70, with a significant P value of 0.001.

    Conclusions

     Serum zinc levels were significantly lower in children with pneumonia when compared to their age-, sex-, and nutrition-matched controls.

    Keywords: Pneumonia, Bronchiolitis, Zinc, Acute Respiratory Tract Infection
  • Peiman Nasri, Zahra Adibmajlesi, Hamid Rahimi, Hossein Saneian, Fatemeh Famouri, Majid Khademian, Morteza Jafarinia, Fereshteh Alsahebfosoul* Page 5
    Background

    Kawasaki Disease (KD) is an acute systemic vasculitis that generally affects children. Patients with KD do not show all typical clinical symptoms of the disease.

    Objectives

    Considering various studies in diagnosing the gastrointestinal symptoms of KD and the lack of similar studies in Iran, we aimed to investigate the frequency of gastrointestinal problems in patients with KD who referred to Imam Hossein hospital of Isfahan from 2012 to 2017.

    Methods

    In a retrospective cross-sectional study, we examined the medical records of all 1 - 14-year-old patients with KD who were hospitalized from 2012 to 2017. The inclusion criteria included patients with a definite diagnosis of complete or incomplete KD, a hospitalization record in Imam Hossein children hospital, and no other systemic disorders. In the case of incomplete information, the patient’s record was excluded from the study.

    Results

    A considerable percentage of KD patients presented with the complaint of gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain (17.4%), diarrhea (16.9%), and vomiting (28.9%). None of the patients had fecal occult blood or abnormal stool examination and evidence of pancreatitis.

    Conclusions

    The most prevalent gastrointestinal symptoms were vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. If the diagnosis of KD is made early in KD patients complaining of gastrointestinal symptoms, unnecessary diagnostic procedures will be omitted, and the economic burden will be reduced on society and family.

    Keywords: Abdominal Pain, Kawasaki Disease, Gastrointestinal Symptoms
  • Michail Shchelkanov, Tatyana Moskvina *, Yulia Nesterova, Galina Zakjarova, Khomichuk Tatyana, Irina Galkina, Marina Kiseleva Page 6
    Background

     Toxocariasis is a zoonotic parasitosis with worldwide distribution. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs is a main source of human infections. In Russia, particular in Vladivostok, knowledge regarding the current situation, including distribution and environmental contamination by Toxocara spp., is largely unknown.

    Objectives

     The present study investigated environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs, in soil samples collected from sandpits and public parks in Vladivostok, Russia during 23-month period.

    Methods

     A total of 260 soil samples from sandpits and 155 samples from public parks were collected during July 2015 to December 2017. Soil samples were tested by sedimentation/flotation technique. Seroprevalence of Toxocara antibody in human was analyzed using Toxocara canis IgG ELISA assay.

    Results

     Overall, the annual prevalence of Toxocara spp. in sandpits varied between 20% - 23% the annual prevalence of Toxocara spp. in public parks varied between 25% - 42% in different years. The average number of Toxocara spp. varied from 0 to 220 eggs per 1 kg over the 3-years study period. The highest prevalence was registered in summer period. The significant correlation appeared between Toxocara spp. contamination rates in sandboxes and parks and the Toxocara prevalence in humans in 2016 year.

    Conclusions

     Current study demonstrates that it is necessary to promote preventive public health measures to avoid soil contamination.

    Keywords: Prevalence, Public Health, Zoonosis, Toxocara canis
  • bdollah Karimi, Sedigheh Rafiei Tabatabaei *, Maryam Rajabnejad, Zahra Pourmoghaddas, Hamid Rahimi, Shahnaz Armin, Roxana Mansour Ghanaie, MohammadRahim Kadivar, Seyed Alireza Fahimzad, Iraj Sedighi, Bahador Mirrahimi, Anahita Sanaei Dashti, Nemat Bilan, Shahram Abdoli Oskouyi, Hamed Barekati, Mitra Khalili Page 7

    After the outbreak of 2019 novel corona virus infection in China, we have the outbreak of disease in Iran and until March 05, 2020 have been reported a total number of confirmed cases more than 3500 and approximately 3.3% deaths. The corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection as a newly emerging disease in East Asia has caused a great challenge in managing the patients and controlling the disease especially in children. This algorithm is based on the standard diagnosis and treatment strategies for pediatric viral infections and available strategies to prevention of COVID-19 infection. It is hoped that with international co-operation, this global dilemma will end with the least burden of disease. Due to the lack of scientific evidences in children, this algorithm is essential for decision making.

    Keywords: Diagnosis, Treatment, Algorithmic Approach, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2
  • Alisha Akya, Mosayeb Rostamian, Shahab Rezaeian, Mahnaz Ahmadi, Maryam Janatolmakan, Seyed Amirabbas Sharif, Amir Ahmadi, Sajad Weisi, Roya Chegene Lorestani * Page 8

    Context:

     Sepsis is one of the most common causes of neonatal mortality, especially in developing countries. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the bacterial causative agents of neonatal sepsis and their antibiotic susceptibility in Iran.

    Material and Methods

     We searched all previously published papers to gather related information on Iranian neonatal sepsis in international and national databases (in both Persian and English) from 2006 to 2018. The standard STROBE checklist was used for quality assessment. The data were analyzed by statistical methods with a random-effects model using Stata 14 software.

    Results

     A total of 89,472 neonates with sepsis (presented in 17 studies) were included in this systematic review. The mortality rate of neonates was 28.0%. The proportions of neonatal sepsis caused by Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria were 66.0% and 33.0%, respectively. The most common bacteria causing neonatal sepsis were Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram-negative) and coagulase-negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive).

    Conclusions

     Gram-negative bacteria are the most common causes of neonatal sepsis in Iran. Imipenem is the most effective antibiotic against Gram-negative bacilli and vancomycin against Gram-positive cocci causing neonatal sepsis in Iran

    Keywords: Iran, Neonates, Septicemia, Antibiotic Susceptibility