فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:12 Issue: 1, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/02/23
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Mohammad Azami, Motahareh Pilevarzadeh, Neda Sharifi * Pages 1-10
    Background
    The low level of drug adherence in addicts who are quitting is one of the biggest challenges inthe treatment and management of this disease. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect ofinformation therapy on adherence to treatment among the patients in addiction treatment centers.
    Methods
    The present quasi-experimental study was performed on 60 patients referred to addictiontreatment centers in Jiroft City, Iran. The control and experimental groups were selected using simplerandom sampling method. The 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale was used for data collection. Thelevel of adherence to treatment was assessed before and after the intervention, which consisted of 6 one-hourtraining sessions per week.
    Findings
    The adherence to medication was low in both experimental and control groups before thenotification. However, the chi-square value obtained by comparing the frequencies of the experimental andcontrol groups in three variables of adherence level (high, moderate, and low) was 9.84 which wasstatistically significant (P = 0.007). Therefore, there was a significant difference between the experimentaland control groups after information therapy. In fact, the information in the experimental group had asignificant and positive effect.
    Conclusion
    Because of the low level of adherence to treatment, it is recommended to use informationtherapy to give information on timely and correct use of drugs as well as its importance in the treatment ofaddiction; so that the level of adherence would improve.
    Keywords: Treatment adherence, compliance, Information therapy, Patient compliance, Substance abuse treatment centers
  • Pooya Derakhshan *, Farnad Imani, Seyed Alireza Seyed Siamdoust, Sorour Garousi, Nasrin Nouri Pages 11-17
    Background

    Studies have reported lower pain threshold, spinal anesthesia duration, and level of sensoryblock in addicts compared to non-addict patients undergoing spinal anesthesia for surgery. Moreover, bloodgas and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were likely to be affected as well. The aim in the present study is to evaluateCSF and spinal parameters in addict versus non-addict patients during lower limb surgery.

    Methods

    In this case-control study, 22 opium addicts and 22 sex- and age- matched non-addicts undergoinglower limb surgery under spinal anesthesia were included. The CSF parameters, venous blood gas (VBG), andsensory and motor block findings were compared between the groups.

    Findings

    The addict and non-addict patients were similar regarding CSF and blood gas parameters excepthigher pH in VBG (7.39 ± 0.06 vs. 7.33 ± 0.11, P = 0.030) and CSF (7.39 ± 0.06 vs. 7.33 ± 0.11, P = 0.030) foraddict patients. The addict patients had significantly later onset of sensory block (5.72 ± 1.57 vs. 3.16 ± 0.93minutes, P < 0.001) and shorter motor block duration (137.72 ± 11.51 vs. 149.09 ± 14.44 minutes, P = 0.006),with no significant difference in the sensory block duration and motor block onset.

    Conclusion

    Addict patients have delayed onset of sensory block with shorter duration of motor block and lowersensory block level. Among the blood gas and CSF markers, only pH was significantly higher in addict patients,needing further evaluations; however, it seems that addiction has no significant effect on these parameters.

    Keywords: Opioid-related disorders, Anesthesia, Spinal, Opium, Bupivacaine, cerebrospinal fluid
  • MohammadReza Baneshi, Farzaneh Zolala, Maryam Zamanian, Nooshin Zarei, MohammadReza Heydari * Pages 18-24
    Background

    Network Scale Up (NSU) is applied in many settings to estimate the size of hidden populations.The visibility of alcohol consumption - as a hidden behavior - in Iran has not been yet set. Our aim is to estimatethe visibility factor (VF) of alcohol consumption in Iran which is an Islamic country in the Middle East.

    Methods

    Ninety persons who had a history of alcohol consumption were recruited. Relationships in networkwere aligned in three main subgroups: immediate family, extended family, and non-family. According to thegame of contact methodology, participants answered questions about total and aware number of personsthey know in each relationship category. VF was calculated by dividing total number of people aware aboutthe respondent’s alcohol consumption by total number of respondent’s social network. The 95% confidenceintervals (CIs) were computed through bootstrapping.

    Findings

    The mean and standard deviation (SD) of participants’ age was 32.9 ± 10.2, the sex ratio was 3.Overall VF (95% CI) was 40% (33% to 47%). VF was estimated at 44% and 23% among men and women’snetwork, respectively. The immediate family was the highest informed group, followed by non-family andextended family members.

    Conclusion

    The visibility of alcohol consumption in Iran was not high. This is due to religious and legalprohibitions around it

    Keywords: alcohol drinking, Visibility, Size estimation, Iran
  • Peymaneh Shirinbayan, Mahyar Salavati, Farin Soleimani, Ahmad Saeedi, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi, Sahel Hemmati Garakani, Roshanak Vameghi * Pages 25-33
    Background

    Substance abuse is a critical problem in most countries, especially in developing ones. Earlydetection is the pre-requisite of early control, for which reliable and valid tools are required. In the presentstudy, we aimed at measuring the psychometric properties of the 10-item Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10)in Iranian individuals.

    Methods

    After translation and back-translation of the questionnaire, 244 adults were recruited from TehranMegacity, Iran, and completed the questionnaires. Participants were recruited by a multistage randomizedcluster sampling method. Reliability was determined by Cronbach’s alpha. Also, construct validity wasevaluated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA).

    Findings

    The internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the total score of the Persianversion of DAST-10 was 0.93. EFA evoked only one factor for DAST-10. The CFA for 1-factor models forDAST-10 indicated an acceptable fit for the proposed models.

    Conclusion

    The results prove desirable reliability and validity of the Persian version of the DAST which canbe utilized as a screening instrument for drug abuse among Iranian adults.

    Keywords: Substance abuse detection, Validation studies, Psychometrics
  • Mitra Rahimi, MohammadAmin Eshraghi, Shahin Shadnia * Pages 34-39
    Background

    The present study is conducted with the aim to assess the lead contamination in opium tincture,methadone oral solution, and opium.

    Methods

    10 samples from each of the matters of opium tinctures, methadone oral solutions, and opium(provided by the Law Enforcement Force of the Islamic Republic of Iran) were collected. Then, an atomicabsorption spectrophotometer (AAS) was used to measure lead concentration in each of the samples. Datawere analyzed using the SPSS software. A P value of 0.05 or less was considered to be statistically significant(Two-tailed).

    Findings

    In this study, the amount of lead measured in all samples was equal or less than 5 parts per million(ppm) and the only exception was the lead level of 5.6 ppm in one of the opium tincture samples, which wasslightly higher than the standard lead level.

    Conclusion

    The results of the current study showed that lead was present in opium tincture, methadone oralsolution, and opium, but it was not in toxic levels. It is reasonable for opium derived medicinal products, butthe low levels of lead in opium may need to be addressed at different times in different regions of the country

    Keywords: Lead Poisoning, Methadone, Papaver, Opium
  • Nismat Javed *, Sikandar Saeed, Syed Muhammad Shah, Rabia Ali, Talha Kamran Khan, Saima Perwaiz Iqbal Pages 40-45
    Background
    Smoking has become a major issue worldwide. With the advancement in technology, morevulnerable populations, such as teenagers, are also being harmed. One deterrent is the presence of graphiclabels on cigarette packs. With this rationale in mind, the objective of our study is to assess the impact ofthese warning labels on the habits and opinions of smokers.
    Methods
    A cross-sectional study was conducted by distributing a validated paper-based questionnaire.The sample size was calculated to be 200 using statistical software. The study targeted students ofIslamabad, Pakistan, who were studying in twelfth grade and were smokers. The sampling method usedwas ‘snowball sampling’.
    Findings
    128 (64%) males and 72 (36%) females participated in the study. The mean age of the participantswas 17.59 ± 0.51 years. 40 participants reported choosing local brands for cigarettes due to cigarette‘freshness’, regardless of presence or absence of a graphic label, which was a new concept. 94% ofparticipants believed that presence of a visual label helped with understanding the harm and 78% believedthat the side effects were accurately portrayed. Participants who were more than 17 years of age believed thatthe graphic label provided a clear description of the consequences of smoking. Similar results were seen inthe female participants of the study.
    Conclusion
    There is a general consensus on graphic labels altering the opinions of smokers. The presenceof these labels is, however, targeting only a specific type of audience and hence, should be expanded for alarger audience
    Keywords: smoking, Community surveys, Students, Pakistan
  • Mohadese Kamali, Haleh Tajadini, Mehrzad Mehrabani, Masoud Moghadari * Pages 46-57
    Background

    Drug addiction is a major health problem for modern human communities. The earliest historicalevidence of opium use can be found in the writings of Theophrastus in the 3rd century BC. Since then, opiumuse and abuse has spread to all corners of the world, specifically the Eastern countries. This study aimed toinvestigate the consequences of opium use and their treatments according to Persian medicine.

    Methods

    In this narrative review, primary sources of Persian medicine and modern medicine databases ofPubMed, Google Scholar, PsycINFO, the American Academy of Medical Sciences, and the United NationsOffice on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) were searched with relevant keywords.

    Findings

    In Persian medicine, the Persian equivalent of the word “Opium” is “Afioon”, which refers to thesap of “Khashkhaash” or Papaver somniferum, traditionally used as a recreational drug as well as a sedative.Opioid use can cause social and psychological anxiety, muscle and tissue degradation, irritability, stomachweakness, loss of skin softness, and change in facial features.

    Conclusion

    Opium addiction is generally harmful to the body’s faculties. The repeated use of opium,disregarding circumstances and dosage of use and without the simultaneous use of its modifiers, can harmthe entire body and even lead to fatality.

    Keywords: Medicine, Traditional, Opium, Antidotes, Hypnotics, sedatives
  • Arefeh Ameri, Sareh Keshvardoost *, Kambiz Bahaadinbeigy Pages 58-68
    Background

    Today, increased use of methamphetamine in homosexual men is associated with high-risk sexualbehaviors and (HIV) epidemic. Mobile phone-based interventions are an accessible and rapid method toprovide healthcare services to this population. This study aimed to systematically review the effects of mobilephone-based interventions on methamphetamine use and high-risk sexual behaviors in homosexual men.

    Methods

    This systematic review was conducted by two researchers via searching in PubMed, Google Scholar,Web of Science, Scopus, and PsycINFO databases to retrieve the published articles regarding the effects ofmobile phone-based interventions on the control of methamphetamine use and high-risk sexual behaviors.

    Findings

    Among 250 unique articles that were retrieved, only five cases met all the inclusion criteria of thestudy. Accordingly, some of the applied interventions included text messaging (n = 4) and mobile apps(n = 1). In this regard, the use of text messaging significantly decreased the rates of methamphetamine use,condomless anal intercourse (CAI), and HIV transmission among homosexual men.

    Conclusion

    According to the results, short-term interventions based on text messaging could decrease therates of methamphetamine use and the high-risk sexual behaviors associated with HIV infection inhomosexual men. Despite the positive impact of these interventions, long-term follow-ups are required forindividuals using methamphetamine in different communities

    Keywords: Methamphetamine, Telemedicine, Text messaging, Human Immunodeficiency Virus