فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:18 Issue: 4, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/02/24
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Zaima Ali*, Saba Khaliq, Saima Zaki, Hafiz Usman Ahmad, Khalid Pervaiz Lone Pages 235-242
    Background

    Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy affecting about 2-10% pregnancies worldwide. mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-), Fas, and FasL have been reported to be altered in placental bed in preeclamptic pregnancies. We hypothesized that the expression of these genes is also altered in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in preeclampsia.

    Objectives

    To compare the expression of Fas receptor and related genes in PBMCs of preeclamptic and normotensive pregnant women.

    Materials and Methods

    A cross-sectional comparative study comprising of 18 cases and 18 controls was designed. 5 ml of venous blood was drawn and collected considering aseptic measures. Buffy coat was separated by centrifugation and stored at -20°C. Favor Prep total RNA Isolation Kit (Favorgen, Taiwan) was used for RNA extraction. The mRNA expression of TNF-, Fas, and FasL was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction in PBMCs in preeclamptic and normal pregnancies.

    Results

    A significant increase in mRNA expression of TNF-, Fas, and FasL (p ≤ 0.001) was observed in PBMCs of preeclamptic pregnancies compared to the control group (p ≤ 0.001). Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between the TNF- mRNA expression and Fas and FasL (p ≤ 0.001).

    Conclusion

    The results lead to the conclusion that mRNA expression of TNF-, Fas, and FasL in the maternal PBMCs is altered in preeclamptic pregnancies and might contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease.

    Keywords: Preeclampsia, TNF-, Fas, Apoptosis
  • Fatemeh Moradi, Akram Ghadiri Anari, Ali Dehghani, Seyed Reza Vaziri, Behnaz Enjezab* Pages 243-252
    Background

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine and metabolic disorders known with irregular menstruation, hirsutism, alopecia, obesity, infertility, and acne. These symptoms cause a negative effect on the satisfaction of body image, self-esteem, and quality of life in such patients. Recent studies emphasize the need to consider the psychological problems in these women and also the need for appropriate interventions.

    Objective

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of group counseling based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) on body image and self-esteem in patients with PCOS.

    Materials and Methods

    In this randomized controlled trial, 52 women with PCOS were randomly allocated to intervention and control groups (n = 26/each) using the table of random numbers. Group counseling based on the ACT was held in eight sessions of 90 min once a week for the intervention group. The demographic questionnaire, Littleton development of the body image concern inventory and Rosenberg self-esteem scale were completed in both groups before, immediately after, and one month after the intervention.

    Results

    The mean scores of body image concern (p = 0.001) and self-esteem (p ≤ 0.001) in the intervention group after the intervention and follow-up were significantly different from the control group.

    Conclusions

    Based on the findings of this study, use of cognitive-behavioral therapies in health care centers is recommended as a complementary method.

    Keywords: Acceptance, commitment therapy, Body image, Self-esteem, Polycystic ovary syndrome, Cognitive behavior therapies
  • Narges Zaeemzadeh, Shahideh Jahanian Sadatmahalleh, Saeideh Ziaei*, Anoshirvan Kazemnejad, Azadeh Mottaghi, Neda Mohamadzadeh, Maryam Movahedinejad Pages 253-264
    Background

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) increases the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Insulin resistance (IR) plays a major role in the pathophysiology of both PCOS and MetS.

    Objective

    This study was designed to compare the prevalence of MetS among different phenotypes of PCOS and its relationship with androgenic components.

    Materials and Methods

    182 participants eligible for this five-group comparative study were selected by convenience sampling method. They were classified according to the Rotterdam criteria: clinical and/or biochemical hyperandrogenism (H) + PCOS on ultrasound (P) + ovulation disorders (O) (n = 41), clinical and/or biochemical H + PCOS on P (n = 33), PCOS on P + O (n = 40), clinical and/or biochemical H + O (n = 37), and control (without PCOS) (n = 31). MetS was measured based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Androgenic components included freeandrogen-index (FAI), total-testosterone (TT) level and sex-hormone-binding-globulin
    (SHBG).

    Results

    A significant difference was observed between the study groups in terms of MetS prevalence (p = 0.01). In phenotype H+P+O, there was a statistically significant positive association between TG and TT, and a significant negative association between SBP and DBP with SHBG. In phenotype O+P, WC was inversely associated with SHBG. In phenotype H+O, FBS and TG were positively associated with FAI but HDL was inversely associated with FAI. Moreover, WC and DBP were positively associated with TT in phenotype H+O. No associations were detected between MetS parameters and androgenic components in other PCOS subjects (phenotype H+P) and in the control group. TT was significantly higher in the PCOS group suffering from MetS (p = 0.04).

    Conclusion

    According to the research results, hyperandrogenic components are potent predictors of metabolic disorders. Thus, we suggest that MetS screening is required for the prevention of MetS and its related complications in PCOS women.

    Keywords: Polycystic ovary syndrome, Metabolic syndrome, Hyperandrogenism
  • Ben Enoluomen Ehigiator, Elias Adikwu* Pages 265-274
    Background

    The uses of toxicologically unscreened plants to enhance fertility can be associated with adverse consequences.

    Objective

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the ethanolic stem back extract of X. aethiopica (EEXA) on the fertility indices of male albino rats.

    Materials and Methods

    Sixty male albino rats (weighing 200-250 gr) were grouped and administered by gavage with 200-800 mg/kg of EEXA daily for 15, 30, and 60 days. After the administration of EEXA, the rats were weighed and sacrificed. Blood samples were collected, serum samples were extracted, and evaluated for testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone, prolactin, estradiol, luteinizing hormone and progesterone levels. The testes, epididymis, and prostrate were harvested, weighed and testes were evaluated for sperm parameters.

    Results

    Significant increase in body weight (p = 0.02) with significant decreases in testes (p = 0.01), epididymis (p = 0.01), and prostate (p = 0.02) weights occurred in rats administered with EEXA when compared to the control group. Significant (p < 0.001) dose and time- dependent decreases in sperm count, volume, motility, and normal morphology were obtained in rats administered with EEXA when compared to the control group. However, there were no significant (p > 0.05) effects on sperm pH when compared to control. Furthermore, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, and testosterone levels were significantly decreased whereas serum prolactin, estradiol, and progesterone levels were significantly increased in a dose-dependent fashion in rats administered with EEXA when compared to the control group.

    Conclusion

    The findings in this study showed that the use of X. aethiopica may be detrimental to male reproduction function.

    Keywords: Xylopia aethiopica, Toxicity, Sperm, Hormone, Rat
  • Mahdieh Zare, Tahereh Haghpanah*, Majid Asadi Shekari, Seyed Hassan Eftekhar Vaghefi Pages 275-286
    Background

    Formaldehyde (FA) is one of the most widely used materials in industries and in sciences. Prolonged contact with FA might have harmful effects on fertility due to the increase in the reactive oxygen species level. On the other hand, date palm (Phoenix Dactilifera L.) fruit extract (DPFE) contains a high concentration of natural antioxidants that could scavenge free radicals.

    Objective

    The aim was to investigate the prophylactic effects of DPFE, with strong antioxidant properties, on FA-induced testicular toxicity in male mice.

    Materials and Methods

    Thirty-two adult NMRI male mice with a weight range of 25-35 gr (9-10 wk old) were randomly divided into four groups: control group (distilled water, orally for 35 days), FA group (FA; 0.25 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 20 days), treatment group (Date (DT) + FA; DPFE, 4 mg/kg for 35 days followed by FA administration, 0.25 mg/kg, i.p., for 20 days), date fruit extract group (DT; DPFE, 4 mg/kg, orally for 35 days). After this, blood was collected and left epididymis and testis tissues were isolated to evaluate the sperm parameters and histological examination, respectively.

    Results

    The FA administration increased the sperm morphological anomalies and reduced the sperm count, viability and motility, and also testosterone compared to the control group (p ≤ 0.001). In addition, histological studies of the testes showed that FA causes changes in the testis seminiferous tubules such as destruction of germinal epithelium and vacuolization of the tubules. The DPFE consumption before FA administration could partially ameliorate the reduced testosterone, sperm, and testicular parameters due to FA.

    Conclusion

    The DPFE use might have discount effects on FA-induced testicular toxicity.

    Keywords: Formaldehyde, Date fruit, Testis, Toxicity, Sperm, Testosterone
  • Maryam Eftekhar, Lida Saeed* Pages 287-294
    Background

    Aromatase inhibitors prevent the aromatization of androgens into estrogens, which reduces the negative feedback of estrogen on the hypothalamicpituitary axis. It is clear that increasing the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormones results in an increased follicular growth.

    Objective

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of adding letrozole to gonadotropin on in vitro fertilization outcomes in normal responders.

    Materials and Methods

    In this randomized clinical trial, 100 normal responder women candidate for controlled ovarian stimulation were randomly enrolled in two groups (n = 50/each). In the case group letrozole was added to gonadotropin in the antagonist protocol. The control group received the conventional antagonist protocol. The main outcome was clinical and chemical pregnancy; and the second outcomes were the number of mature oocytes, the fertilization rate, estradiol level, and the total dose of gonadotropins.

    Results

    Basic clinical and demographic features were comparable between the groups. Estradiol level on the day of human-chorionic-gonadotropin administration and the total gonadotropin consumption were significantly higher in the control group than the case group (p = 0.045). In addition, the number of MII oocytes was higher (but not significantl) in the case group than the control group (p = 0.09). Moreover, the endometrial thickness was significantly lower in the case group. There were no significant differences in fertilization rate and chemical and clinical pregnancy rates between the two groups.

    Conclusion

    Although adding letrozole to gonadotropin in normal responders reduces the total dose of gonadotropin, it does not improve the pregnancy outcomes.

    Keywords: Letrozole, Ovarian stimulation, Pregnancy
  • Firouzeh Sadeghzadeh, Azizeh Sadeghzadeh, Saeed Changizi Ashtiyani*, Sepideh Bakhshi, Farideh Jalali Mashayekhi, Mehry Mashayekhi, Hossein Poorcheraghi, Ali Zarei, Mostafa Jafari Pages 295-306
    Background

    Ceratonia silique (Ceratonia) is a medicinal herb with antioxidant properties that reduces oxidative stress.

    Objective

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant effects of Ceratonia extract on improving the toxicity induced by cyclophosphamide (CP) on spermatogenesis.

    Materials and Methods

    54 male Wistar rats (4 months old) weighing 200-250 gr were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 9/each): “group 1 (control) underwent the normal diet and water; group 2 (sham) received 2 ml/day normal saline; group 3 (positive control) received 300 mg/kg/day Ceratonia extract; group 4 (Ceratonia + CP) received Ceratonia extract (300 mg/kg/day) + 5 mg/kg/day CP (Endoxan, baxter oncology gmbh, Germany) after 4 hr; group 5 (CP) received 5 mg/kg/day CP + normal saline 4 hr after it; and group 6 (CP + Ceratonia) received Ceratonia extract (300 mg/kg/day) 4 hr after 5 mg/kg/day CP.” 24 hr after the last gavage, heart blood sampling was performed to measure the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), ferric reducing antioxidant power, testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone. The left caudal epididymis was cut in the Ham’s F10 and the released spermatozoa were used to analyze sperm parameters. The histology of the right testes was studied using stereological techniques and the left testes were used to measure the level of tissue MDA and ferric reducing antioxidant power.

    Results

    A significant increase in the mean level of MDA (p = 0.013) was seen in the CP compared to the control group. Sperm motility (p = 0.001) and count (p = 0.002), serum and tissue total antioxidant (p ≤ 0.001) and serum testosterone levels (p = 0.019) decreased in the CP compared to the control group. Ceratonia extract could significantly prevent the adverse effects of CP on sperm motility (p < 0.001), the mean levels of tissue MDA (p = 0.018), serum total antioxidant (p = 0.045), and testosterone (p < 0.001).

    Conclusion

    The Ceratonia extract can modify the reproductive toxicity of CP in rat due to the presence of antioxidant compounds.

    Keywords: Cyclophosphamide, Ceratonia siliqua, Spermatogenesis, Rat, Spermatogenesis indexes
  • Farahnaz Farzaneh*, Fatemeh Afshar Pages 307-310
    Background

    Infertility is characterized by the inability to obtain a successful pregnancy after 6 months or more with unprotected and regular intercourse. In developing countries, the incidence of infertility is 2%. The causes of infertility could be male factor or female factor, or mixed factor.

    Objective

    This study was conducted with the aim of comparison the ovarian response to letrozole alone and letrozole plus dexamethasone in infertile women with poly cystic ovarian disease (PCOS).

    Materials and Methods

    This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 120 infertile women with PCOS referred to Ali-Ebne-Abitaleb hospital, Zahedan, Iran from February to August 2017 into two groups: group I received letrozole alone and group II recived letrozole plus dexamethasone. The endometrial thickness, follicle diameter, and ovulation were evaluated and compared by ultrasound on days 12 to 14.

    Results

    The mean thickness of endometrium was not different between two groups. Pregnancy rate was 8% in letrozole group and 23% in Letrozole plus Dexamethasone (p = 0.024). Also, the mean diameter of follicles in two groups were not statistically significant.

    Conclusions

    Overall, this study showed that dexamethasone may increase pregnancy rate.

    Keywords: Letrozole, Dexamethasone, PCOS, Induction ovulation