فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 26 (بهار 1393)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/04/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Sattarzadeh. M, *Danaei. Sh, Zareiyan. A Page 8
    Introduction

    Ethics in organizations is defined as a system of values. Since humans have specific characteristics on individual and personality aspects, his placement in the managerial positions can bring about different behaviors. When ethical values are internalized among personnel and management of human capital is conducted based on ethical principles, organizational efficiency and effectiveness are enhanced.

    Materials and Methods

    This review article has been compiled through searching valid databases and books related to such keywords as ethical intelligence, managers, workplace and management.

    Results

    Management is a strategy to identify path to success of the organization and planning as to enhancing that. Obtaining ethical intelligence and professional ethical governance is a relative advantage to organizations which can assist establishing ethical responsibility of organization as well as identifying and solving ethical problems. In addition, among other factors contributing to making workplace ethical is regarding for principles of Attribution Theory in ethical governance. Discussion and

    Conclusion

    Scientific and correct evaluation of managers and ensuring their ethical qualifications is important as to making workplace ethical. Internalizing ethics in organizations requires describing theoretical fundamentals and development as well as adopting tactics and solutions which make using ethical norms practical.

    Keywords: Ethical Intelligence, Management, Workplace
  • Tabanejad. Z, *Ebadi. A Page 15

    Currently, cardiac transplant is the standard and effective treatment for patients with end stage heart failure. This article is an attempt to offer common techniques of cardiac transplant, pre and posttransplantation care and some points essential for nurses and patients.

    Materials and Methods

    As a review article, this study has been conducted on cardiac transplant through electronic search of scientific references of the years 2002-2013.

    Results

    For end-stage heart failure patients, cardiac transplant must be conducted according to specific principles. Such complications as dysrhythmias, hemorrhage, rejection and infection are among posttransplantation surgery. Intensive nursing care, timely measures and reactions as well as training patients can help retention of transplanted organ and survival of the patient. Discussion and

    Conclusion

    Due to the special circumstances affecting patients and health system and due to high expenses and stress levels in cardiac transplant, nurses as a part of main team of cardiac transplant surgery, must enhance their knowledge on caring for such patients and play a significant role in trainings needed for rehabilitation and life performance enhancement of patients after transplantation.

    Keywords: Heart, transplant, Rejection, Nursing care, Patient training
  • Ebadi. M, *Sharififar. S, Zareiyan. A Page 22
    Introduction

    Reviewing history of wars especially recent wars shows that many countries have access to chemical, biological and nuclear warfare, hidden and openly and even international conventions could not prevent states from using such warfare. Iraq’s chemical war against Iran is a not very far dark page of human history that has made Iran the biggest victim of chemical war. Individual and collective protections are the first defensive step against pollution or chemical agents. This article highlights the necessity of personal protection among nurses as the first reactors to crisis.

    Materials and Methods

    This paper is a review article conducted by collecting data through library studies and searching databases such as Elsevier, Pro Quest, JAMA by keywords including «nurse», “personal protection» and «chemical attacks»in 2000-2013.

    Results

    Chemical warfare may result in mass casualties among untrained and unprotected forces. The First World War proved that high rates of casualties occurred among those units not experienced in chemical wars. Protective mask provides full protection against gaseous chemical agents and soldiers or people not using their masks on a timely manner or those who have took off their masks earlier, were among victims of chemical attacks. In view of such mass casualties, need to careful planning and provision of necessary trainings for medical units must be taken into account. Through adequate planning and training, conditions of the injured are managed and rate of paralysis is reduced. Discussion and

    Conclusion

    Preparation of nurses as to detecting chemical attacks, self-protection and protecting colleagues and ability to teach personal protection to other personnel of the army, medical staff of other organs and the whole society have a role regarding crisis management. Enhancing performance of personal protection among nurses, reduces rates of casualties and waste of resources, and lowers levels of stress resulting from such attacks on society which sometimes is more severe than physical complications. Lowering stress increases decision making power, appropriate crisis management and provides for offering better services to casualties and accelerating return of society to a balanced condition.

    Keywords: Nurse, Personal protection, Chemical attack
  • Rouhi. M, *Dadgari. F, Farsi. Z Page 29
    Introduction

    One of the situations making us anxious, even by thinking about it, is death. Death anxiety among nurses exists on a daily basis and disregarding it can have adverse consequences including job dissatisfaction and mental problems for nurses as well as not receiving correct and adequate services for patients. On the other hand, a very important and influential factors affecting anxiety is religion and religious beliefs of people. This review study aims at highlighting the importance of enjoying Qur’an to reduce death anxiety.

    Materials and Methods

    This review article has been formulated by searching text book and databases including SID of the years 1986-2013

    Results

    Anxiety is a reaction to an unknown, intrinsic and vague danger. Source of anxiety is no controllable and various elements contribute to its emergence. Moreover, special kinds of anxiety have been identified and named based on their source, among which death anxiety is the most important one. Death anxiety (thanatophobia) is defined as an unusual and great fear of death along with feelings of apprehension of death or process of death while thinking about things occurring after death. As a group of employees greatly contributing to the society, nurses experience different mental states some of which are desirable and some other undesirable. Among desirable variables is death anxiety. In long term, death anxiety can lead to Job fatigue, decrease in efficiency and effectiveness in workplace, high rates of absence, decrease in patients’ satisfaction levels, abandoning nursing occupation, marital problems, alcohol and drug abuse, decrease in creativity, conflicts with colleagues, depression and even suicide among nurses. Death anxiety can has adverse effects on the quality of nursing services and is considered as a tension making factor for nurses. Qur’an teachings direct society toward health. Therefore, enjoying spiritual effects of Qur’an is bound to using this holy book as a useful and accessible way of alleviating mental diseases. This latter point is described in detail in this article. Discussion and

    Conclusion

    Considering effect of death anxiety on physical and mental aspects of people, especially nurses and effect of this anxiety on the process of care for patients and with regard to alleviating effect of Qur’an teachings on the level of such anxiety, it seems that teachings of Qur’an can help all people especially nurses as to their mental health and peace.

    Keywords: Death, Qur’an teachings, Nurs
  • Rashidifar. S, *Kalroozi. F, Farsi. Z Page 35
    Introduction

    Performance improvement in organizations requires an appropriate model for performance evaluation, as realization of organizational goals in the absence of a comprehensive model for assessing and reviewing plans is impossible and organizations can not apply their effective management as to conducting plans, regardless of the what consequences result from actions. Among currently available models are clinical audit and clinical governance. This article aims to identify the impact of the clinical audit in care and its relationship with quality control, quality enhancement as well as clinical effectiveness in nursing.

    Materials and Methods

    This study is a review article based on regular data collection from internet sources including PubMed, and SID, and scientific articles published during 2000 and 2012.

    Results

    The findings suggest that clinical audit is a cyclical process addressing enhancement of service quality in a specific area through passing different stages. Moreover, this concept can be regarded as a tool for measuring and studying quality of care and can be considered as an educational tool to invent novel thoughts regarding care as well as learning from experiences. Discussion and

    Conclusion

    With regard to significant effect of clinical audit process on the quality of eservices provided, it seems that such process can help enhancement of services provided by nurses in clinical environments.

    Keywords: Quality enhancement, Nurses, Clinical services, Clinical audit
  • Nezam Abadi. Z, Jafari. N, Farsi. Z, Zareiyan A Page 43
    Introduction

    Use of e-learning in education is rapidly growing and is considered as a new way to provide public education. Regarding provision of health care, e-learning has provided the opportunity for flexible, convenient and interactive knowledge as well as professional care. This study investigates advantages and disadvantages of this method as to curriculum of nurses.

    Materials and Methods

    This review article is based on papers published in such databases as Ebesco, Elsevior, PUBMED of the years 2001- 2013.

    Results

    As a guiding and self-motivating method, E-learning provides students, educators, nursing administrators and educational institutions with many benefits. In many studies regarding nursing, the efficacy of e-learning in nursing education has been discussed. Despite positive features of e-learning, aspect of individual study in this method of learning has been criticized and this method has not find any place in theoretical and clinical nursing education yet. Discussion and

    Conclusion

    Health institutions should review their training courses and reconstruct them in order to achieve organizational goals, improve knowledge and self-efficacy of members. They must use novel educational methods and invest in nontraditional forms of education along with using traditional teaching methods. In this regard, E-learning is a leading method.

    Keywords: Education, Nurses, E-learning, Electronic education
  • Haji Zadeh.M, *Sharififar. S Page 51
    Introduction

    Since ancient times, human flu has been a plague on human and has been mentioned as Greek’s tragedy in the works of Hippocrates. As we all have experienced, it is very bothersome. Global influenza pandemics occur every 10 to 20 years and at least 5 cases have been reported since 1889. This paper is an attempt to investigate clinical and diagnostic-therapeutic issues and compilations of Flue H1N1. We will highlight these issues in detail.

    Materials and Methods

    This review paper has been compiled using electronic sources, articles indexed in MEDLINE and PubMed (MEDLINE & PUBMED) and related research from 2000 to 2011.

    Results

    Flu is a contagious respiratory infection caused by different types of influenza viruses. Virus types A, B, C are responsible for emergence of this disease in human. Type A, B cause annual epidemy of influenza. Influenza virus type A is constantly changing and is generally responsible for large outbreaks of epidemies. Unlike type A, flu virus type B has been found only in human and causes a milder reaction of influenza compared to type A. Virus type C milder than A and B and usually do not cause any epidemy. Influenza Type A Pandemic (2009) was first described in April 2009 and it was told its virus has been a combination of human, swine and avian viruses called mutated virus A (H1N1). Pandemic of the disease first hit Veracruz in Mexico and quickly took over 218 countries and killed a total of 18, 986 people. Discussion and

    Conclusions

    In pandemic of new influenza viruses, as people are not protected against them, many become sick. This disease comes with various economic, social and mental complications. With regard to adverse effects of pandemic on all aspects of life and approximately 30% reduction in personnel number of the system, paying attention to this disease and managing it during pandemics is important.

    Keywords: Flu, Swine Flu, Pandemic
  • Teimouri. F, Rajai. N Page 57
    Introduction

    Shaken baby syndrome is the most severe form of physical abuse in infancy and the most frequent unnatural cause of death. More than two-thirds of all fatal cases of child abuse occur at this age. Over 90% of all intracranial injuries during infancy are due to abuse. This study aims at investigating definition, prevalence, risk factors, clinical symptoms and diagnosis of shaken baby syndrome.

    Material and Methods

    This study is a review article conducted based on on the data available in credible databases of the years 2000-2011.

    Results

    Shaken baby syndrome encompasses a set of symptoms resulting from shaking the baby. This syndrome occurs when caregivers shake a crying baby strongly forward and backward by holding him/her at the trunk or arms. shaken baby syndrome can occur at any age but due to having big head, heavy brain and weakness in muscles of the neck, babies are more susceptible to it. Children who have been under severe shakes show such symptoms as irritability, weakness, sickness, vomiting, convulsion, lack of consciousness, apnea, or death, while those of weaker shakes show non-specific symptoms similar to viral diseases, infection and malnutrition. Shaken baby syndrome is diagnosed based on triple symptoms including encephalopathy and subdural and retinal hemorrhage. These children experience various consequences ranging from healthy look to permanent disability including mental retardation, developmental delays, paralysis, epilepsy, visual and hearing deficiency and personality disorders. Discussion and

    Conclusions

    Although prevalent, shaken baby syndrome is completely preventable. Such prevention is achievable through different ways including protecting child against misbehavior of caregivers, providing parents with information regarding legal rights of their children and training health caregivers, physicians, nurses, social workers as well as parents on reasons and dangers resulting from shaken baby syndrome.

    Keywords: Head injury, Brain damage, Child abuse