فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 34 (بهار و تابستان 1399)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/02/17
  • تعداد عناوین: 13
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  • مرتضی بالار، حمیدرضا فرضی*، رستم امانی استمال صفحات 9-28

    فرایند فردیت از دیدگاه یونگ نوعی پختگی و رشد روانی انسان است که در طی آن مرکز شخصیت از «من» به «خود» منتقل می شود و از آن جایی که آثار ادبی به دلیل غنای درونی و نشات گرفته از ناخودآگاه جمعی،در کالبد انباشته از سمبل ها و استعاره ها،ساختارهای خودآگاه و ناخودآگاه، خواننده را در خود درگیر می سازد و خواه و ناخواه تحلیل کهن الگویی متن ادبی را می طلبد. در این مقاله سعی شده است منظومه ی «گل و نوروز» خواجوی کرمانی به روش توصیفی- تحلیلی بر اساس نظریه تفرد یونگ مورد نقد و بررسی قرار گیرد.سفر نوروز به سوی روم که در واقع نمادی از جست وجوی وی در روند فردیت روانی است و با اولین تکانه عشق به سوی روم شروع می شود، اساس داستان این منظومه را پی ریزی می کند و قهرمان داستان که در آغاز شاهزاده ای جوان و بی تجربه بود با فعال شدن کهن الگوی آنیما و ارسال فراخوان پیوستگی و یگانگی به قلمرو خودآگاه روان قهرمان، روند فردیت یابی وی آغاز می شود و با هدایت پیرخردمند، گذر از مشکلات و سایه های درون و انعطاف پذیری پرسونا، بین خودآگاه و ناخودآگاه وی هماهنگی ایجاد شده و در نهایت فرایند فردیت و خودشناسی را با موفقیت به پایان می رساند.

    کلیدواژگان: یونگ، فرایند فردیت، کهن الگوها، مثنوی گل و نوروز
  • مهری پاکزاد*، مالک شعاعی صفحات 29-46

    معماری رابطه استواری با ادبیات و هنرهای زیبا دارد. بی تردید همان طور که شعر به عنوان بخش عظیمی از ادبیات ایران، نقش و تاثیر بسزایی در معماری سنتی ایران ایفا کرده است، متقابلا هنر معماری نیز در ادب پارسی جایگاه ویژه ای دارد؛ در این مقاله به بررسی و کاربرد ادبی واژه های «معمار و معماری» در شعر پرداخته شده است. این تحقیق به شیوه نظری و کمی، دیوان شعرای کلاسیک فارسی از هزار سال پیش تا جامی را جامعه ی آماری خود قرار داده و پاسخ این پرسش را تبیین می کند؛ که آیا واژه های معمار و معماری در شعر پارسی کاربردی داشته و شیوه کاربرد و قدمت آن به چه دوره ای برمی گردد ؟ توجه شعرا به ساخت ترکیب های تشبیهی و استعاری، نمادها و سایر صورخیال از دو واژه مورد بحث این حقیقت را تبیین می سازد که هنر معماری چون رکنی استوار در اتحاد و پیوند خود با سایر ارکان، تمدن و فرهنگ ایرانی را ساخته و پی ریزی کرده است. یافتن این واژه ها در شعر از قدمت این هنر فنی نیز حکایت دارد و در شناخت و بازشناسی و بازنشانی معادل های کهن معمار که واژه ای عربی است معادل های فارسی آن مانند مهندس(engineer) معرب اندازه گیرنده و اندازیار، سازنده و استاد را پیشنهاد کند.

    کلیدواژگان: معمار، معماری، شعر، صورخیال، کاربرد
  • سمانه جعفری*، محمد عالی زاده مرشت صفحات 47-66

    کشف ساختار یک اثر، نقشی برجسته در دستیابی به مضمون و محتوا و لایه‏های پنهان معنایی آن دارد. بسیاری از اساطیر، افسانه‏ها، قصه‎های پریان و روایاتی با درونمایه نمادین، دارای ساختارهایی نظام‎مند و نمادین هستند که اعدد و اشکال و نگاره‏ها در آنها کاربردی برجسته دارند. از جمله این متون، منظومه خسرو و شیرین نظامی است که روایتگر داستانی تاریخی است که به افسانه‏ها پیوسته و از این روی دارای مضامین و مفاهیم نمادین و کهن‎الگویی است و باید به دنبال ساختاری نمادین در آن بود؛ ساختاری که اشکالی چون: ماندالا، مربع و مثلث که ارتباطی برجسته با اعداد دو و سه و چهار دارد، زیربنای اصلی حرکت و چینش و گزینش اشخاص و عناصر داستانی را معین می‏کند. در این مقاله به چگونگی ارتباط و نقش اعداد و معانی نمادین منظومه، به روش تحلیل و توصیف متن پاسخ داده می شود. نتیجه بررسی نشان می دهد که در این اثر، حرکت قهرمان روایت، حرکتی ماندالایی است که آغاز و پایان آن در جغرافیای داستان یکی است و در پایان این ماندالای چهارتو، چهارگوشه‏ای وعده داده شده، جایگزین مربع آشفته آغاز داستان می‎شود و به تعبیری روانشناختی، خسروپرویز به فرایند فردیت روانی دست می‎یابد

    کلیدواژگان: نظامی گنجوی، خسرو و شیرین، ماندالا، مربع، اعداد
  • زینب خرم آبادی آرانی، سید محمد راستگو*، سعید خیرخواه برزکی صفحات 67-86

    شاعران معاصر به منظور ژرفا بخشیدن دیدگاه های شاعرانه خویش و تاثیر گذاشتن شعر بر مخاطب به گونه های متفاوتی از متون سنتی بهره برده اند؛ متونی که به حوزه سنت دینی، ادبی، اسطوره ای و فولکولوریک وابسته است و با کارکردی تاثیرگذار، میراث گذشتگان را با ساختی تازه در اختیار امروزیان قرار می دهد. این منابع و خاستگاه ها که «میراث متنی» نامیده شده اند؛ پشتوانه فرهنگی یک شاعر و بستر مناسبی برای باروری سروده های او می باشند. بهره گیری از این متون در بلاغت سنتی با نام های مختلفی مثل: «تضمین»، «تلمیح»، «اقتباس» مورد بحث قرار گرفته و امروزه با نام «بینامتنیت» یکی از مباحث مهم نقد ادبی است. صفارزاده از شاعران معاصر است که از ادبیات کهن و کلاسیک فارسی بهره های فراوانی برده است و علاوه بر شاعری، مترجم قرآن کریم و نهج البلاغه است و همین تاثیرپذیری وی از متون دینی به ویژه قرآن را بیشتر نشان می دهد. پژوهش حاضر با روش توصیفی- تحلیلی به این سوال اصلی پاسخ داده است که میزان بهره گیری صفارزاده از میراث متنی به چه اندازه و چگونه است؟ یافته ها نشان می دهد که وی با توجه به آشنایی با متون دینی و ادبی، سروده های خویش را عمق و غنا بخشیده و بر همین پایه شعر او سرشار از متون دینی و اسطوره ای است.

    کلیدواژگان: بینامتنیت، ادبیات معاصر، طاهره صفارزاده، میراث متنی
  • مهرنوش دژم، محمود حسن آبادی*، محمد علی محمودی صفحات 87-102

    رنج و دلتنگی ناشی از دوری از سرزمین محبوب به صورت واگویه یا اعتراض در ادبیات فارسی نمودار شده است. نوستالژی به شکل بازگشت به خاطرات گذشته و فرافکنی غم غربت در شعر و داستان دوران زندان و تبعید شاعران و نویسندگان فارسی زبان، رنگ برجسته ای دارد. از این میان رمان ریالیستی معاصر دربردارنده خاطرات نویسندگان تبعید شده است که با عناصر تاریخی، سیاسی و اجتماعی گره خورده است. احمد محمود به عنوان نویسنده واقع گرای اقلیم جنوب که حوادث رمان هایش روایت زندگی خود و دیگر مردمان پیرامون اوست، در دوره ای از زندگی مبارزاتی خود پس از کودتای 28 مرداد به بندر لنگه تبعید می شود. رمان داستان یک شهر حاصل این دوره از زندگی اوست. پژوهش حاضر به دنبال پاسخ به این پرسش است که عناصر و کارکردهای نوستالژی ناشی از دوران تبعید در این رمان چگونه نمود یافته است؟ و در نهایت با بهره گیری از روش توصیفی تحلیلی این نتایج حاصل شدهاست: داستان یک شهر نمود نوستالژیک تبعید با همه عناصر کهن و مدرن آن است و اساس نگارش رمان، نوستالژی می باشد. در این اثر بعد فردی و اجتماعی نوستالژی در هم تنیده است و نویسنده نشان می دهد که چگونه آرمان گرایی در یک حکومت خودکامه، منجر به دلسردی می شود

    کلیدواژگان: نوستالژی، احمد محمود، تبعید، داستان یک شهر
  • آمنه دهقانی، واثق عباسی*، محمد امیر مشهدی صفحات 103-122

    جنبش مدرنیسم که از آن به نوگرایی یاد می شود از نیمه دوم سده نوزدهم در فرانسه پدید آمد و به سرعت راه خود را به سایر کشورهای جهان گشود. شعر ایران نیز در دوره مشروطه با نوجویی های شاعرانی چند به سوی تغییر و تحول پیش رفت، اما تاریخ ادبیات مدرن رسما از نیما آغاز گردید و بعد از آن شاگردانش هر کدام به شیوه ای راه او را ادامه دادند. احمدرضا احمدی پرچم دار موج نو و یدالله رویایی بنیانگذار شعر حجم از اصلی ترین چهره های شاخص مدرن معرفی می گردند که از دهه چهل با تاثیرپذیری از مکاتب ادبی غرب و فضای باز نسبتا سیاسی و اجتماعی راه تازه ای را در عرصه شعر پیش گرفتند و در پی سنت شکنی بر آمدند. پژوهش حاضر هدفش پاسخ به این پرسش است که آیا اشعار احمدی و رویایی آثاری مدرن به شمار می آیند و طبق نظریات مدرنیسم اطلاق صفت مدرن بر آنها جایز است؟ یافته های این پژوهش که به روش تحلیل محتوا و با استفاده از ابزار کتابخانه ای انجام شده است، نشان می دهد؛ معیارهای مدرنیستی هم در فرم شعر و هم در محتوا به صورت برجسته ای نمود یافته است، به گونه ای که می توان این دو را از شاعران مدرنیست معاصر ایران به حساب آورد.

    کلیدواژگان: مدرنیسم، موج نو، جریان حجم، احمدرضا احمدی، یدالله رویایی
  • مسلم ذوالفقارخانی* صفحات 123-142

    شاید بتوان جدی ترین بحث های نقد فمنیستی در زبان فارسی را در شعر فروغ فرخزاد یافت. او نخستین شاعری است که احساسات زنانه خود را آزادانه تر از دیگران بیان کرده و زبان و اندیشه او کاملا زنانه، لطیف، پاک، و بی آلایش است و همچنین هیچ‏کس چون او، نتوانسته زندگی زن معاصر ایرانی را چنین در شعر خود به تصویر کشاند. این مقاله می کوشد تا نگرش اصالت زن-طبیعت را در شعر فروغ فرخزاد بازیابی و واکاوی نماید، از این رو «هستی شناسی طبیعت»، «فصول و گردش ایام»، «عناصر چهارگانه»، «درخت و گیاه»، و «موجودات زمینی و آسمانی» در پیوند با زبان و اندیشه فروغ فرخزاد مورد کنکاش قرار گرفته است. مقاله حاضر سعی بر آن دارد تا به این پرسش پاسخ دهد که در شعر و افکار شاعر، مفاهیم طبیعت گرایانه تا چه اندازه بازتاب داشته است و فروغ فرخزاد به‏عنوان شاعری زن به طبیعت چگونه می‏نگریسته است؟ بنابراین بررسی اصالت زن-طبیعت در شعر فروغ فرخزاد گامی است جهت کنکاش در اندیشه‏ها و آراء یکی از شاعران معاصر زن و شعرهای طبیعت‏گرایانه وی. روش تحقیق به‏کاررفته در این پژوهش از نوع توصیفی-تحلیلی می‏باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: فروغ فرخزاد، فمنیسم، اصالت زن-طبیعت، نقد ادبی
  • فاطمه رفعت خواه، مهیار علوی مقدم* صفحات 143-164

    ژاک فونتنی، نشانه - معناشناس مشهور فرانسوی در کتاب نشانه- معناشناسی و ادبیات ،تعریف جدیدی از مفهوم زاویه دید ارایه می دهد. وی مدل خود را که بر مبنای انتخاب دو کنش گر اساسی در زاویه دید، یعنی کنش گرهای موقعیت گرا که تعیین کننده منبع و مقصد زاویه دید هستند، طراحی کرده است. دراین پژوهش با بهره گیری از ابزار کتابخانه ای و براساس تحلیل داده ها به روش کیفی وروش استدلالی استقرایی، مدل فونتتی باهدف مشخص شدن نقش و اهمیت زاویه دید وکارکردهای آن و پاسخ به این سوال که آیا گزینش زاویه دیدهای متفاوت در منظومه ورقه و گلشاه از سوی گوینده، بر القای معانی متفاوت به مخاطب و نیز برجسته کردن ابعاد مختلف روایت، کارآمد است؟ بررسی می شود. نتیجه پژوهش نشان می دهد دراین منظومه، شاعر، به منظور القای معانی مختلف به مخاطب، به صورت ترکیبی در بخش های مختلف گفتمان اززاویه دیدهای جهان شمول 8 بار، تسلسلی36 بار، گزینشی4 بار ، جزءنگر 13 بار، موازی 40 بار و رقابتی 3 بار با جنبه های زیبایی شناختی متفاوتی از نشانه ها بهره گرفته است. از آن روی که ورقه و گلشاه منظومه ای حماسی است کاربرد زاویه دید موازی در آن بیشتر است، زیرا در این منظومه ها، مهم ترین عامل حرکت ساز داستان گفت و گوی شخصیت هاست.

    کلیدواژگان: نشانه - معناشناسی، ژاک فونتنی، زاویه دید، ورقه و گلشاه
  • ابوذر قاسمی آرانی، یحیی معروف*، علی سلیمی، شهریار همتی صفحات 165-184

    زبان همواره محملی برای ظهور باورهای ذهنی، تفکرات و احساسات درونی شاعران بوده است. در این میان زنان شاعر با احساسات، عواطف و زبان زنانه موفق به خلق ادبیات زنانه شده اند. «سعیده بنت خاطر» شاعره برجسته عمانی است که توانسته با کاربرد زبان، جهانی زنانه را در شعر خویش خلق کند و به تحولات عمیقی در حوزه زبان شعری زنانه دست یابد. پژوهش حاضر با هدف شناسایی یکی از پیشگامان شعر زنانه عمان، با تحلیل سیر تحولی ادبیات زنانه در شعر عربی؛ زبان زنانه این شاعر را در دو سطح واژگانی و نحوی، با روش توصیفی- تحلیلی بررسی می کند و  به این سوال اصلی پاسخ داده است که  بنت خاطر برای القای چه مفاهیمی از زبان زنانه استفاده کرده است؟ یافته ها نشان می دهد که وی از واژگان زنانه برای بیان مقاصد مختلفی مانند: مخالفت با اندیشه ی مردسالار، بیان مفاهیم دینی و بیان احساسات بهره گرفته است؛ دلی مالامال از تبعیض و نابرابری حقوق زنان در جامعه عربی دارد و اثرات این تفکر فمنیستی در جای جای اشعارش به چشم می خورد. همچنین شاعر از ساختار نحوی زبان زنانه با گفتاری قاطع برای بیان مقاصد سیاسی، اجتماعی خویش بهره می گیرد.

    کلیدواژگان: زبان زنانه- شعر معاصر- عمان- سعیده بنت خاطرالفارسی
  • راضیه کارآمد*، حسین میرزایی نیا صفحات 185-202

    وطن دوستی امری طبیعی است و از این امر، در آثار و اشعار شعرا و نویسندگان معاصر به شیوه های گوناگون یاد شده است. این مقاله به شیوه تطبیقی و بر مبنای مکتب امریکایی، دیدگاه دو شاعر؛ احمد شاملو -شاعر پارسی گوی- و نزار قبانی - شاعر عرب-  را تحلیل می کند تا به پاسخ این پرسش برسد که چه تفاوت ها و شباهت های فکری در خصوص وطن در شعر این دو شاعر وجود دارد؟ در فراز و نشیب زندگی اجتماعی و ادبی این دو شاعر، وجوه اشتراک متعددی وجود دارد که باعث همسانی این مفهوم در بیان آنان شده است. این دو شاعر، عشق به وطن را در اشعار خود مطرح کرده و از شهرهای مختلف نام برده اند و به فردایی بهتر و روشن تر برای وطن خویش امید دارند. هر دو شاعر طعم غربت و دوری از وطن را چشیده و این حس را در شعر خود منعکس کرده اند. نزار از این که وطن بزرگش به اجزاء کوچک تر تقسیم شده و از شکوه پیشینش چیزی باقی نمانده احساس شرم می کند و شاملو برخلاف نزار، عشق آسمانی به وطن را با عشق زمینی درهم نمی آمیزد.

    کلیدواژگان: نزار قبانی، احمد شاملو، وطن، امید
  • فاطمه موسوی ثابت، مریم خلیلی جهانتیغ*، محمد بارانی صفحات 203-226

    نظریه  استعاره مفهومی، برای اولین بار در آراء دو زبانشناس معروف، "جورج لیکاف" و" مارک جانسون" مطرح شد. طبق این نظریه، اساسا ذهن انسان برای درک هر مفهوم انتزاعی، به صورت ناخودآگاه و غیر ارادی به شکل استعاری عمل می کند. یکی از مفاهیم انتزاعی که انسان از ابتدای زندگی قادر به درک آن می باشد، مفهوم عشق است. این مقاله  با روش توصیفی- تحلیلی در صدد پاسخگویی به این پرسش است که مفهوم عشق درکتاب"کاش حرفی بزنی" با کدام تجربه های حوزه های مبدا بیان شده است؟ بنابر تحلیل های انجام شده، شاعر با شناخت صحیح از ویژگی ها و نیازها و تجربیات دوره نوجوانی، اقدام به انتخاب حوزه های مفهومی آشنا و قابل درک برای مخاطب خویش نموده است. عشق به خدا، والدین و عشق های انسانی از موضوعات مطرح شده در این اثرند. علاوه بر آن، رحماندوست با گزینش حوزه های مبدا هستی شاختی مربوط به عناصر طبیعت و همچنین مصنوعات دست بشر با ویژگی های ارتباطی مثبت، عشق را موضوعی آرامش بخش و لطیف معرفی کرده است. شاعر پیام موجود در اثرش را با نشان دادن دو مقوله (خیر و شر) در سرشت انسان، و تصویر انسانی متناسب با یک استعاره کلی پیش روی او نهاده است.

    کلیدواژگان: استعاره مفهومی، عشق، رحماندوست، کاش حرفی بزنی
  • معصومه نظری، ایوب کوشان*، مهین مسرت صفحات 227-246

    موضوعات اساطیری یکی از اساسی ترین و اولین موضوعات مطرح شده در ادبیات هستند و در این شکی نیست که ادبیات و اسطوره دو اصل جدانشدنی از یکدیگر می باشند و هر اسطوره، کوشش ساده و ابتدایی تخیل برای این همانی جهان بشری است که اغلب داستانی درباره یک ایزد یا ایزدبانو می باشد. یکی از این ایزدبانوان، ماه است که در اساطیر به صورت الهه سین، سلین، آرتمیس، دیانا و اناهیتا جلوه گر می شود. این پژوهش برآن است تا اسطوره زن و ماه را که یکی از باورهای بنیادین بشری می باشد، در منظومه ویس و رامین بررسی کند. در این پژوهش هدف، استخراج و تبیین اسطوره ماه و زن و پاسخ دادن به این سوال است که دلایل همانندی زن و ماه کدامند؟ روش تحقیق، توصیفی- تحلیلی است و درتحلیل نمونه های منظومه، ارتباط آن ها با اساطیر مورد بحث قرار گرفته است. نتایج به دست آمده نشان می دهد که ماه به عنوان الهه آسمانی، مظهر زیبایی و فره بخشی به موجودات، خصوصا زنان، به خاطر مناسباتی که با ماه دارند، می باشد.همچنین این باور، حجم زیادی از تشبیهات منظومه ویس و رامین را به خود اختصاص داده است.

    کلیدواژگان: اساطیر، ماه، زیبایی، زن، ویس و رامین
  • مرتضی هادیان*، عبدالحسین فرزاد صفحات 247-269

    این مقاله با روش توصیفی-تحلیلی و با استفاده از منابع کتابخانه ای به تبیین مولفه های  جنبش خردگرای ایرانی-شعوبیه- و مفهوم روشنفکری می پردازد و در پی پاسخ به این پرسش هاست: رویکرد روشنفکری ناصرخسرو چگونه صورت بندی می شود و اندیشه های او در دیوان قصاید تا چه اندازه با جنبش فکری شعوبیه نزدیک است؟ و شیوه ایفای نقش روشنفکری ناصرخسرو در زمینه ی تاریخ سیاسی - اجتماعی ایران آن روزگار چگونه است؟ رویکرد روشنفکری ناصرخسرو در دو بحث نظری و نقش عمل گرایانه ی روشنفکری قابل تحلیل است. ژرف ساخت روشنفکری در آراء ناصرخسرو بر مینای اندیشه ی خردگرایانه ی ایرانی شکل می گیرد و بر همین اساس در دفاع از حقوق و مقام انسان، معتقد به آزادی اراده، خردگرایی، تکریم مقام انسان و فردیت است. ناصرخسرو  برای برون رفت از وضعیت نامطلوب روزگارش، اندیشه های روشنگرش را طرح می کند. مهمترین نقش های روشنفکری ناصرخسرو در سه ساحت سیاسی-اقتصادی، فرهنگی و دینی در تقابل با قدرت سیاسی سلاطین سلجوقی و دستگاه عقیدتی خلفای بغداد، قابل تحلیل است. او تلاش می کند با یادآوری داشته های فرهنگی و تلاش برای بازگشت به خویشتن به احیای هویت بپردازد. موانع از دیگر نقش های روشنفکری او نقد موانع آزادی، نواندیشی دینی، اعتراض به سلطه ی سیاسی سلجوقی و حاکمیت عقیدتی خلافت عباسی است.

    کلیدواژگان: روشنفکر، شعوبیه، ناصرخسرو، دیوان قصاید
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  • Morteza Balar, Hamidreza Farzi *, Rostam Amaniastmal Pages 9-28

    The process of individuation from the perspective of Jung is a kind of sophistication and mental development of man which the center of personality is transferred from “ego” to “self” and since literary works, due to the inherent richness and rooted in the collective unconscious include symbols and metaphors, conscious and unconscious structures and involve the reader and require a literary text archetypal analysis. This poem written by Khajuei Kermani was analyzed by descriptive and analytical method based on Jung Individuation Theory. His journey to Rome is in fact a symbol of his quest for the process of psychic individuation begins by the first impulses of love that makes the foundation of the poem and the protagonist is a young and inexperienced princess in the beginning and begins individuation the activation of anima and recalling continuity and unity to the realm of the conscious mind of the hero and by guidance of old wise man and solving problems and eliminating inner shadows and flexibility of persona, he achieves coordination between his consciousness and unconsciousness and finally, the individuation process and self-knowledge is ended successfully.  

    Introduction

    The collective unconscious manifestation centered on the myths, stories and literary creations led to a branch of criticism which is one of the most important and most used methods of contemporary literary criticism that examines the nature and characteristics of the archetypes and their role in literature. From the perspective of the archetypical criticism, myths are basically the structure of literature that make possible the verbal communication of narration and meaning.The concept of collectivist sub- consciousness and its two related concepts, archetype and individuation are important Jung psychology. One is important in terms of its role in the development of personality and the other in terms of reversing its themes in artistic creation and dreams ( Yavari, 2009:102-104). Thus, the recognition of this layer from the unconscious in the process of self-knowledge and individuation, which is one of the fundamental concepts in Jung’s psychology, is of particular importance. Jung believes that there is a close relationship among the art, literature, dreams and myths and art and literature as dreams are the place of manifestation of imaginations and the emergence of a collective subconscious. He believes that great poets like Ferdowsi, Hafez, Molana and Hedayat are eternal since their works reflect the collective subconscious manifestations and the common mythological insights (Shayeganfar, 2012: 251). Consequently, literary works, due to the inherent richness and rooted in the collective unconscious include symbols and metaphors, conscious and unconscious structures and involve the reader and require a literary text archetypal analysis. Given the importance and application of the individuation process in explaining the epic stories and especially the protagonists of the story, the present research tries to investigate 1- the roles and effects of each archetype in the process of individuation effective in the identity of “Nowruz” and 2-according to this fact that the protagonist of this story is compatible with Jung Individuation Theory, it is necessary to adapt this theory in order to investigate this personality from a new perspective in the scope of the mentioned theory.

    Research methodology

    The present study was conducted based on descriptive analytical method. For this purpose, firstly, theoretical fundamentals of research with relying on library resources and Jung’s opinions about the process of individuality were categorized and then with an analytical approach, the symbolic journey of the hero of the story to achieve self-awareness and during the process of individuality have been addressed.

    Discussion

    One of the most basic theories of Jung is that the trend and direction of growth in personality is towards unity and stability and to achieve this goal, all psychological systems must separate and evolve into their components; in other words, all the different systems of character like the Anima (Anima), Shadow, Persona and etc. allow the occurrence, division and evolution of the balance between the consciousness and the subconscious mind and the person achieves psychological development (Shamlu, 2016:59). The process of individuation in his opinion is a kind of mental growth that the center of personality “ego” (self-awareness) moves toward “self” (inner un-consciousness layer) and this transfer is indeed movement from ego to self and different layers of personality come to recognize and adapt to each other and self-awareness and unconsciousness are coordinated( Jung, 2013:359).The process of individuation in fact is compromise of the consciousness with inner center that begins usually with the plundering of personality and suffering. Many myths and fairy tales have expressed the initial stage of the process of individuation with the patient or aging of the king or they are the theme of another old story, for example, the king and his wife did not have children or the monsters of women and children and horses destroy the wealth of the kingdom or a giant, without a hurricane, and a tail of sea and land on the king’s army or darkness, drought, flood and cold throughout the country make trouble (Jung, 2013:253).The story of “Gol and Nowruz” begins with the wish of the king of Khorasan to have a son and the God gives him a son as the result of his prayers and he calls him Nowruz. Since the requirement of process of individuation is a journey to the inner world and the unconscious in order to obtain identity and to reach self-knowledge, Nowruz, the main protagonist begins journey to Rome for self-knowledge and identity that reflects a deep desire for inner change and a new experience. This symbolic journey or the process of individuation, which is the same as the transfer of the center of gravity from I to ego is done with the help of a series of ceremonies such as Anima, Shadow, Persona and old wise man. So that Nowruz, with the first spark of anima achieves psychological balance between self-awareness and the unconscious from the subconscious and with the absorption and analysis of the shadow in self-consciousness and flexibility to coordinate and make compatible the persona in different situations with timely guidance of old wise man.

    Conclusion

    Independence, self-knowledge and identity and non-attachment on the parents are the main theme of the story that is the process of individuation. Nowruz individuation begins with the plundering of his personality and suffering from pain and he goes to the desert with a group of companions and reaches the caravan in the desert. The owner is a man named Kashmir and he is talking to him. After the description of the events of his life speaks about the Roman Caesar and his daughter and exaggerates in the expression of beauty. So with the resurrection of the love in Nowruz soul by the words of Kashmir about “Gol” (flower). The process of achieving perfection and spiritual integration is flourished, because love is the primary motive of this poem and from the archetypal perspective leads to the inner coherence of existence and the body and mind, self-awareness and coordinates the unconscious as it is necessary during the process of fostering identity and existence of Nowruz symbolically to reach self, self-knowledge, travel to inner world and the unconsciousness that begins to journey to Rome for reaching inner anima and through the shadow and flexibility of the mask by guidance of old wise man begin to create a psychological balance between self-consciousness and unconsciousness. After overcoming the forces arising from the collective subconscious and attracting them into self-consciousness, the protagonist expands the domain of self-consciousness and transfer the psychological center from “ego” to “self” and finally by unification of the two opposite sides of the psychic they are merged into the higher proposition and reborn and evolved psychologically.

    Keywords: Jung, individuation process, archetypes, Gol, Norouz masnavi
  • Mehri Pakzad *, Malek Shoaei Pages 29-46

    Architectural has got a firm relationship with literature, Fine arts and engineering; certainly, the poem as a large part of Iranian literature has played an important role and influences on the traditional architecture, In contrast, the effect of Architecture As well as an art form in Persian literature is provoking thought. Until now architectural experts are searching for traces of poetry in architecture but none of the architectural footprint in poetry and its transformation according to poetry, have not represented any research. This article is only a glimpse of the literary use of words of Architect and Architecture in poetry. Theoretical and quantitative research methods in the court of poets explains the answer to this question from thousands of years ago that have words “Architect” and “Architecture” ever been applicable in Persian poetry? The method and its antiquity goes back to which period? Poet’s attention to making combinations of metaphorical, symbols imagery, poetic and mystical illustrations by using words “Architect” and “Architectural”, will explain that architectural arts is one of the most important pillars in art and culture’s unity and it has played one of the main roles to found civilisation’s base in Iran. Having these two words in poems will interpret antiquity of this type art as well.

    Introduction 

    Architecture has a close relation with literature and Fine Arts; even though poem as a huge part of Iran literature has a great role in Iranian traditional architecture, Architectural Art has a special role in Persian literature. This theoretical and quantitative study investigate Literary application of the words "Architect and architecture" in Poetry. Statistical population of this study is the poets’ divan of Classical Persian from a thousand years ago to Jami. The study aim ate answering this question that are "Architect and architecture" words applied in Persian literature and it comes back to which period?  "Architect and architecture" are used frequently in poem as figure of speech like metaphor, simile, and symbol; it reveals that Iranian civilization is constructed by many factors but Architectural Art is one of the main factors. The antiquity of these words are discovered by searching classical text. Miʿmār (Architect) is an Arabic words and other Persian words like Mohandas (a person who use meter or measure things), builder and master.

    Research methodology

    The current study is fundamental research based on objective of study and it is historical research based on research methodology. In this library research Architect and architecture are extracted from poetical works; the information are analyzed based on literary and stylistic analysis to answer the research questions. Frequency method and charts are used in this study to reveal the importance and literary usage of these words in Persian poetry.

    Discussion

    Edward (1386: 42) believed that architecture is the expression of emotion and sensation formed by structures in space and poetry is the verbal representation of emotion. The current study use modern theoretical foundations of vocabulary archeology or etymology and related sciences in poetical works as qualified documents order to study the word architect   from past till now and find the other related words which related to architect art.

    Conclusion

    Poem and literature by using literary terms and concepts or common memory of people are intend in opening the new window for better understanding and comprehending the concepts. The finding of the current study reveal that among Khorasani poets style (Rudaki, Ferdowsi, Babatahir, Farrokhi, Manouchehri, Kassai, Anzari, Khayyam, Nasser Khosro, Massoud Saad, Sana'i &Anvari) the word architect just used by Massoud Saad, Sana'i and Anvari; the words were used just by Khaghani as one of the two poet of Azerbijan style (Khaghani & Nizami) and among Iraqi poet style are used by Saadi, Molavi, Amir Khosro Dehlavi, Oohadi, Saif Fergani, Hafiz and Jami. The finding shows that these words were used occasionally in the middle of five century and it was frequently in seven and nine century by Rumi and Jami. The findings showed that the words (Master, Designer, Engineer and Builder) were used as alternative expression of architecture from ninety years ago and classical texts had no idea in using these words and the other words might be used instant in past. The isolated study is needed to investigate the other words. In mystical literature "architect" is a metaphor for God. It used in metaphorical expiration like Everlasting Architect, Great Architect and Architect of the Word. In ode and sonnet the architect is a metaphor for King, nobleman, whether beloved and minister or agency; metaphorical expiration like the property owner or the garden property owner. Ambitious architect, Architect of religion, architect of the five religious shrines, architect of religion, architect of the day, architect of taste, architect of love and architect of wisdom are other additions to the simile. The statistical findings show that below poet used architect more than others: First Jami: With 7 cases in use in relation to the number of divine verses (5410), 0. 129%. One hundred twenty nine thousand percent. Second Khaghani: With 7 cases in proportion to the number of divine verses (13300), it was 0.052%. Fifty-two thousand percent. Third Rumi: With 9 applications in proportion to the number of verses (36360), 0.024%. Twenty-four thousandth percentile. More define conclusion is that except Khaghani these words were used more frequently by Jami in his period. His interest in using these words show the importance of Building, Architect and Architecture in Persian literature and deep relation between architect art and literature. Jami is the first poet in the tale of Yusuf and Zulikha to bring the word "architect" and "architecture" in detail to the builder. In general, it can be said that the importance and position of the architect and architect is to the extent that in more than 29 poetical works of the two styles of Khorasan and Iraqi and the intermediate style of these two, namely Azerbaijani, only 11 poets have used these two words in the poem. Everywhere the role and position of the architect, namely, Bana, Avesta, Master, Builder, Designer and Engineer as well as Architecture and Construction in the form of these two words (Architect and Architecture) are important, bold, valuable, positive, Useful, artistic and meticulous job descriptions have been introduced. Another benefit of such research is its application to the scripting of events and stories of centuries and centuries, since submitting to the documents lying in the middle of the texts minimizes the error in depicting the past.   

    Keywords: Architect, Architectural, poem, Mysticism, imagery
  • Samaneh Jafari *, Mohammad Aalizadeh Meresht Pages 47-66

    The discovery of the structure of an effect has a prominent role in the achievement of the content and its hidden meanings and layers. Many myths, fairy tales and symbolic narratives have a systematic and symbolic structure, with numbers and shapes and illustrations of outstanding function. One of these texts is Nizami’s Khosrow and Shirin. Based on this approach, this research aims to answer this question: what is the most important symbolic forms and numbers used in the structure of Nizami’s poem and how it is related to meaning. The method used was to read the trajectory and the path of the hero of the story and drawing its geography, which resulted in two quadrangles in the beginning and the end of the story. The first photograph will be destroyed by the hero's forbidden violation, and the ultimate goal of the story is to rebuild this ruin in the most complete way possible through four rounds of retreat by Khosro Porviz.

    Introduction 

    Every written work, like a building, has a plot and a plan in which the events, persons and elements of the story are placed at the intended place of the author. Hence, the discovery of the design and trajectory of the events of a work can be an important factor in understanding and comprehending the subject matter. The importance of the design and structure of the story is such that it can be said that each work according to its type requires a suitable design and the secret of its durability is the similarity of structure and content. Based on this view, in a symbolic work, we need to look for a symbolic design with symbolic shapes and numbers. The importance of numbers in the course of a symbolic narrative is that because of the numbers many of the immortal codes are uncovered. In addition to numbers, geometric shapes like squares and triangles, which have a significant relationship with numbers four and three, and symbolic images such as circle and mandala, also play a key role in the formation of symbolic narratives and stories, and arrange the movement of the hero, arrangement and selection of elements and other story subjects. According to this introduction and because of the symbolic nature of Nizami’s Khosrow and Shirin, and according to the poet, the purpose of this research is to examine the symbolic structure of Nizami’s Khosrow and Shirin and its relation to the content of the story, and the authors seek the answers of the following questions to achieve this goal: 1. According to Nizami, regarding Khosrow and Shirin being symbolic, does it have a symbolic structure? 2. What are the most important numbers and shapes used in the structure of the examined work? 3. Are repetitive numbers related to the content of the work in the Nizami’s Khosrow and Shirin? 4. Can a link between the symbolic concepts of numbers and the characters of the work be found?

    Research methodology

    This research is done through descriptive-analytical and content analysis and is a library research. First, based on the hero’s path, the numbers and outstanding forms and recurring events are extracted from Nizami’s Khosrow and Shirin, and after reviewing, their symbolic meanings are explained and described with respect to the narratives and the meaning and general theme of the work and its various events. And, if necessary, examples of other texts will be presented for citation and assurance. The statistical population of the research is the whole range of Nizami’s Khosrow and Shirin, which has been thoroughly studied.

    Discussion

    The structure of Khosrow and Syrin is an example of the symbolic and mandala structures which it’s beginning and end is the city of Madain, and has a circular structure. Throughout the story, shapes such as squares and triangles have appeared several times, which, according to the story's theme, have a symbolic function. In addition, numbers two, three, and four also have outstanding and symbolic functions in this work. Number four is considered the mainstay of the story in this work, and the incidents are based on quadruple. Hurmizd Shah sets these four laws for protecting the country and for wiping out the wounds from Khosrow Parviz. These quadruple laws are in fact the boundaries which the Shah of Iran sets for "ancient mask pattern". In the sense that these four laws determine the limits of behavior and social character of individuals. By breaking the symbolic framework, Khosrow loses four of his beloved Molas: the horse, the harpist Handmaid, Gholam-e-Ghori and the royal throne. And then, after accepting his father’s punishment he dreamed his forefather, Anooshirvan, giving him four promises. And the rest of this work is about this dream and getting four things by Khosrow instead of the four dear ones he lost. Four corners is the symbol of integrity in consciousness. According to this attitude, Khosrow Parviz loses four things that represent four corners of his masked personality after ignoring his father's order. And afterwards, he receives three calls and begins "the process of psychic individuality", and the result of this action is a more complete and comprehensive quadrilateral formation, with its sides completely in line with the first quadruple. After the rebuilding the quadruple, the hero, makes four journeys, the starting point of which is the city of Madain (the consciousness of the psyche of the champion). And thus, a four layered Mandala is drawn, and its ultimate form is perfection and individuality for Khosrow Parviz and the rebuilding the damaged quadrangle.

    Conclusion

    Discovering the design and structure of a symbolic work can provide many secrets about it, which is far from mind and impossible to achieve in normal reading for the first time. In other words, when faced with a symbolic text, one should look for symbolic shapes and figures that persons, events and elements of the story are arranged based of them, and shows the author's purpose as well. With this in mind, Nizami’s Khosrow and Shirin, in which the author refers to its symbolic character in its introduction, has numbers and forms in itself that are commensurate with the symbolic concepts of the text, numbers such as number two, three and four, and shapes like quadrilateral, triangle, and symbolic Mandala, which are discussed in detail and their function is explained. These numbers, on one hand, are consistent with the gender of the characters, and identify such things as: the number and sequence of events, and on the other hand, have a significant relationship with the theme of the story, which includes the individuality and unity of its main character. Movement and arrangement of story events, as general, is like a mandala with four loops that occur in a square/quadrilateral, so that in each loop and with every turn of the hero, one of the lost four Molas and dear ones are achieved in a more complete form, and the ruined square at the beginning of the story will be shown again at the end of the story.

    Keywords: Nezami Ganjavi, Khosro, Shirin, Mandala, square, Numbers
  • Zinab Khorramabadi Arani, Seyed Mohammad Rastgo *, Saed Kherkhah Pages 67-86

    Contemporary poets have used different types of traditional texts to deepen their poetic views and influence the poetry on the audience; The texts that relate to the religious, literary, mythical, and folkloric tradition, and with an influential function, put the legacy of the past on a modern design. These sources and origins, called "textual heritage", are the cultural backbone of a poet and a suitable platform for the reproduction of his poems. The use of these texts in traditional rhetoric with various names such as" Guarantee", " Allusion"Adaptation" are discussed and nowadays "Intertextuality" is one of the important issues of literary criticism. Safarzadeh is a contemporary poet who has benefited from Persian literature and literature, and in addition to the poet, translator of the Holy Quran and Nahj al-Balaghah, his influence on religious texts, especially the Quran, is further illustrated.The present research has responded to this main question by descriptive-analytic method. How much and how much is the use of Safarzadeh from textural heritage? The findings show that, considering the familiarity with religious and literary texts, he has deepened and enriched his poems, and on this basis his poetry is full of religious and mythological texts.

    Introduction 

    The literature of every frontier and canvas, in addition to representing the artistic and literary minds of poets and writers, reflects the thoughts, knowledge, teachings and legacies left by the ancestors, and we here refer to them as "textual legacies." Named; the legacy of contemporary poets makes a lot of profits to deepen their poetry and influence the audience; These texts, which depend on the area of literary tradition, religious tradition, mythical and folkloric tradition, can have an influential effect on the development of Persian new poetry, and contemporary poets have been dependent on artistic taste and ability to acquaint themselves with these sources; To deepen and enrich their poems and to make the legacy of the past by the new ones. And "it seems that whatever the poet and writer has a broader cultural backing, his poems and writings will be more productive and more vivid in this view" (rastgoo, 1395: 116) These sources and origins, here called "textual heritage", are the cultural backbone of a poet and a suitable platform for the reproduction of his poems. The use of textual legacy is more or less the same as in the traditional rhetoric with the names of guarantee, adaptation, telemechanism, and so on, with the name of intertextuality, is one of the major issues of literary criticism today. "According to the intertextual rule, the horizons of the reader's interest in the text and the meaning it receives are related to the texts previously read. On the other hand, intertextual relations act as interconnecting rings of components, and every text from the beginning of its creation is in the realm of power of other texts that have been created before and impose a special atmosphere. "( Khalili Jahantegh, 2007: 6) 

    Research methodology

    The present study, by descriptive-analytic method, examines the extent of influence of Tahereh Safarzadeh on traditional texts in four levels (religious-literary, mythical, and folkloric), and how it determines how much and from which The textural legacy has been used in the fertility and prosperity of its poetry

    Discussion

    On the one hand, and the importance that literature has in the literary critique of today, the particular influence that literature has on people's thought and culture, on the other hand, reveals the importance and necessity of examining contemporary literature from an intertextual point of view. Tahere Saffarzadeh is one of contemporary poets who, by carefully reading the traditional texts and using them, transforms his poems into a full mirror of textural heritage; in otherwords, he uses the art of ancient literary heritage and acquaintance with religious texts, especially the Holy Quran He has tried to deepen and enrich his poems and make the legacy of the ancestors build and present fresh things to the present. This research intends to reveal the hidden angles of his literary text by analyzing and analyzing the intertextuality in Saffarzadeh's poems, and to provide the ground for more readers to use his poems. What makes the necessity and importance of examining traditional texts in Safarzadeh's poem more than before Shows that so far there has not been an independent and significant study on this issue; although papers and theses on his influence have been written in the Holy Quran, but since other legacies such as: Nahj al-Balaghah, hadiths, ancient literary texts and ... His poetry has not been analyzed and analyzed The place for such a comprehensive study is still empty.

    Conclusion

    In this research, the use of Tahereh Safarzadeh as one of the outstanding contemporary female poets of the textural heritage (religious-literary-mythological and folklore texts) was analyzed and the following results were obtained: 1) Safarzadeh poetry is full of religious texts and has been used directly and indirectly by the poet's companionship with the Qur'an and its translation into three other languages of the world of Quranic words, compositions and talmids. Therefore, the Qur'anic text in its poems is more frequent than other religious texts. 2- Saffarzadeh uses the linguistic and linguistic uses of the ancient prose texts in his poetry, such as: Similar compositions with the word "species", which are luminous features of Behaji's history. It also uses the adjectives, words and combinations used in Keelah and Damnah, Marzbanam, Golestan, and others. 3. The language of the poetic political-critical poetry of Safarzadeh when he speaks of a homeland and speaks of a despotic system; the language and tune of Ferdowsi's tune into the mind of the reader, in addition to the mystical poetry of Rumi, Sanai and Hafez also in induction His poetic concepts have helped the reader. 4. Provenance texts in Safarzadeh's poetry are more frequent in comparison to the classical poetic text. 5-Saffarzadeh uses words and compositions learned from ancient poets and writers to invent words that are not used in modern languages, but their synonyms are used in ancient poems, such as the word "listener" 6. The national myth in poetry isfarzade has a wider application than other myths. He has used these national myths to express his political and revolutionary goals. 7. The presence of historical myths in Safarzadeh's poetry is very dim; among these myths, only the positive character, such as Mazdak, and the negative person, such as Alexander, have attracted the poet's point of view. 8- Safarzadeh uses the words, verbs and folk phrases that are sometimes quintessential and incorporates them in artistic coding, and adds to his poetic vocabulary. 9. The words and combinations of folk in his poem are more frequent than other folkloric texts.  

    Keywords: Intertextuality, Contemporary Literature, Tahereh Safarzadeh, Textural Heritag
  • Mehrnoosh Dozham, Mahmoud Hassanabadi *, Mohammadali Mahmoudi Pages 87-102

    The suffering and distress caused by the separation from the homeland have appeared in the form of protest in Persian literature. In the form of return to the sweet memories of the past, nostalgia has a striking color in the poetry and story of the prison and the exile era of Persian poets and writers. Particularly, the contemporary realist novel contains many memories of exiled writers that are tied to historical, political, and social conditions. Mahmoud is a social–critic realist author, whose novels narrate his life and of the people around him. He was banished to ‘Bandar Lengeh’ after the August 28 coup. The novel of the ‘story of a city’ is the result of this period of his life. This study seeks to answer the question of how the elements and functions of nostalgia resulting from the exile were reflected in this novel? Finally, with helping the descriptive-analytical approach the results were harvested: this novel maintains the nostalgia of exile with all its ancient and modern elements and the basis of the novel is nostalgia. In this work, the individual and social dimensions of nostalgia are intertwined, and the author demonstrates how idealism in a despotic state leads to discouragement.

    Introduction

    Suffering and longing, away from one’s own home country in the form of nostalgia to return to the past, has appeared in various forms in Persian literature. In contemporary literary works with a lot of perceptions, we find aesthetic feelings and literary arrays associated with the nostalgia of poets and writers. Hence nostalgia in contemporary narrative literature also has a special place and emerges more precisely in realist novels. Imprisonment and exile are the factors that make this emotional sense in the unconsciousness of the poet and writer, which is manifested in literary works. Ahmed Mahmoud is one of the southern realist novelists whose novels narrate the society and politics, and an important part of his fictional fantasies tied up with historical facts. His novel ‘the story of a city’, narrating the prison and exile of Khalid who is the narrator of the story, was a story that Mahmoud himself experienced in Bander Lengeh as an exiled man in the 1330s (H) and wrote in the late 1350s (H) many years after the expiration of that exile. Accordingly, the novel may return to these memoirs and nostalgic reviews of a historical period, and Mahmoud, in this way, seeks to draw and depict the era of the exile and narrate the consequences of the events of social and political disillusionment after the August 28 coup 1332 (H). From this perspective and given the political and social psychological dimensions in this realist novel, which is a realistic narrative of the period of exile's nostalgia, in this article, we seek to find answers to these questions. 1. Which elements does Mahmoud's nostalgia include in ‘the story of a city’? 2. In this novel, isthe individual more intense than the nostalgia, or its collective dimension? 3. Given the prominence of socialist realism, how can one analyze idealism in this novel? According to Mahmoud's social and historical realism in his works, this articleaims to find his feelings on distance and imprisonment, and the individual and collective reflections associated with political decisions and events assess the history.

    Research Methodology

    This research has been done through descriptive-analytical and content analysis. The theory of research is based on the definitions of the functions and existing divisions of the types of nostalgic tendencies adapted to the text of thenovel of ‘the story of a city’, and through more detailed acquisitions and analysis of space, definitions and effects psychology, the issue of exile has come to various divisions and analyzes.

    Discussion

    ‘The story of a city’is the continuation of the novel of ‘the neighbors’ and the second novel of Ahmad Mahmoud's trilogy. In this novel, Khalid is a political activist who is punished and expelled to a point far away andnot for securing the city but rather for the security of the Pahlavi regime, leading to the creation of a climate of intimidation for the other protesters and dissidents. The prominent element of the novel, which contributes to the advancement of the design and the unification of the cause of the departure of the main character of the novel and other narratives surrounding the story, is the emergence of memories and events based on nostalgia. Each natural phenomena of the character of the instrument of the internal sense of loneliness and dialogue make Khalid remember the party's activities in the garrison's jail or arrest in the 92nd Armored Division and addresses the details of the adventures that led to the exile. Nostalgia in the exile of the writer is depicted deeper when the main character of the novel remembers hishometown (home country). Remembrance of friends, remembering the first and second executed group of solitary confinement at the place where he was arrested, and even Dr. Mossadeq and Dr. Fatemi, who spent the days of trial, were not beyond the nostalgia of remembering the days of hope and failure of the people involved in those events. In exile, Khalid believes everything that he oncebelieved to save people is useless. Ideals that politically suppressed, brought his friends to jail and exile and ultimately death, the humanist thoughts that lead to prison and torture, Mutations and beliefs that are now in doubt, those only leave nostalgia. This nostalgia does not leave Khalid in the days of sorrow. In this novel, sometimespresents itself as defensive thoughts and suggests a closed space of a period of the life of a nation that has been despotized and colonized and exploited. Another issue that cannot be ignored in ‘the story of a city’, is that not only Khalid but also other characters of the novel are somehow enduring exile. Sometimes this exile has been demanded and sometimes the external conditions of society or the internal pressures of individuals with present themselves in the form of remoteness and exile. Those who have witnessed the past of Bandar Lengeh consider the retreat in Langroud to be due to the migration and the self-exile of its inhabitants. 

    Results

    The occurrence of events, remembrance of the homeland and of old friends, lost ideals, nostalgia as defensive thought and pro exile stance in the characters of a city, are the most important elements of nostalgia in the: the story of a city. Thus, the novel's foundation is to return to the nostalgic memories and background of a historical period. ‘The story of a city’ contains a lot of elements that weencounter in the ancient Persian poetry about imprisonment and exile, and some other forms of lyricism and in addition, it includes events of thought and a modern look on human beliefs and human concerns today. Although the nostalgic approach to the novel narrative and elements in the story relies more on social and political backgrounds, it should not be ignored that in the end, this individual is the author's mental structure and his way of life, which makes the social and political composition of the novel. Accordingly, at the end of this research, we would prefer not to separate the two elements completely and to emphasize the interdisciplinary of these two personal and social dimensions of nostalgia in this novel. In this work, the narrator appears with a realist look as a critic with a bitter taste of the failure of the ideals of fighters and social activists with a narrative of the killing and the exile of the idealists, distrust, government repression and depictions of in-party betrayals. Parallel to that, it narrates of the people who, having lost all their initial ideals due to the laws of government weaknesses and the pressure of socio-political, cultural, and religious domination of society, have self-exiled themselves. Thus, although the element of idealism is one of the prominent elements of this novel, the idealists of Mahmud's realism novel, in their quest for silence, have died in prison or exile. 

    Keywords: Nostalgia, Ahmad Mahmoud, Exile
  • Ameneh Dehghani, Vacegh Abbasi *, Mohammadamir Mashhadi Pages 103-122

    The Modernism movement, referred to as Modernism, emerged in France in the second half of the nineteenth century and quickly found its way to other countries in the world. Iranian poetry in constitutional period with some poet’s novelty advanced toward change and development. However, the modern literary history officially began with Nima, and afterwards, each of his students continued their own way. In the 1340s, influenced by Western literary schools and the relatively political and social openness, Ahmad Reza Ahmadi and Yadollah Royayi were among the most prominent modern figures that took a new path in the field of poetry and sought a breakthrough in poetry. The purpose of the present study is to prove that whether Ahmadi and Royaei poems are regarded as modern works, and based on modernism theory, is it permissible to attribute them as modern.The findings of this research -using content analysis and library tools- reveal that the criteria of Modernism are prominent both in poetry and content of these works, so that these two can be considered as the most modern contemporary Iranian poets..

    Introduction

    The modernism movement, known as modernism, emerged in France in the second half of the nineteenth century and quickly made its way to other countries in the world.In recent years, and in the aftermath of Iranian communication with the West, modern thought has influenced every aspect of Iranian life, including art.New poetry in Iran began with the efforts of "Abolghasem Lahouti, Taqi Rafat, Shams Kosmai, and Jaafar Khamenei" (Hasanli,1383:29), but the history of modern literature officially began with Nima.Conscious of the international community, Nima sought to bring Persian poetry to the modern world.He "showed a new way to the poets after them, each of them to experience a new world and take on new path" (lbid ,1383;31), so that some of the poets went beyond the traditions of Nima and completely structured They overwhelmed and created new flows of poetry, almost all of which were a complete break with the legacy of traditional poetry and a raw imitation of the style of modern Western poetry.One of these streams is the New Wave Flow, followed by volume poetry by poets such as Ahmad Reza Ahmadi and Yadollah Royaii.Given the acceleration of social, economic, political, and consequently transnational developments in recent decades, it is imperative to examine these developments in literature to prove to what extent modern world thought in modern Persian poetry and it's authors. It has penetrated.The present study aims at exploring the components and manifestations of modernism in the form and content of Ahmad Reza Ahmadi's poetry as ensign of the New Wave and Yadollah Royaii, the founder of volume poetry, in response to the questions that:1)Are Ahmadi and Rooyaii's  poems modern?
    2)According to modernism, is it permissible to apply modern adjectives?
    3)What are the features of modernism and modern Western poetry that can be found in the poems of these two poets?

     research method

    This research is based on content analysis and using library tools. By referring to the library and compiling books on modernism and taking notes on them, relying on the views of the authors in the field of modernism, Theories have been discussed and analyzed by the poets.

     Discussion

    Along with the political movement of Iranian society towards modernization and urbanization culture in the thirties and forties of Iran, the literary community of Iran was in line with this, and just as Nima had made a revolutionary move in contemporary poetry, there were also some poets. Educated in the West, they began a movement that, although opposed, eventually led to the birth of a noisy stream called the New Wave."It was a wave because it was a rebellious, uninhibited movement that had been destined for destruction not from the beginning; it was destroying all the formal, structural, conceptual, and semantic foundations of traditional Persian poetry, and "New"because of The past was disruptive, and new perspectives were beyond the realities"(Hosseynpoor chafi ,1390 :292). After some time, some of the poets came together and said that they would issue a statement calling it volumeism.In fact," volumeism is not a new and separate flow in contemporary poetry; it is another form of new wave and its logical continuation"(Hosseynpoor,chafi,1390;300). The Waveists " favored the "theory of art for art" and gave importance to the form, but in the opinion of the New Wave poets, one of them, they did not follow certain (principles) and form, and that they were thinking of producing a manifesto(assertion).This led them to express more formally in their poems"(Kasi,1389;10) and to link with modernism from modernist poets and to form modern Iranian poets through the entry of formalism, which is itself a literary school.They have been left out of the content because of the profound effect on the form(lbid,1390;318). Poetry is a new wave and volume of commitment because by condemning "social commitment and any commitment other than linguistics, they find themselves free from all the plight, misery and oppression of the day, and their art even unrelated to the struggle for freedom of thought. He thinks"(Hassanli,1383;102).For this reason, the poets of these two movements, in contrast to "Art for Society" present art for art, and in their poems speak of personal issues, dreams, memories, hopes, and hopelessness, which is one of their characteristics. One of the criticisms that the New Wave and volume poets have always been concerned with is the complexity and ambiguity of their language.It must be said that poets of the new wave and volume are deliberate in their ambiguity and are reluctant to present new forms or constructions or to disagree with accepted standards and standards in the way they are used.The ambiguity in the structure of language and imagery is what poets of the New Wave, and especially the volume of poetry, call contemporary poetry, and the volatility of volume poetry leads them to elitism, one of the most striking features of modernism.Given that the volume flow originated from the heart of the new wave, Hossynpour Chafi in the book Contemporary Persian Poetry Stories describes the characteristics of these two streams of poetry: the discovery of new and abstract relations between objects and the creation of surreal images. Complicated and ambiguous, avoiding weight and rhyme and prose language, syntactic acquaintance or norm, commitment and individualism, disregard for the element of thought, meaning and tendency to fantasy(Hosseynpour Chafi,1384؛306-317)

    Conclusion

    Ahmadi and after him Royaii came the beginning of the forties, when Iranian literary society was thirsty for new ways, and their poetry reflects the pseudo-modernist culture of that period because of their distinctive rupture with the legacy and traditions of traditional poetry and the imitation of style and style. It is modern west. By exploring modernist elements and criteria in the poems of these two poets, the influence of modernist thought can be seen both in the form of poetry and in the content.These two poets in the form of following the formalists believe in art theory for art.Avoiding the weight and tendency to prose and different forms of poetry, they wrote modern poetry.In the connection of language with modernism, the language of Ahmadi's poetry, and especially the Royaii, is vague and complex, and in fact they have become familiar with syntactic seizures.Also, the images in the poetry of these two are different from those of classical poetry, so that the image is no longer in the form of similes or classical metaphors;Rather, we find in these poems a multitude of image and surreal images that are characteristic of modern poetry.Since Ahmadi and Royaii are form-oriented poets, so their poetry is meaningful and engaging.Also, the core of their poems is individualism; for this reason, in their poems, The person is at hand؛ who expresses personal issues.

    Keywords: Modernism, Contemporary Poetry, New Wave, Volume Flow, Ahmad Reza Ahmadi, Yadollah Royayi
  • Moslem Zolfagharkhani * Pages 123-142

    In Modern Persian literature, the most serious and influential feminism occurs in Forough Farrokhzad’s poetry. She is the first Persian female poet who disclosed her womanist desires in a feminine, pure, and humble language while illustrating world of women in contemporary Iran. The goal of this article is to explore Woman/nature traces in Forough Farrokhzad’s poetry. Therefore, the following themes and issues which may help to connect her thoughts and language to nature are presented: “The Nature Ontology”, “The Seasons and Time Passage, “The Four Major Elements in Nature”, “The Tree and The Plant”, and “The Earth and The Sky Creatures”. Attempts are made to investigate how these themes are interwoven in Farrokhzad’s poetry, and how she had been indirectly under the influences of such feminist tendencies in the world of literature. Hence, an analysis of Woman and Nature in Forough Farrokhzad’s Nature Poetry reveals her thoughts and ideas as one of the most significant Persian Modern poets. This research applies an analytical-qualitative method and uses a descriptive-library approach. 

    Introduction

    Nature has been one of the most significant subjects in literary discussions. Ecocriticism and Green studies in literature of the East and the Western/European literary orientations were always important subjects. Landscapes, nature descriptions and nature elements, such as the mountains, the plains, the ocean, the woods, and the rocks have been always under the attention of poets and authors. Sometimes these nature descriptions were to praise the nature and its fundamental aspects like the seasons and time changes, other times to reveal the poets’ inner moods and emotions and his/her sentimental reflections. The nature ontology, the seasons and time passage, the four major elements in nature, the plants, and the earth and the beast have direct connection with human life. In other words, human life is meaningful when it is accepted within the environment and the outer world; consequently, the reflection of this outer world is eminent and considerable in literary texts and poetry.

    Research methodology

    It is true that most of the critics consider four major movements for Feminism: the first movement insisted on the rights of the women and the suffrage; the second movement searched equalities for both men and women; and the third movement concentrated on the cultural and academic institutions. Finding women’s real social places and ranks, supporting social equalities and political/economical equalities, releasing the women in a patriarchal society are all among the most significant basics of the European Feminist current. Elaine Schowalter, a well-known feminist theoreticians speaks of two feminist tendencies: 1. Studying literary texts and analyzing the picture of women in them; 2. Evaluating the female poets/authors as the creators of literary texts, and deciding whether there are some differences between the male poets’ interest and those of the female ones (Schowalter, 1988: 346). This essay insists on the first tendency and attempts to follow such an outlook, which means criticizing literary texts from women’s viewpoints. Thus, the aim of this research is to find out the reflections of nature, women’s identities, and the nature-oriented tendencies of a female poet, Forough Farrokhzad, who like ecocritics thinks of nature-destruction and decadence, and worries about the women’s exploitations in the society. The ecocritics or the nature-oriented-critics believe that both women’s social exploitations and the nature destruction are the results of a hierarchical society where the role of women becomes more and more weak and unimportant. Consequently, this research, while using analytical-qualitative method and applying a descriptive-library approach, attempts to disclose the thoughts and the inner emotions of a female poet in Persian modern poetry.

    Discussion

    Forough Farrokhzad’s volumes of poetry, Re-birth (1343) and Trusting the Dawn of a Cold Season (1343) reveal the common pain the poet and the nature suffering from; a lonely lady who is suffering from a cold and icy society while melting in a gloomy atmosphere: At the beginning of a cold season/ At the beginning of the perception of the polluted existence of earth/ And the simple damp despair of heaven (Farrokhzad, 1386: 317). The wind blows in the alley/ The wind blows in the alley/ And I think of flowers breeding/ And buds on vestigial stalks (Farrokhzad, 1386: 318). Will I ever again comb my tresses in the wind?/ Will I ever again plant violets in flowerbeds?/ Will I ever again leave the geraniums in the sky beyond the window? (Farrokhzad, 1386: 323). She thinks that the life is a simple dream and hallucination, and immediately a self-destruction and nature-decadence are remembered: Excuse her/ She who at times forgets/ her close painful connection/ with the stagnant waters/ and the empty holes/ and foolishly thinks/ the right of living (Farrokhzad, 1386: 231). Forough seeks shelter among her own simple fellow, those who are also perfect and worthy: Give me shelter, oh simple perfect women following/ With your slender fingertips/ The delightful movement of a fetus beneath the skin (Farrokhzad, 1386: 281). Woman/nature traces and the reflection of nature in these two volumes of poetry and Forough’s earlier poems are significant due to these topics: “The Nature Ontology”, “The Seasons and Time Passage, “The Four Major Elements in Nature”, “The Tree and The Plant”, and “The Earth and The Sky Creatures”. Every one of these subjects can be applied in the poet’s personal, social, mental, and philosophical areas, so that when facing the nature, Forough Farrokhzad joins her, involves in her, sympathizes with her, and finally familiarizes and unifies with her.

    Conclusion

    One of the most beautiful imaginaries in Persian poetry is the changing that the poets make in inanimate objects in their environment while giving them movement and soul. A primitive kind of living and the nature, their connections and relationship, were the major factors for such tendencies in absorbing the natural phenomena in their poetry. Then such interests resulted in the brilliant pictures of nature elements in Persian poetry. Consequently, “Personification” as a literary device has been widely used in Persian classical poetry to personify the inanimate objects and the natural phenomena. Among the traditional Persian poets one can remember Manuchehri Damghani, Farrukhi Sistani, Rudaki, and Unsuri Balkhi who described the nature in their poetry and reflected her widely; that is why Manuchehri is called the encyclopedia of the nature in Persian poetry. In Modern Persian poetry one can remember Forough Farrokhzad, Mehdi Akhavān-Sāles, Nimā Yushij, and Sohrab Sepehri who also kept in mind the nature while writing their poetry. Subjects and issues like “The Nature Ontology”, “The Seasons and Time Passage, “The Four Major Elements in Nature”, “The Tree and The Plant”, and “The Earth and The Sky Creatures” indicate how Forough Farrokhzad’s thoughts and language are extensively connected with nature. She is considered as one of the most eminent female poets who cared for the women’s real rights in Modern Iranian society. The following themes and issues highlight Forough’s major woman/nature tendencies: “The Nature Ontology”, “The Seasons and Time Passage, “The Four Major Elements in Nature”, “The Tree and The Plant”, and “The Earth and The Sky Creatures”. In her poetry, nature has an idealistic, pure, and feminine meaning, and the time is the symbol of development and growth; every four major elements of nature are a pattern for human’s ontology (the water is the symbol of life, purification, rebirth, feminine characteristics, and matriarchal power; the fire refers to fertility, purification, and the illumination; the wind shows creation and fertility; and the soil presents the life and the abundance). Also the vegetable in Forough’s poetry stand for birth and life-death circle, and the trees indicate life and the association of the woman and the earth; all these are widely present in Forough Farrokhzad’s almost every line of poetry.

    Keywords: Forough Farrokhzad, Feminism, Woman & Nature, Literary Criticism
  • Fatemeh Rafatkhah, Mahyar Alavimoghadm * Pages 143-164

     Jacques Fontaine, a sign - semantics famous French, in the sign – semanticsand the theory of literaturedeclared his views. According to Fontaine, with challenging personal characteristics, provided a new definition of the concept of point of view. In this regard, the pattern exhibits, a model based on the two basic actionermeans. In this research we try to study Fontaine’s pattern    Vargheh va Golshah–one of the oldest lyrics poems in Persian Literature. The aim is determine the role and importance of point of view in this poem . The result showed that poem of Ayyuqi’s Vargheh va Golshah to convey a different meaning to your audience as a combination in different parts of the discourse of the angle views worldwide, regress, selective, partial (specific) parallel and competitive advantage. The results suggest that the composer of six points of view to create knowledge has benefited: the frequency of serial points of view 36 times, universal 8 bar, fragmental 13 times, Parallel 40, competitive 3 Bar. Since poem of Vargheh va Golshah is an epic poem ,the use of parallel point of view is more; because the most important influential factor in epic tale sis character dialogue.

    Introduction

    Jacques Fontaine, a famous French semantics marker in recent decades, has raised his views on the concept of angular vision in the Book of Semiotics and Literature. He believes that the angle of vision leads to discourse transformations and multi-voice approaches. Regarding the angle of view, at first, comments by Michail Bakhtin were used to describe the characteristics of Dostoevsky's novels, and later on, the angle of view was found in many applications, especially in the field of linguistics and multi-voice discourses. Jacques Fontaine, as well as other theorists of the analysis of elemental elements, is a special place for the role of the angle of vision in discourse. The angle of vision is definitely a decisive factor in the discourse, and as a result, it becomes a semantic action. In Fontaine's opinion, he must present a new definition of the angle of vision by challenging personal characteristics. In this regard, he manages his model, a model based on the selection of two basic actors in the angles of vision, that is, positional factors that determine The source and destination are the angles of sight, so the theorist of storytelling believes that the angle of view is the most important narrative narrative that affects the structure of the whole story and plot. From the point where the semantic-semantic view is believed to constitute meanings, they formulate linguistic forms. The fundamental question is whether the choice of the angles of the different viewers in a narration by the speaker, on the induction of different meanings to the audience, and the highlighting of different dimensions one version of the story is impressive. The version of its model is designed from the angle of view, based on the choice of two basic actors in the angle of view, that is, positional activators that determine the source and destination of the angle of view. What makes these two actors in relation to each other is a special mark. The action between the actual marking and the potential reception of the carrier is twice semantic: the setting of the viewpoint - the regulation of the relationship between the source and the destination and the movement of the actors, that is, the transformation of situational activists into actors for the semiotic orientation.

     Research methodology

      In this research, the method of collecting information from the method of the library, the method of reasoning research, the method of inductive method (except for the whole) and the method of data analysis is a qualitative method. In this research, we have tried to use the Jacques Fontaine model in the "Vargheh and Golshah" system, which is one of the oldest languages ​​of Ghana Farsi is to be studied in order to determine the role and importance of the angle of view and its functions in this system because the selection of the angle of view by the narrator in the discourse plays an important role.

    Discussion

    In the poetry of Vargheh and Golshah, the narrator used a combination of different meanings to his audience, combined with different sections of the discourse, from the angle of universal, sequential, selective, and competitive component, each of which is the aesthetic dimension Emphasize different signs in the narrative. Signs and meanings that only form the basis of the interaction between the language and the experience of actors from the outside world. The universal viewpoints have common features with a whole wider angle. "This approach comes from a very wide range of visual species, or the principle of generalization, and a list of views. Therefore, in such a gesture, the principle is based on the rule of the external species that are valued according to their unity and integrity . The verbs, such as satiating, look at the flow, look, and such examples in this way belong. The cavity of viewing angles is "a kind of cognition that has different aspects of one thing or a position one after the other behind they let. In this way, this angle of vision can also be called comprehensive. This comprehensiveism is based on a sort of sequencing and sequencing of the look which is achieved by putting together or combining several angles of sight "In this angle of view, the writer or multiplier speaks of one thing or one position one after the other in the form of a sequence or a sequence of views by putting together and combining several angles of vision. In the angle of view, the basic element is the choice the best example is possible. Achieving such an example: It causes the search to be stopped, because the selection sample is somehow representative of all other aspects. "Choosing the names of characters by the narrator can be seen from this angle of view, because selection is the result of a qualitative development based on the best example of the funds of something or a situation that stops with the selection of the best possible sample”.

    Conclusion

    The result of the research shows that in the poetry of Vargheh and Golshah, which, like the ancient diaspora, has a simple and primitive design and is lacking in particular complexity and is the true cause of the events of this beautiful story of Golsha, the poet, in order to induce semantic meaning for his audience, combined in different parts The discourse uses universal, rectilinear, selective, parallel, and parabolic visual features that each highlight a different aesthetic dimension of the signs in the narrative. Signs and meanings that are based only on the interaction between the language and the experience of activists from the outside world. The genre of Vargheh and Golshah is more widely used in universal narratives, sequels, selective, parallel, and paraphrase, which highlight each different aesthetic aspect of the signs in the narrative. From the angle of the constellation, often to describe the scenes and events in the narrative, from the angle of parallel vision more in the debate between the narrative factors or characters such as the debate between " Vargheh and Golshah" or speaking between "the sheet and his father", more than the angle of view is more competitive To capture non-emotional or emotional types-perceptions that affect the emotions and inner feelings of a person.

    Keywords: analysis of sign - semantics, Jacques Fontaine, point of view, Vargheh va Golshah
  • Abouzar Ghasemi Arani, Yahya Marouf *, Ali Salimi, Sdaryar Hemati Pages 165-184

     Language has always been a place for the emergence of subjective beliefs, thoughts and inner feelings of poets. Meanwhile, women's poets have succeeded in creating female literatures with emotions, emotions and feminine language."Saida Bente khater Alfarsi " is a prominent Omani poet who has been able to create a global female language in her poetry with the use of language and to achieve profound developments in the field of feminine poetry.The purpose of this study was to identify one of the pioneers of the female poetry of Oman by analyzing the evolution of female literatures in Arabic poetry; it examines the female language of the poet in two levels of lexical and syntactic levels through a descriptive-analytical method and answers the main question. What ideas do you use for feminine language to induce?The findings show that he used feminine vocabularies to express various purposes, such as: opposition to patriarchal thoughts, the expression of religious concepts and the expression of emotion; a clear cause of the discrimination and inequality of women's rights in Arab society, and the effects of this feminist thinking in place of his poems To be seen.The poet also uses the syntactic structure of feminine language with a decisive say for his political and social purposes.

    Introduction

    Throughout history, language that originates from the creation of literary works has been a masculine institution, and women were not able to express their views, experiences and thoughts in this male institution, but today language is influenced by gender differences, during social processes The status of women's poetry has also been transformed by the promotion of the status of women in Arab countries. Contemporary women women, despite the political and social constraints, also noted the laws and traditions of expressing emotions, mental and language sentiments in the field of art to their feminine identity, which has contributed to the formation of feminine language in their poems, in particular The contemporary era of Oman can be considered a literary blessing for women of the country's poetry. "Sayyida Bente al khater founded a woman's poem in oman, with a different approach. Then other Omani poets, including Shemisa al-Nomani, Hassat al-Bada'i and Fathiyah al-Sucureya, continued this route. Through these poems, these female poets were able to devise a different method and a new cultural reading for feminine language, which was generally different from the current content of Omani poetry. They broke into the creation of free poetry by breaking down the classical veil of chains and traditional forms, and depicting cultural and social patterns appropriate to women's issues, and transforming women's poetry in different forms, contrary to the traditional taste and imitation of masculine poetry and old values. . "(ayahyai, 2015: 19) The main objective of this research is to identify Oman's contemporary poetry and to analyze the language of Sa'ida Bint; one of the most prominent contemporary poets and critics of Omani.

     Research methodology

    The basis of this research is not merely linguistic analysis and partial statistics; the poet's collection of poetry forms the statistical society of this research; the authors, using a descriptive-analytical method, examine two different levels of language (lexical level and Syntax) in the women's poem "Sa'ida Bennet"; The level of the vocabulary divided into three parts: vocabulary (female-maternal-taboo) -compounds The female and current female vocabulary is divided; words, combinations, and verbs are extracted according to the context of the sentence. At the syntactic level, according to Lakoff's theory, the Quranic-Wonderful sentences and emphasis on poetry have been extracted and analyzed.

    Discussion

     The concept of female literacy is the study of gender in the language that analyzes the differences in the linguistic behavior of women and men; the themes and uses that are specific to the language of women and show the vocabulary, vocabulary and syntax of the language of men and women. These differences are usually found in The rate and frequency of specific linguistic elements are such that the high frequency of a particular linguistic element, such as short sentences, along with other elements labeled "feminine verbal", makes the text a feminine "(Fotohi Roodmagni, 2011: 398)
    But some theorists have raised the question of whether literary language is gendered? And there is something as a feminine language in literature? In the face of this, there are several different narratives. Some writers such as Natalie Saroute do not classify feminine and masculine literature. Literature is only literature, and the author's gender does not necessarily interfere with it. "Women's literature does not mean the exact meaning of it, just as one can not speak of feminine music or feminine philosophy." (Sarot, 1364: 32) But unlike Sarouti, Lakoff believes that there is a proprietary or linguistic language that includes specific linguistic features, indicating the difference and lack of authority. He speaks of differences between the language of women and men, including the fact that women are more likely to speak than men and their conversation topics are different. They allow the speaker to dominate the conversation. Do you say women with words and short sentences like the right? What good and ... encourage the speaker, respect the standards of the language and respect their audience, as well as women use the language to create and talk social conversations and do not act like competitive men (Mod., 1368: 108 ) This belief in Lakoff is confirmed by the theory of language sociology scholars, including Jakobson, who argue that the most important goal of language is to communicate. In this view, the language is a social phenomenon that has long been the subject of study of human beings. So there is a deep correlation between linguistic structures and social structures. New feminist linguistic researchers, instead of generalizing women's indices to women's texts, examine the regional and gender aspects of gender relations and gender patterns of language use based on specific communities. (Cameron, 2006: 3746), on the basis of which there are several features that can be named in the context of a woman's text.

    Conclusion

    Sa'ida Bent khater is one of the pioneers of Oman's female poetry, who has been able to create a world of feminine language in her poetry with the use of language, and to achieve profound changes in the field of feminine poetry. Lakof is the first to raise the issue of feminine language. In this research, the syntactic level of feminine language was examined based on his ideas. By studying the poet's poetry and analyzing the feminine language in his poem, the following results were obtained:1. Sa'ida Benthoth's poetry is created by the mind and language of women who have been living in Amman by explaining the position of a contemporary woman in feminine language in her poem.2. He used feminist vocabularies to express various purposes, such as: opposition to the idea of ​​patriarchy, the expression of religious concepts, and the expression of emotion; it is a clear cause of the discrimination and inequality of women's rights in the Arab community, and the effects of this feminist thinking are replaced in their poems She eats .3. The use of female vocabulary in the poetry of female poets differs according to the cultural and social differences of societies in which they are cultivated and developed, but Bennett helps to fill the romantic dimension of his poetry from female vocabularies to express emotional-emotional content. And has a tendency to explicitly use feminine words.4. Bennett's poems are maternal and emotional; even some of his ancestors, such as (al-Hafiday, al enraatan), indicate that the poet is the poet of a woman.5- Unlike women in Arab culture and society, women reveal inspirations and gender issues with taboo words.6. The poet of the woman who is studying for his particular position in his community uses the syntactic structure of feminine language (question / wonder words) with a clear statement to express his political and social goals, and emphasizes the concept of female emotions to the singer's induction he does.7. Bennett, for the sake of semantic roles, puts forward such as: (doubt, encouragement, desire and desire, glory and grief) to inspire his concept to the audience.

    Keywords: Feminine Language, Contemporary Poetry, Oman, Saida Bente khater Alfarsi
  • Razieh Karamad *, Hoseyn Mirzaeinia Pages 185-202

    “Patriotism” is in humans ‘nature and contemporary poets and authors utilize the concept in their works or poems. This article, in comparative and based on American schools analyze two points of Ahmad Shamlu, Persian poet, and Nizar Qabbani, Arabic poet, in order to examine either differences or similarities of thoughts of these poets. There are many similarities in the ups and downs of social and literary life of the poets. “Love of the nation” have been put in their poems and there is a hope in them for their future of homeland to get better and brighter. They also have named various cities of their country in their poesies. Both of them have suffered from being far away from their home and have reflected the feeling in their works. Nizar feel ashamed for his country that is divided into smaller component and against him, Shamlu distinguishes between heavenly and earthly love.

    Introduction

       Patriotism and devotion to one’s country is a laudable and natural feeling. Poets and contemporary authors have expanded upon this concept in their works and poems in a variety of ways. Nizar Qabbani and Ahmad Shamlou are among poets who have addressed the concept of homeland in their works, and they share many similarities in this regard.  In addition to romantic poetry, like other committed poets, they have focused on political, ethnic and national issues. In the works of Ahmad Shamlou and Nizar Qabbani, love is not confined to physical love or expression of love to the beloved and mistresses; rather, it is extended to deeper themes such as love for man, beauty, homeland and freedom of thought. Both poets look for a new image of their mental world in the search of justice, freedom and respect for human beings, and both of them have experienced two major events in their social and political life. Qabbani witnessed the defeat of the Arabs by Israel in the Haziran in 1967 and Shamlou saw coup d'état of August 18, 1953 in Iran. Undoubtedly, there are some subtle differences in the expansion of any subject between poets and authors, the unravelling of which could be fascinating. Exploring the similarities and differences of poets in description of the same subject is one of the functions of comparative literature, and since the goal of comparative is to draw a comparison between a certain literary style and the literary traditions of other nations, or compares a literary work in one language with its counterpart in another language, this paper, drawing on the American school of thought, which is irrespective of any historical relationships or influences and rests solely on the principle of similarity and authenticity, seeks to analyze poems of Nizar Qabbani and Ahmad Shamlou in terms of the concept of homeland. In every country, poets often utilize the weapon of literature to defend their history and culture, thus contributing to ethnic solidarity of their own country. One subject that has been the concern of many poets is homeland. Nizar Qobbani, the Syrian poet, and Ahmad Shamlou, the Iranian poet, are among poets whose works are rift with the expression of love and interest in the homeland, though there are subtle differences in their manner of displaying this love. The poems of these two poets are largely inspired by and mirror the incidents and events in their country. By examining the works of these two poets, we not only learn about these two prominent literary figures in the literature of Iran and Syria, but also explore the political and social situation of these two countries as well as the intellectual ideology and concerns of the two poets. This paper, based on the framework of "comparative literature", which rather than being restricted to interaction of literary figures on each other, focuses on the outcome of sharing the status and way of thinking, examines the concept of homeland in the works of these two poets and seeks to answer the following question:1. Are there any similarity between Ahmad Shamlou and Nizar Qabbani, two famous and contemporary poets in Arabic and Persian literature, with regard to the concept of homeland?

    Research methodology

    This is a descriptive research that adopts the comparative approach endorsed by the American school of thought. That is, by analyzing intertextual evidence, it attempts to elaborate and explore similarities and differences in the attitude of two poets towards the concept of the homeland.

    Discussion

    Qabbani mingles love for women and homeland in his poems and occasionally portrays his homeland as an enchanting woman. He makes use of natural phenomenon of his homeland like clouds, stars and dates, expressing his love to cities he had inhabited while exhibiting a sense of resentment and shame for the disintegration of his homeland.  The feeling of alienation and distance from the homeland abounds in poems written in the last years of his life. Nazar mentions the name of cities he has lived in, like Damascus and Sham, describing them as the most beautiful and wonderful cities in the world, with a penchant longing to return and visit them again. Despite the fact that he is disappointed with the reality of the Arab community, he expresses hope that one day his homeland will reclaim its past glory and solidarity, while stripping off the vile of colonization and occupation. Shamlou, unlike Nazar, believes that the love for homeland is transcendental and beyond the love for worldly mistresses. He disassociates the heavenly love from the earthly love, pointing to the culture and cultural heritage while his expression of love for the homeland is associated with a sense of affinity with the people and his compatriots. In some cases, his poems assume an epic tone while elsewhere he imagines his homeland without any vile with a particular innocence. In addition to bringing up the name of Iran in his poems, Shamlou refers to different cities and these poems instill a religious and humanistic sense in the reader. Both poets hope for a better and brighter future for their homeland. Shamlou adopts an ambiguous or sometimes clear and direct tone in portraying a brighter future for his homeland, arguing that disappointment will be tantamount to annihilation.

    Conclusion

    Nazar Qabbani and Ahmad Shamlou have both expressed love for their homeland.  In statements and phrases that exhibit love for his country, Qabbani exploits natural phenomena and manifestations of his homeland like clouds, stars and dates. On the contrary, Shamlou posits that the love of the homeland is transcendental and heavenly, referring to the cultural and cultural heritage such as "Hoze Khaneh" and "the thousand mirrors of the six-cornered tile". Although their love for the homeland is not the same, it has bestowed a distinctive and unique feature to their poems and carved their names on the pages of history. It seems that mere expression of love for the homeland is more tangible in the poems of Nazar Qabbani and Shamlou has intertwined the love for homeland with love for other concepts. They both have specifically referred to different cities in their poems, which illustrates the experiences of living in those cities.  

    Keywords: Nizar Qabbani, Ahmad Shamlu, Home, Hope
  • Fatemeh Moosavi Sabet, Maryam Khalili Jahtigh *, Mohammad Barani Pages 203-226

    The concept of metaphorical theory was first put forward by the opinions of two famous linguists, George Lakoff and Mark Johnson. According to this theory, the human mind is essentially metaphorically unconscious and involuntary for understanding any abstract concept. One of the abstract concepts that humans can understand from the beginning of life is the concept of love and love. This paper uses a descriptive-analytical method to answer the question of the concept of love in "Wish to say" with which experiences of origin are expressed? In this study, considering the extent to which the adolescent's audience understands the concept of love and affection, the study of "Wish to talk" by Mustafa Rahmandoust and the different areas of origin and how these areas of application are applied to the adolescent audience has been investigated. . According to the analysis, the poet has chosen the conceptual areas familiar and understandable to his audience with a proper understanding of the characteristics and needs and experiences of adolescence. Love for God, parents and human love are some of the topics of love in this work. In addition, Rahmandoust has introduced love as a calming and delicate subject by choosing areas of origin for the elements of nature as well as human artifacts but with positive communication features. The poet puts the message in his work by showing him two categories (good and evil) in human nature, and the human image fits into a general metaphor (man is a coin), and ultimately his ideology in choosing good over evil Has shown the audience the type and frequency of use of the samples.

    Introduction

    In classical language theory, metaphor is a matter of language and its application is to make the word beautiful and imaginative. According to classical linguists, when we use one or more words in a linguistic expression, especially poetry, in a sense other than the conventional one to express a similar meaning, there is a conceptual metaphor. But in contemporary theory, as suggested by Lakoff and Jahnson, metaphor has been found to have a fundamental application in the human cognitive system, in which linguistic and artistic application is one of the manifestations of the imaginary system of the mind. Since childhood as well as adolescence plays an important role in human cognitive development, it is important to use conceptual metaphors for these audiences. This article examines various metaphors with the concept of love and affection for adolescents. (D) and (e) are discussed. So far, the abstract concept of love and affection has not been explored with a critique approach and the effect is appropriate to the age group of children and adolescents. Given the importance of childhood and the need to understand this period of life in understanding various abstract concepts, especially the affective concept of love and affection, the need to address this issue is felt. In adolescence, man approaches the stage of physical maturity and new emotions awaken in him that are open to debate. This issue has appeared in today's children's and adolescent literature, but less has been addressed so far, so the present study has attempted to answer the following questions: Which concept of love would you like to talk about? Experience in areas of origin expressed? How are the cognitive representations of this emotion sensed in the work? How successful is the poet in expressing the adolescent's actual experience of the conceptual metaphor of love?

    Research methodology

     This study has been carried out in the descriptive-analytical methods with the analysis of metaphorical data in Mustafa Rahmandoust's "Wish to Speak". In this research, while describing the characteristics of the adolescent audience and their understanding and understanding of the phenomena surrounding them, as well as the physical and emotional states of this group of audiences, the various structural, ontological metaphors are divided into two metaphorical and existential metaphors. The metaphors of direction or place in this poem are extracted and analyzed. The areas of origin used in this work and its impact on the audience were examined.

    Discussion

     Love is one of the abstractions that fall under the category of emotions and cannot be described as normal. Adolescents need a proper understanding of themselves as a result of physical and mental changes and conflicts with their various identity and human crises. Love and affection fall into the domain of destination and the affairs with which we know this feeling. Emotions are usually understood through force metaphors. Gravity, magnetic, electricity, mechanical, etc. These forces appear in the material world as waves, winds, storms, fires that are known by various actions. (Kovecses, 2014: 41) The first category is structural metaphors By giving examples, the poet has put forward various structural metaphors for the concept of love and affection. Metaphors: sacred, game / competition, road, spring, power and building are the areas of origin in this work.  The second category is the ontological metaphors A: There are metaphors. The poet illustrates his understanding of the audience and his experiences with the examples he brings to the objects of human life. Crystalline container, tree, stack, container, window-in, book, bridge, bird's-eye clarity, pigeon, twilight are areas of origin used in this work. B: Existential metaphors that are usually the same as giving human characteristics to an inanimate creature and recognition in traditional rhetoric. Such as: hesitant and hypocritical, demanding human, anxious human, watch, lover, companion, traveler. Humans are two-sided, travelers in the anxious and restless sense, and human beings are examples of negative charge. The poet considers the heart to have two aspects: the negative and the positive. A general metaphor (man is a double coin) is given to illustrate the dual aspect of man. Man has both a heavenly spirit and an earthly being. So the heart can be a place of good and bad traits. Such an image of the human to the adolescent audience will greatly help to alleviate many of his intellectual and mental problems. By examining the frequency of the use of various metaphors in this work, we find that the poet has used good and valuable traits more than bad and negative traits. That reflects his thinking.

    Conclusion

     Humans come to a clear understanding of the environment and abstract affairs by metaphor. This way of perception has been active in human since childhood, and the child will be able to understand the world around him at any stage of development, depending on the amount of his life experiences. Age D is the beginning of adolescence, and during this period, one's awareness of self, talents, abilities, as well as surrounding phenomena increases, so it is only natural that his or her mental food should be adapted to cognitive developmental poetry and stories. Be it.    The poet has used different origins for the notion of love, affection, and what is related (heart, love, lover). In this work, the poet depicts the love of God, his parents and the earthly and sometimes passionate love. In the frequency with which these metaphors are used, the love of God and parents is mentioned once in this book and Other Poems and Poems (11 poems) have all been addressed to other earthly lovers, which is justified by the teenager's correct understanding of adolescence and the desire to establish friendships beyond home and family. In structural and ontological metaphors, the poet uses concepts familiar to the target audience and his or her experiences. What are the elements of nature such as spring, tree, rivulet, bird, wolf, sheep ... and what man-made objects such as windows, bridges, buildings and s.t In all the examples mentioned, the poet presents love and affection as a gentle and comforting subject. This message is very important to the audience who is just experiencing love, and that experience may spill all its existence. In a general metaphor (human being is a two-sided coin) derived from reading the whole work, the poet brings the heavenly-earth combination of human attributes to the eyes of the audience and selects his ideology by choosing different positively charged concepts to the audience.

    Keywords: conceptual metaphor, Love, Compassion, wish to speak
  • Masoumeh Nazari, Auyob Kooshan *, Mahin Masarat Pages 227-246

    Mythical subjects are one of the fundamental and first issues in literature. Undoubtedly, literature and myth are inseparable and myth is a simple and primary effort for imagination of the human world that mostly it is a story about a god or goddess. One of the goddess is moon that is represented as Goddess of Sin, Celine, Artemis, Diana and Anahita. This research tries to investigate the myth of woman and moon as one of the human fundamental beliefs in the verse of Vis and Ramin. In this research, the aim was to extract and explain the myth of woman and moon and respond to the question of what is the reason for similarity between woman and moon. The research method was descriptive-analytical which investigated the myth of woman and moon. According to the findings it can be referred to the moon as the heavenly goddess that embodies the beauty and beautification of the creatures, particularly women who have relationships with moon. On the other hand, this belief has been assigned significant number of similes in the verse of Vis and Ramin.

    Introduction

    In the belief of primitive humans, stones, plants, animals and celestial bodies (moon, sun, and other stars) had spirits, and there were gods and goddess beyond them. The humans visualized heavenly gods as stars. The primitive man imagined the gods as men and women from very beginning. Accordingly, the sun and the moon are no optional in this rule. The sun shines directly. Therefore, one principle is active and the other is passive. The sun is the manifestation of male power and the moon is the manifestation of the female power, and the moon is considered as the maternal goddess and source of power of life. On the other hand, the moon always provokes the sensation of beauty, and the beautiful face people are resembled to the moon. Wherever it is spoken about beautiful faces, the moon is represented and the lovers actually observe their beloved faces in the moon. The woman’s similarity to the moon is one of the common themes of literature that can lead us to think about the reasons for this similarity. When the moon is considered as the manifestation of beauty, what is the logic behind this similarity; although the moon has a smudge and, contrary to popular imagination, may not be too beautiful? So what is the relationship between the moon and the woman, and sometimes even the existence of human? Does this human imagination about the moon have any mythological aspect in its ancient belief? Why are all the beauties in the literary texts and especially in lyrics resembled moon? Considering that this issue is applicable in the literature of different nations, it is necessary to find out the reason for this similarity. In this article, the expansion of the relationship between the moon and the woman is discussed, and the evidence has been obtained from a noble Persian lyric known as Weis and Ramin.

     Research Methodology

    The research method in this research is descriptive-analytic. In this regard, at first, the myths of woman and the moon and their relationship with each other are examined and then analyzed by the samples in the verse of Weiss and Ramin and their relationship with mythological issues.
     3-Discussion The moon, as the source of power and rejuvenation, creates all the bodies and living beings. This issue connects the woman to the moon in the unconscious of the nations, and on this basis, the moon is known as the mother goddess. Mother-goddesses are always related to the moon, and all goddesses were the goddesses of the moon. In the mythology of the world, the moon goddesses have been a symbol of beauty. Astronomers have considered attributes for the moon and light. "Buti, a well-known divine comedian interpreter, quotes from Arab astronomer Al-Mabsar that: The moon is cold, humid, and mysterious planet that sometimes, creates warmth and exhilaration and readiness to work, and sometimes makes sense of purity and need to pray. It always provokes the sense of beauty and friendship, but it also stimulates the magic talent, metaphysics, explorations of the earth and the sea. In a sentimental way, it is a special star of noble women and blessing marriage (Alligier 2010: 1155). In Avesta, the moon is the brightest part of the grateful creatures. In the Mahyasht, it is spoken about the brightness of the moon and pointed out that “Amshaspandan rises and provides that blessing entity and spread on the ground life” (Dosutkhah, vol.1, 1996:326). In Bundehehsh, it is written that the moon grants the creatures light and luminosity. “The moon offers light, happiness and power in three states early moon, crescent moon and full moon”(Samadi, 2004: 100) On this basis, it can be said that the brightness and beauty of the beautiful faces is originated from the moon. As it is said in a part of Bundehesh that “Amhaspand Imardad has likened the beautiful faces to the moon” (Afifi, 2004: 619).
    In folk beliefs, the moon is not only the donor of beauty for the beautiful people but also grants flowers colors and according to this belief, the Persian poets have called the moon the decorator of the flowers” (Mosafa, 1987: 696). “In Persian literature, the moon is mostly a manifestation of beauty and a great example of dignity and perfection. It is related to these concepts that metaphors and various combinations of the fantasy have been created by Iranian poets, and especially the beauty of women has become liken the moon.”(Yahaghi, 1990: 385)

    Conclusion

    The moon, as the benchmark of world rhythms and the source of power and rejuvenation, creates all the bodies and living beings. This issue connects the woman to the moon in the unconscious of the nations, and on this basis, the moon is known as the sky goddess and manifestation of the female power. In the mythology of the world, the goddesses of the moon have been the symbol of beauty and attribute this beauty to the moonlight and its properties. In Avesta, the moon is the brightest part and donor of gratefulness to the creatures. In Mahyasht, it was spoken about luminosity of moon and pointed out that Amshaspandan rises and provides that blessing entity and spread on the ground life. On this basis, it can be said that the brightness and beauty of the beautiful faces is originated from the moon. According to these issues, the poet has portrayed the relationship between the moon and the woman beautifully, and, given the large volume of these similes, it can be considered as one of the features of the Weiss and Ramin poems. In addition, in general, the mythological relationship between the moon and the woman can be mentioned as a result; however, the secondary results of this research are as follows:1- In this verse, 190 couplets points to the evidence referring to the relationship between the woman and the woman.2. Weis who becomes the beloved of Viro, Shah Mobad and Ramin has a stunning beauty and in 156 couplets, the beauty of Weis and her relationship with the moon have been mentioned and only in 34 couplets, it has been pointed to the moon and other beautiful people.3- Because of being beautiful, Weis has been likened to the moon and the sun in seven couplets.4- Men are also likened to the sun, which 23 couplets are devoted to this issue, two of which point to the Shah Mobad, one refers to Viro and three couplets point to Jamshid (Ramin son) and the rest refer to Ramin.It is worth noting that the relationship between the moon and the woman is still present in the life of the people, and every beautiful creature is resembled to the moon, and this issue points the continuity of mythology with human life, and human beings have had myths related to their culture throughout the history. This brief piece of writing can be a valuable alternative to research on the reflections on many mythological issues. 

    Keywords: myths, moon, beauty, woman, Vis, Ramin
  • Morteza Hadian *, Farzad Abdolhosain Pages 247-269

    This article, by means of descriptive-analytical method, uses the library resources to explain the rationalist movement of Iran-Sheubiyh-and the concept of intellectuals. This article answers these questions: How does Nasser Khosrow's intellect develop? How close is his idea to the intellectual movement of Sheubi? What is Nasser Khosrow's intellectual role in Iran's political-social history in that era? Nasser Khosrow's intellectual approach is in two theoretical discussions and the pragmatic role of analysis. Naser Khosrow's intellectual role blends with Iran's rationalist thought. In defense of human rights, he believes in freedom of will, rationalism, reverence for humanity and individuality. Nasir Khosrow, in order to get out of his unfavorable state of affairs, sets out his illuminating thoughts.Naser Khosrow's intellectual role shape in three dimensions: political-economic, cultural, and religious, in opposition to the political power of the Saljugh Sultans and the Caliphate's ideological system in Baghdad. He strives to revive his identity by recalling cultural and endeavors to return to his own self. Criticizes the obstacles to the realization of freedom. Among his other roles is the protest against Saljugh's political dominance and the rule of law of Abbasid caliphate and religious renaissance .

    Introduction

    Nasser Khosrow is an Iranian intellectual poet who has coincided with the era of domination of the non-Iranian Saljugh political System and the sovereignty of the Abbasi caliphs in Baghdad. He understood the social and political situation of his day and always aimed at expounding his illuminating ideas in order to get out of this unfavorable situation. "Sheubiyh had two main branches in Iran, which lasted for centuries in our literature and poetry. The first branch was in the field of mysticism and mysticism. the second branch was the branch of rationality based on knowledge. "(Farzad, 175: 1384)  In rationalism, poets such as Kasai, Ferdowsi, Naser Khosrow, and Khayyam etc. with rationality, attention to pre-Islamic Iranian wisdom, respect for human freedom and the determinism of modernity, have new ideas in the history of thinking - with influence from the plot - to reject the oppressors. Naser Khosrow Ghobadiyani, with an inclination towards the Ismaili religion of the religions of the opposition to the official religion, "in the late 11th century, the Iranian humanistic rationality (Shiei) was merged with a kind of realism and initiated the first social and political critique in our literature." (Ib: 178) Hence, this article seeks to answer these questions: What is the formulation of the persistent and profound intellectual creation in the intellectual system of Naser Khosrow Ghobadiyani? To what extent does it have an intellectual dimension and how does it play an intellectual role? This article tries to understand Nasser Khosro's enlightening views on the political-social history of Iran during the era of Saljugh rulers and Abbasi caliphs and to evaluate his political, social and religious orientations by analyzing the intellectual approach. By analyzing Naser Khosrow's poems based on the elements of the intellectual rationalist movement in Iran and other historical backgrounds in Iran and the Islamic world, a new dimension of Naser Khosrow's views and thoughts is examined. The reaction of this Iranian poet to the decline of human rights and values ​​ determined by the policies of non-Iranian Saljugh rulers and the caliphate of Baghdad. In this case, we will get a different look at Nasser Khosrow's social-political views. 

    Research methodology

    The research method is analytical-explanatory and is done by analyzing the evidence inline text. This research, by explaining the socio-political history of Iran, especially the Iranian Sheubiyh movement and the intellectual role, analyzes the views of Naser Khosrow Ghobadiyani in the poetry court.

    Discussion

    Historical background and community needs vary from society to society, and attitudes are evolving. Intellectual features of the intellectuals can vary from time to time or from place to place. Nasser Khosrow understands his day and criticizes politics, society and culture, which is a criterion of wisdom.  For example, he offers a picture of Islam that is supposed to be superstition and any kind of imitation. On the other hand, in order to escape from the status quo created by the caliphate and the rule of the Saljugh System, it seeks to revive the Iranian identity and seeks to make Iran aware of its culture and heritage. Therefore, the intellectual role of Naser Khorsrow forms in protest against the Saljugh political rule and the religious system of the caliphate and the revival of Iranian identity and freedom.  This is the role of Nasser Khorsro in two branches, an attempt at economic justice and an escape from intellectual repression in confronting the power of the Saljugh System and the caliphate of Baghdad.  A common identity is like a guardian that will remove public interest from any power, and aspire to the material and spiritual communities for all the people of society. The emphasis on knowledge, antiquity, and remembrance of the historical background and ethnicity of Iran is Nasser Khosro's most enlightening efforts to revive Iran's identity and freedom. Nasser Khosrow, with a new and new interpretation of the value and cultural system, will open the way to dangers such as heresy, because the dominant and prevailing norms, by building domination on thought, lead the person to follow, obey and secure the goals of the owners of power. Nasser Khosro himself thinks that he must stand against the causes of the norms of the crookedness and, through superstition and disintegration, try to solve the obstacles and realize the ideal conditions. The intellectual role of Naser Khorsrow is the defense of the trampled people's rights and protest against the authorities.

    Conclusion

    Naser Khosrow's time is the time of the political rule of the Saljughs of non-Iran and the domination of the Abbasi caliphs over Iran, a time when cultural structures and value systems, especially the Iranian identity from the second to the Naser-Khosrow era, were at risk of the destruction of non-Iranian political and ideological sovereignty. His intellectual thought and approach are responses to the political and ideological sovereignty of foreigners and their ideological rigors. The intellectual and literary attitude of the Iranian rationalist Sheubiyh will continue to struggle with the thoughts and literature to defend freedom and dignity of man in the confrontation between political sovereignty and deviant thinking. He tries to reproduce the noble meanings of these concepts. The deepening of Nasser Khosrow's thoughts with the rationalist movement of Iran-Sheubi-is in line with Iranian history. The basis of his intellectual approach is that he focuses on wisdom recognition to protect human beings and always guides people in order to properly diagnose from falsehood and avoid slipping. Of the other deep-seated structures, it is about freedom and liberty to be at the mercy of power. In his view, man must be free to perform verbs. Human beings are at the core of Naser Khosrow's pure minds, and even human beings are a divine being. Human primacy in virtues, adoration of art and spirituality, individual abilities of man. Another aspect of Nasser Khosrow's approach to intellectualism is his pragmatic role that condemns the religious repressions and economic inequalities of the Abbasi caliphs and the Saljugh System in defense of the rights of the people and considers the caliphate of the Abbasi caliph illegitimate. Another role of Naser Khosro's intellectuals is the discovery of value systems and the diversion of values ​​from the natural structure; he confronts religious authority against the causes of the tangled norms and weakens the questioning of the false intellectual foundations. He considers unconscious faithless worthless and man's destruction. Insists on the clarification of religious issues. Nasser Khosrow wants to realize the libertarian and identity-based idea in two areas of cultural revival and political independence. His political ideology has manifested itself with the Saljugh and Caliphate domination of Baghdad. In the field of culture, with cultural reminders and an effort to return to one's own self, it seeks to revive the identity and freedom of Iranians.

    Keywords: Intellect, Sheubiyh, Naser Khosrow, Collection of Poems