فهرست مطالب

نگره - پیاپی 52 (زمستان 1398)
  • پیاپی 52 (زمستان 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/10/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • علی ملک پائین*، ژانگ چانگ هونگ صفحات 5-23
    تحلیلگران معتقدند که نگارگران و بویژه نگارگران مکتب هرات از دانش هندسه بصورت رمزگونه و پنهانی در کار خود استفاده کرده اند و این نحوه کاربرد را «هندسه پنهان» نامیده اند. «هندسه پنهان» در واقع بکارگیری ساختار هندسی معین و مستتر در اثر به منظور ایجاد یک کل منسجم است، به نحوی که بواسطه آن، بیان هنری اثر چند لایه میشود و مخاطب تا میزانی که به عمق تصویر راه یابد از معانی آن بهره می برد. اندک تحقیقات انجام شده در این باره بیشتر به مکتب هرات مربوط است. در این پژوهش تبیین مبانی نظری و یافته های عینی و نیز بررسی زمینه های تاریخی کاربرد هندسه در هنر نگارگری ایران و بررسی آنها در نگاره «به لشکر نمودن اسکندر سخن گوشه نشینان را» انجام می شود. لذا هدف این پژوهش ضمن بررسی هندسه پنهان، چگونگی استفاده از ساختار هندسی حساب شده و هدفمند و هماهنگ با مضمون روایت در نگاره مذکور می باشد. بدین منظور سوالهای اصلی پژوهش عبارتند از: هندسه پنهان در نگاره مورد نظر کدام است؟ آیا نگارگر نگاره مذکور از هندسه پنهان به صورت هدفمند و در جهت مضمون نگاره استفاده نموده است؟ روش تحقیق در این پژوهش توصیفی- تحلیلی و روش گردآوری اطلاعات کتابخانه ای است. نتیجه این پژوهش نشان میدهد که نگارگران هرات بویژه نگارگر نگاره مذکور از هندسه پنهان بطور آگاهانه و هدفمند، به منظور جانمایی عناصر مختلف تصویر و ایجاد ارتباط بصری و مفهومی میان آنها و کاربست نمادین ساختار هندسی مورد استفاده، بهره برده اند.
    کلیدواژگان: نگارگری، مکتب هرات، ساختار، هندسه پنهان، خمسه نظامی، قاسم علی
  • مینا صدری، حسین عصمتی* صفحات 25-37

    صور خیال در ادبیات، بالاخص در شاهنامه ی فردوسی، قابلیت های تصویری نگارگری را گسترش داده است. هدف اصلی از بررسی و تطبیق داستان های شاهنامه با عناصر تصویری نگاره های شاهنامه ی تهماسبی 944 ه. ق، معرفی صورت های خیال شامل تشبیه، استعاره و کنایه، به عنوان عواملی تاثیرگذار و پیش برنده در روند روایت تصویری بوده است. روش تحقیق توصیفی - تحلیلی و شیوه جمع آوری اطلاعات کتابخانه ای بوده است، و به منظور دست یابی به بخشی از داده ها، عناصر تصویری 6 نگاره - به عنوان نماینده ی نسخه - با صورت های خیال همان داستان در شاهنامه فردوسی و دیگر متون ادبی، مطابقت داده شده و چگونگی ترجمان تصویری متن داستان و آرایه های ادبی آن به شیوه ی تطبیق و تحلیل محتوا مطالعه شده است. سوالات این تحقیق عبارت است از 1. آیا عناصر تصویری نگاره های مذکور با صور خیال در داستان مربوط و دیگر ابیات شاهنامه نسبتی دارند؟ 2.صور خیال شاهنامه، چگونه در نگاره ها به کار رفته و چه کارکردی در روایت تصویری دارند؟ نتایج تحقیق با توجه به سوال اول نشان می دهد بخشی از عناصر تصویری 6 نگاره چون اژدهای درون ابر، شاهین و سیمرغ، آب، گرفت و گیرها و سروها، با صور خیال در اشعار شاهنامه ی فردوسی نسبت دارند. با توجه به یافته ها، پاسخ سوال دوم چنین به دست آمد؛ برخی از عناصر تصویری در نگاره های تهماسبی با کارکرد نمادین، برگردان تصویری صور خیال شاهنامه ی فردوسی بوده و نقش تکمیلی برای روایت تصویری داستان داشته اند.

    کلیدواژگان: شاهنامه ی تهماسبی، صور خیال، استعاره، تشبیه، کنایه، ترجمان تصویری
  • شعبانعلی قربانی*، قباد کیانمهر، محمدتقی آشوری صفحات 39-51

    صنایع دستی رشته ای است که علاوه بر عوامل فرهنگی، هویتی و تاریخی، عناصر طراحی نظیر مسایل کاربردی، ارگونومی و عوامل انسانی، شناخت مواد، زیبایی شناسی و عوامل محیطی نیز در آن دخیل است. عدم تفکیک مفهومی انواع «طراحی» در برنامه ی درسی موجب شده است که دانشجویان بدون شناخت فرایند علمی طراحی یک محصول از تعریف نیاز، گروه هدف، ایده پردازی، ارزیابی، ارگونومی، استانداردها، نمونه سازی و در نهایت تولید، وارد کارگاه های عمومی و تخصصی شده و طراحی دانشجویان غالبا به صورت احساسی، تجربی، تقلیدی و یا طرح های پیشنهادی اساتید شکل گیرد. هدف از این مقاله مطالعه و مقایسه ی نحوه ی برخورد با مقوله ی طراحی در برنامه ی درسی کارشناسی صنایع دستی در دانشگاه های ایران با دانشگاه نیویورک است تا بدین سوالات اساسی پاسخ دهد که: الف) رویکرد و ویژگی هر کدام از این برنامه های آموزشی در برخورد با مقوله ی طراحی چیست و ب) چگونه می توان از نتایج تحقیق جهت بهبود آموزش طراحی در رشته ی صنایع دستی دانشگاه های ایران سود جست؟ نتایج تحقیق مبین این است که آموزش صنایع دستی در ایران همچنان دارای رویکردی سنتی، با هدف حفاظت، با نگاه به گذشته، استادمحور و مبتنی بر شیوه های استاد-شاگردی است و لذا اهمیت، کمیت و کیفیت ارایه ی دروس تخصصی طراحی نیز متاثر از آن، کمتر از حد انتظار است. در مقام مقایسه رویکرد آموزشی صنایع دستی در دانشگاه نیویورک، پیشرو، آینده نگر، خلاقانه، دانشجومحور و مسیله محور است که نمود آن را در کمیت و کیفیت ارایه ی دروس تخصصی طراحی شاهد هستیم. همچنین برگزاری رشته ی صنایع دستی به صورت عمومی در دانشگاه های ایران موجب شده است که کارگاه های متنوع با اهداف متفاوت، بخش اعظم برنامه ی درسی را به خود اختصاص دهند و ظرفیت ارایه ی دروس تخصصی نظیر طراحی محدود باشد. در دانشگاه نیویورک رویکرد تخصصی، موجب ارایه ی تخصصی دروس طراحی گردیده است. روش تحقیق در این مقاله تحلیلی-تطبیقی و روش تجزیه و تحلیل به صورت ترکیبی کیفی-کمی و جمع آوری اطلاعات به صورت کتابخانه ای و میدانی بوده است.

    کلیدواژگان: آموزش عالی ایران، کارشناسی صنایع دستی، برنامه ی درسی، دیزاین، طراحی ترسیمی، طراحی سنتی، دانشگاه نیویورک
  • بهاره جهانمرد*، نیما ولی بیگ صفحات 53-67

    سنگ مزارهای آرامستان ارامنه ی جلفای اصفهان با گنجینه ای از نگاره های فرشتگان و نقوش دیگر، از دوران صفوی و در طی چند قرن بستر هنر آفرینی هنرمندان و حجاران بوده است ، که با استفاده از تناسبات، ترکیب بندی ها و شکل های گوناگون ایجاد شده اند. ارزش روابط موجود در سنگ مزارها و کمبود پژوهش های صورت گرفته اقتضا می کند تا در عرصه ی نگهداری و بررسی آن تلاش بیش تری صورت گیرد. روابط هندسی مشخصی در تقسیم بندی کادر سنگ قبور ارامنه و تناسب های آن وجود دارد و اهدف این پژوهش بررسی روابط در ترکیب بندی و تناسبات سنگ مزارهای با نقش مایه فرشته در آرامستان ارامنه و بررسی انواع نقوش فرشتگان به کار رفته و ریشه یابی آن در نقوش باستانی ایرانی و مسیحیت (ارامنه) است. در این ارتباط  پرسش هایی مطرح است: 1- چه تناسب ویژه ای میان ابعادکادر نقش فرشته ها به کادر کلی سنگ مزارها وجود دارد؟ 2-ترکیب بندی، قاب بندی و میزان برجستگی نقش فرشته ها در سنگ مزارها به چه صورت هستند؟ 3- کدام مفاهیم در ریشه نقش مایه فرشتگان سنگ مزارهای ارامنه قرار دارد؟ 4- چه عناصر تصویری دیگری با نقوش فرشته ها، در سنگ قبور ارامنه جلفا ترکیب شده اند؟ این مقاله بر آن است با روش توصیفی-تحلیلی و با دیدگاهی هندسی، به بررسی سنگ قبور با نقوش فرشتگان در این آرامستان تاریخی بپردازد که شیوه جمع آوری آن میدانی و کتابخانه ای است. نتایج این پژوهش نشان می دهد که تصاویر فرشتگان قبرستان ارامنه تقریبا به یک اندازه متاثر از مسیحیت (ارامنه) و هنر ایران دوره باستان و دوره اسلامی است. همچنین تناسب خاصی میان ابعاد کادر نقش فرشتگان درسنگ مزارها وجود دارد که درچهاردسته کلی (لچکی/چهارتایی-چلیپایی/ تکی /جفتی-قرینه) ایجاد شده اند. حجاری سنگ مزارها به دو شیوه ی گود- برجستگی و فرم قاب بندی ها به فرم قوس مازه دار، تیزه دار و مستطیلی می باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: نقوش فرشتگان، حجاری، سنگ مزار، آرامستان ارامنه ی جلفای اصفهان
  • افسانه قانی*، فاطمه مهرابی صفحات 69-83

    قالیچه های جانمازی، مجموعه ی گسترده و پر اهمیتی از قالی های ایرانی هستند که در دوره ی صفوی تولید شد و مورد توجه جامعه قرار گرفت. از آنجا که قالیچه های جانمازی در برهه ای از تاریخ به طور جدی مورد توجه و تکثیر قرار گرفتند، و نیز با عنایت به اینکه اجزا و نقشمایه های به کاررفته در این قالی ها پیشتر در سایر قالی های ایرانی نیز موجود بوده، ضروری است تا با نگاهی تحلیلی مورد بررسی قرار گیرد. هنگامی که در مواجهه با یک اثر ادبی یا هنری، مجموعه ی متکثری از متون ادبی، هنری قابل تشخیص باشد، رسیدن و دریافت معنای پنهان در اثر از خلال خوانش و درک آن مجموعه و روابط میان اعضای آن میسر می شود. این پژوهش با هدف مطالعه ی متن های تشکیل دهنده یک قالیچه جانمازی دوره صفوی و روابط آنها با یکدیگر در شکل دهی به معنای نهان قالیچه انجام شد و روش انتخابی برای تحلیل آن نظریه بینامتنیت ژرار ژنت بود. پرسش اصلی که این پژوهش را در رسیدن به هدفش یاری می کرد بدین قرار است که، در شکل دهی به معنای قالیچه مورد مطالعه این نوشتار، چگونه از روابط بینامتنی بهره گرفته شده است؟ این پژوهش با روش توصیفی و تحلیلی انجام شد و اطلاعات آن به شیوه کتابخانه ای با استفاده از منابع دست اول تهیه شدند که تجزیه و تحلیل اطلاعات آن با استفاده از نظری بینامتنیت ژرار ژنت انجام شد. نتایج این پژوهش حاکی از آن است که در طراحی این قالیچه، هنرمند دوره ی صفوی آگاهانه یا ناآگاهانه تحت تاثیر دستاوردهای فرهنگی مکان-زمان زیستش، با ترکیب متونی از دو نظام فرهنگی ایران باستان و اسلامی به انحای گوناگون، متنی را خلق کرده که هم در راستای هدف طراحی اش یعنی تبلیغ اسلام و تشیع اثری شایسته ی توجه است و هم پیونددهنده ی دو نظام فرهنگی ایرانی و اسلامی است.

    کلیدواژگان: دوره ی صفوی، بینامتنیت، ژرار ژنت، قالیچه محرابی، قالیچه جانمازی
  • عرفان حیدری* صفحات 85-99

    مطالعه تاریخ به مدد تصاویر رویکردی نوین در تاریخ نگری است. در نیمه دوم دوران زمامداری قاجاریان، شرایط جامعه به گونه ای پیش رفت که امکان اقداماتی همچون مستندسازی تصویری فراهم گردید. در این دوران ساختار اجتماعی کشور متاثر از ارتباط با غرب و تفکرات نوین، دچار تطوراتی گردید و در جهاتی عامل روشنگری مردم شد. ملت در پی نارضایتی از قدرت حاکم به همراهی با علما برخاستند و نفوذ بیگانگان و رابطه متنفذانه ی ایشان با گروه خاصی از جامعه سبب رشد طبقه متمولان گردید و جامعه زنان نیز به جهت امکان ارتباطات نوین، دچار دگرگونی شد. هدف مقاله بررسی تاثیراتی است که این جریانات در مضامین دیوارنگاره های نیمه دوم حکومت قاجاریان بجای گذارده اند و در پی معرفی این نگاره ها به عنوان سندی تاریخی-تصویری برای مطالعه تاریخ دوران است. و به طرح دو سوال می پردازد: 1)چه نمودهایی از تاثیر تحول جامعه و سیمای نوین آن در قالب این دیوارنگاره ها قابل واکاوی است؟ 2)تا چه حد می توان از این دیوارنگاره ها به عنوان اسنادی برای مطالعه تاریخ این عصر نام برد؟  این پژوهش با روش «تفسیری-تاریخی» و به صورت مطالعات میدانی و کتابخانه ای به جمع آوری اطلاعات می پردازد. و تعداد 73 مورد کاشی نگاره و 38 نمونه نقاشی دیواری را مورد بررسی قرار می دهد؛ که به صورت موردی و بر اساس موضوع تحقیق به شیوه انتخابی، گزینش گردیدند. در این مقاله 17 نمونه از این تصاویر دیده می شود. نتایج تحقیق نشان می دهند که تصویر می تواند به عنوان سندی تکمیلی در کنار مکتوبات برای مطالعه تاریخ مورد استفاده گیرد و قطعا با این روش درک بهتری از تاریخ حاصل خواهد شد، لکن این نگاره ها به تنهایی نمی توانند بازنمایی درستی از رویدادها داشته باشند. همچنین مشخص شد که شرایط اجتماعی نوین، تاثیراتی بر مضامین دیوارنگاره های این عصر گذارده است و اثرات سه جریان موردمطالعه ی این تحقیق ، در نگاره ها قابل واکاوی و در تطابق نسبی با مکتوبات تاریخی است.

    کلیدواژگان: تاریخ تصویری، دیوارنگاری، ایران عصر قاجاریان، علمای مذهبی، طبقه متمولین، جامعه زنان
  • عاطفه شکفته* صفحات 101-121

    از هنر گچبری قرون پنجم تا هشتم هجری قمری در خراسان بزرگ، آثار نفیسی چون آرایه های گچی رباط شرف (سلجوقی) و مسجد جامع فریومد (سلجوقی، خوارزمشاهی، ایلخانی) باقی مانده است که در نوع خود کم نظیر هستند. شباهت ها و تفاوت های آرایه های این دو بنا در خراسان بزرگ همواره مورد توجه متخصصان امر بوده است، اما تا به امروز به نتیجه ای درخور دست نیافته اند. بدین سبب هدف این پژوهش مقایسه آرایه های گچی این دو بنا برای بیان ویژگی های مشترک و شناسایی تغییرات رخ داده در گذر زمان از حیث نوع ترکیب بندی و گونه تزیین گچی از دوره سلجوقی تا دوره ایلخانی است. عمده ترین سوال  این پژوهش عبارت است از: شباهت ها و تفاوت های آرایه های گچی این دو بنای شاخص در خراسان، از منظر تحولات ترکیب بندی نقوش و گونه های تزیینی کدامند؟ روش تحقیق، توصیفی-تحلیلی است و شیوه جمع آوری اطلاعات کتابخانه ای و میدانی است. نتایج مطالعات حاکی از تشابه سبک آرایه های این دو بنا هستند، اما با تفاوت های ظریفی که نشان از رشد و تکامل هنر گچبری از دوره سلجوقی تا دوره ایلخانی دارد. در مسجد جامع فریومد شیوه «بسیار برجسته» در کنار دیگر گونه های تزیینی رایج از دوره سلجوقیان بکار رفته است. علاوه بر آن، در دوره سلجوقیان آجر و گچ در ترکیب بایکدیگر یک تزیین را ایجاد می کردند، اما در دوره ایلخانی این سنت تغییر کرده و گچ به تنهایی نقش عمده را در تزیین سطوح به عهده گرفت. در رباط شرف، نقش آرایه ها عمدتا گیاهی با ترکیب بندی حلزونی بوده، اما در دوران بعدی نقوش تلفیقی (گیاهی، هندسی و کتیبه) با ترکیب بندی مواج، حلزونی و هندسی رواج بیشتری یافته است. همچنین نقش هندسی «گره» از جمله نقوشی است که در آرایه های گچی دوره ایلخانی خصوصا مسجد جامع فریومد بسیار استفاده شده است. بطور کلی، نقش ها در مسجد جامع فریومد ظریف تر و پیچیده تر هستند و در ترکیب با کتیبه های تزیینی، سطوحی پرکار در چند لایه را ایجاد کرده اند که نقش بسزایی در ترکیب بندی آرایه های هم دوره خود داشته است.

    کلیدواژگان: معماری، آرایه های گچی، رباط شرف، مسجد فریومد، خراسان بزرگ
  • پرستو مسجدی* صفحات 123-141
    منطقه کجور در غرب استان مازندران و در دل کوه های البرز مرکزی قرار دارد که در دوره اسلامی به لحاظ تاریخی و مذهبی نقش بسیار مهمی در شکل گیری حکومت علویان در شمال ایران و مبارزه با خلفای اموی و عباسی داشته است. این منطقه که در طی زمان با نام هایی همچون پدشخوارگر رویان، رستمدار و محال ثلاث نیز از آن یاد شده است؛ دارای تعداد نسبتا زیادی بنای آرامگاهی است که تاریخ آن ها به ابتدای قرن 9 ه.ق به بعد بر می گردد و در دوره های مختلف تزییناتی به این ابنیه افزوده شده است. با توجه به اهمیت این مقابر تاریخی، سوالات این پژوهش عبارت است از: 1- مواد و عناصر تزیینی به کار رفته در بناهای آرامگاهی منطقه رویان چیست ؟ 2- دلایل استفاده از این نقش مایه های تزیینی در این بناها چیست؟ در این پژوهش روش تحقیق توصیفی- تحلیلی است. شیوه جمع آوری اطلاعات بر پایه مطالعه کتابخانه ای و بررسی میدانی بناهای آرامگاهی منطقه است. نتایج این مطالعه نشان داد که در مقابر این منطقه از عناصر مختلف مانند آجرکاری، گچبری، کاشی کاری، چوب کاری، نقاشی، آهک بری و خوشنویسی در جهت تزیین استفاده شده است. نقوش به کار رفته شامل نقوش هندسی، گیاهی، حیوانی است. بررسی ها نشان می دهد که با توجه به رواج تشیع در منطقه از سده 9 ه.ق به بعد، نقش مایه های به کار رفته در مقابر نیز به نوعی بازتاب دهنده اندیشه و تفکر شیعی هنرمند مسلمان است.
    کلیدواژگان: معماری، تزیینات، آرامگاه، رویان، مازندران، تفکر شیعی
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  • Ali Malekpaein *, Zhang Changhong Pages 5-23
    Usage of geometry in Iranian painting is as obvious as other traditional Iranian arts. Meanwhile, some analysts believe that Iranian painters, especially the Herat school painters, have used the knowledge of geometry in a secret way in their works; known as the "Hidden Geometry". "Hidden Geometry" is very close to the "Sacred Geometry" conceptually, but "Hidden Geometry" is, in fact, the use of a defined and latent geometric structure in the work in order to create a coherent whole, so that through it the artistic expression of the work will be a multi-layer and the audience uses its meanings as much as it can go to the depth of the image. This covert application, through the creation of distinct geometric divisions and the placement of visual elements of narration and the shaping of the transmitter symbols of the artist's hints, while reinforcing the theme of the work, leads to indirect transmission of the concept to the audience too. Few researches which have been done in this regard are often related to the Herat school and researchers, despite the achievement of the specific layout methods of the books of that era, have not yet reached a comprehensive set of guidelines for determining a definitive method for applying hidden geometry, and this has created the ground for doubting the use of this geometrical method in Persian paintings. One of the earliest studies on this subject is the study of Alexander Papadopoulo in his book "Islam and Muslim Art" which suggested the idea of ​​using a spiral form to locate human figures in Iranian paintings. Since then, and over the last two decades, Iranian researchers have been paying more attention to this issue. Khashayar Ghazizadeh, in his article "Hidden Geometry in the Illustrations of Kamal Al-Din Behzad", describes the use of circular, spiral, and grid infrastructures in two paintings by Behzad. He seems to be the first one who recognized the term "hidden geometry". One of the remarkable researches on the subject is the book "Dva Mira Vostochnoi Miniatiury" by Mais Nazarli. The author in this book while innovating new concepts and terms like "Hidden Motif" and "Prime Motif", points to the hidden function of geometry and the latent proportions system in components of the painting of the Tabriz school, based on the Sufi ideas governing the court of Shah Ismail. This research in order to emphasize and reinforce the theory of “Hidden Geometry” while explaining theoretical foundations and objective findings, as well as examining the historical context of the use of geometry in the art of painting in Iran, by library method with the analytical-descriptive approach, analyzes another work of this period which is ascribed to the great artist of that era, Kamal al-Din Behzad. The work with the title of “Demonstrating the Speech of Ascetics to the Troops by Eskandar” also has a signature of another artist; Ghasemali. The paper looks to answer the question that; Can the scientific foundations and certain objective reasons for the existence of hidden geometry be gained in this work? Are obtained geometric evidences in the research merely due to the subjective perception or spiritual experience of the painter who reflected them unconsciously in his work? Is the structure of composition of hidden geometry traceable in the illustrations with few or no architectural elements as well? What is the structure of the hidden geometry in this image? This illustration which includes very few geometrical elements like architecture belongs to the manuscript of Khamse-ye-Nezami that is kept in the British Museum Library. This research, while explaining the extent of knowledge of geometry at that time and the extent of the familiarity of artists and craftsmen with the knowledge of geometry and geometricians such as Ghiasuddin Jamshid Kashani, will present fairly rigorous results in relation to the application of hidden geometry as defined here. The research shows how the painter consciously and purposefully used the hidden geometry in regard to placement of different elements of illustration, creation of the visual and conceptual relation between them, and the application of the symbolic geometrical structure in this work. It also shows that the artist founded the frame and bases of his work with the usage of the common principles and rules of the science of geometry which have been used by the Iranians over the past centuries; namely the drawing of the basic circle, the indicator square and then creation of a static rectangle. In addition, the research describes how the artist's mystical environment had influenced the way geometrically symbolic elements were used, as well as the relationships between these elements and the resulting divisions to convey mystical and ethical themes. But despite all the results, determining a specified applied rule for hidden geometry in the illustrations of this period requires a more comprehensive, systematic and methodical research.
    Keywords: Illustration, Herat school, Structure, Hidden Geometry, Khamseh-ye-Nezami, Ghasemali
  • Mina Sadri, Hossein Esmati * Pages 25-37

    Ferdowsi's Shahnameh, as an Iranian epic poem in its position as a cultural text, is capable to go beyond its literary ground and influence a variety of different fields including visual arts. This autonomy has created a space that has been illustrated in several versions in a historically continuous trend. The artistic manifestations of the illustrated manuscripts of these Shahnamehs have been influenced by various factors. The literary structure of Shahnameh, particularly the imaginary imagery, has the potential to be one of these factors. According to the authors' investigations, Shahnameh of Shah Tahmasp (Tabriz II – 1537 AH) has considerably utilized the imaginary imagery (simile, metaphor, metonymy) in its visual expressions and, thus, is considered as a noticeable instance in this regard. Shahnameh of Shah Tahmasp contains 258 figures among which six figures that indicate the use of simile, metaphor, and metonymy as their theme were selected for data analysis. The main goal of investigating and comparing the stories of Shahnameh with visual elements in the figures in Shahnameh of Shah Tahmasp was to introduce the imaginary images as the factors that influence and push forward the procedure of visual narration. The library method was used to obtain preliminary material. However, to obtain part of the data, the visual elements of 6 figures – as the version's representatives – were compared with the imaginary images of the same story in Ferdowsi's Shahnameh and other literary texts, following which the "comparison and content analysis" method was used to investigate and infer the technique applied for the graphic translation of the story’s texts and figures of speech. The research questions are:Do the visual elements in the above-mentioned figures have any relation to the imaginary imagery in the relevant story and other poems in Ferdowsi's Shahnameh? How have the imaginary images of Shahnameh been used in these figures, and what is their function in the visual narration? Here, an example of the imaginary images used in a story of Shahnameh is recited. Zal, an Iranian king of Shahnameh, proposes to marry Princess Rudaba, daughter of the governor of Kabul. Her parents, despite their dissatisfaction, finally agree with this marriage. To express this event, Ferdowsi has utilized simile and metaphor. In some verses of Shahnameh, Rudaba is likened to a tree that her parents, like gardeners, have endeavoured to grow and breed and now, right at the time of her fruition, they are surrendering her to someone else. In the figure entitled "Sindokht talks to Mehrab about Rudaba" (Figure-12), the artisan, considering these verses, has used graphic simile and metaphor very delicately. To create the atmosphere and background of the figure for representing the intended subject, the artisan has used the three agricultural stages of planting, growing, and harvesting. The gardener's working on the budded tree has been used as the representation of the hemistich "we bore so much suffering to plant and irrigate it" and picking the buds from the tree represents "only the wind can count all of our sufferings", the resultant consequence of which is a visual metaphor. The gardener irrigating the budded tree as the breeder is a simile of Sindokht and Mehrab (Rudaba's parents who are present in the figure). The budded tree and the act of picking the buds are the metaphors of Zal and Rudaba who are not present in this figure. An indicative point that enhances the assumption of the artisan's attention to such visual similes and metaphors is the use of the following verse above this part of the figure (Figure-13):"Though not yet come to fruition, we have to give up and surrender her to the enemy / only the wind can count all of our sufferings". Findings of the present work indicate that the imaginary imagery, as a constituent of the literary structure of Ferdowsi's Shahnameh, is the common point of the poems of the story and its illustrated figures in Shahnameh of Shah Tahmasp. In order to provide a more complete visual representation of the story, the artisan has utilized the association of the imaginary imagery. The analysis of the figures, the results of which are presented in Table (1), showed that all of the six figures have used the imaginary imagery. In total, there are five visual similes including the figures of "a dragon amidst the cloud", "the fight of the lion and the male zebra", ''the cypress tree and the budded tree", two cypress trees", and "the working gardener". Besides, there are 6 visual metaphors, including "the hawk and the phoenix (Simurgh)", "the river and its surrounding green area", "the fight of the lion and the sheep", "two cypress trees beside each other", "the cypress tree and the budded tree", and "picking of the buds". Moreover, the visual irony of "fastening the waistband" has been used once.

    Keywords: Shahnameh of Shah Tahmasp, Imaginary Imagery, metaphor, simile, Metonymy, Pictorial interpretation
  • SHABANALI GHORBANI *, Qobad Kiyanmehr, Mohammadtaghi Ashouri Pages 39-51

    Contemporary art movements today, especially after the industrial and technological revolutions, have altered approaches and perspectives on the concept of art, and in particular the position and functions of the crafts (handicrafts); that is the subject of this research. In the contemporary culture, the concept of handicrafts no longer holds its traditional connotations and functions and as an artistic medium, includes a variety of functions from purely conceptual to fully functional and design-related issues. Handicrafts is a field in which, in addition to cultural, identity-oriented, and historical factors, design elements such as functional issues, ergonomics and human factors, material recognition, aesthetics, and environmental factors are involved. Lack of a conceptual distinction between the types of "design" and “drawing” in the curriculum of the handicrafts discipline has led students to enter to the general workshops and then specialized workshops without gaining the ability to define and recognize the scientific process of designing a product based on the definition of need, determining the target group, ideation, evaluation, ergonomics, standards, prototyping, and ultimately production. This makes their designs often emotional, empirical, imitative, or suggestive of the designs by instructors and professors rather than themselves. The purpose of this article is to study and compare the approaches to the issue of design in the curriculum of the handicrafts discipline at the universities of Iran and the New York University, and to answer these basic questions that: A) what is the approach and specificity of each of these educational programs in dealing with the design issue? And B) how can research results be used to improve design education in undergraduate handicrafts discipline at Iranian universities? The results of the research indicate that the handicrafts education at art universities of Iran continues with a traditional approach, aiming to protecting and looking back to its old and rich legacy as well as adhering to teacher-centered and the old approach of master-apprentice methods. Therefore, the importance, quantity and quality of presentation of specialized design courses do not meet the expectations. In comparison, the New York University's craft education approach, is avant-garde, progressive, futuristic, creative, student-centered and based on the problem solving methods; which is evident in the quantity and quality of presentation of design courses in the curriculum. Alongside these factors, formulation and implementation of a general crafts curriculum in Iranian universities, have led to the allocation of much of the educational capacity of the curriculum for general and diverse courses and workshops with different and unrelated goals, limiting the presentation of specialized courses such as design and its fundamentals in the curriculum. At the New York University, a specialized approach and perspective has led to specialized design and problem solving courses, with a particular emphasis on creativity. Due to the relative obsolescence of the present curriculum, the necessity of revising the undergraduate curriculum for handicrafts discipline at Iranian universities is evident. As mentioned in the comprehensive scientific document and road map of the country, it is suggested that in order to improve the level of knowledge and skills of the work forces in accordance with the international standards, to improve the quality of handicrafts higher education, and to meet the needs of society as well as the domestic and international labor markets, a new curriculum and syllabus be drafted and submitted consistent with contemporary and specialized requirements, with consideration and attention to the importance of specialized courses such as design. The research method used in this article is analytical-comparative. Its analysis method is a combination of the qualitative and quantitative methods and data collection is based on library research and field studies.

    Keywords: Higher Education of Iran, Bachelor of Handicrafts, Curriculum, Design, Drawing, Traditional Design, New York University
  • Bahar Jahanmard *, Safoura Rouhi Pages 53-67

    The gravestones containing the angelic motifs and other forms in Isfahan’s New Julfa cemetery have been a treasured repertoire and context for the artists and stone carvers to hone their skills in applying different proportions, compositions, and shapes over several centuries from the Safavid era through the contemporary times. Such cemeteries always represent the prevailing attitude towards deceased ancestors whose corpses were bestowed to one of the four natural elements to be purified. The emergence of tombstones is one of the consequences of burial rituals as a process of getting settled in an eternal shelter that was considered to provide protection not only against the environmental degradations, but also in dealing with the fear of the afterlife. In the city, a cemetery or graveyard is built when tombstones accumulate in one area. In Isfahan, many historic districts contain separate graveyards; such as Towqchi, Takht-i Foulad, Darb-i Imam, Dar-ul Batikh, Jewish and Armenian cemeteries. New Julfa cemetery is one of these historic sites that was built to serve the needs of the Armenians who immigrated to Isfahan during the Safavid times. Through an interplay between the geometrical shapes, curved and straight lines, the patterns and motifs of its tombstones demonstrate a symbolic relationship between the humane and divine forces. The depiction of angelic motifs on tombstones, as the messengers and bearers of good news for the deceased spirits, is a significant aspect of this cemetery, in which different shapes and dimensions were formed based on the ancient Iranian as well as Armenian-Christian beliefs. Additionally, definite geometrical relationships in the making of tombstone frames and their proportional characteristics can be found here. Therefore, this research aims to investigate the relationships between the proportions and composition of tombstones containing angelic motifs in the Armenian New Julfa cemetery and to trace their previous roots in other ancient Iranian and Armenian-Christian motifs. Therefore, this paper will attempt to represent compositional and proportional formulations for the tombstones containing angelic motifs through categorizing their formal characteristics, proportional dimensions and the techniques used in the site’s tombstone frames. Furthermore, a typical categorization of the tombstones’ angelic motifs, as well as a comparative study with the Islamic motifs of Takht-i Foulad cemetery will be done. The questions in this research are: 1) What specific proportions could be seen between dimensions of the frame of angelic motifs and that of the tombstones in general? 2) How do framing, composition and depth of the angelic motifs appear in this cemetery? 3) What notions can be deduced from the roots of the angelic motifs in the Armenian tombstones? 4)  Apart from the angelic motifs, what other pictorial elements have been used in this cemetery? To answer these questions, this study will retain a geometrical approach and an analytical-descriptive method to investigate these tombstones. In addition, data were collected through field research and bibliography.
    Considering the historic and artistic significance of the graves in this cemetery, it is necessary to maintain the gravestones which are already in good shape, as well as to restore the damaged ones, with focus on the possibilities of stone degradation due to the environmental and human factors. Moreover, the scarcity of studies about the geometrical features and significance of other proportional characteristics in these tombstones, demonstrating the deft skills of the artists and stone carvers, will be suggested in the future in-depth studies so that a repertoire of forms can be created as an invaluable source of inspiration for the contemporary artists and stone-masters. The findings of this study indicate that the angelic motifs of the Armenian New Julfa cemetery are not only influenced by the Armenian-Christian, as well as the ancient and Islamic Iranian arts, but also have benefited a lot from the ancient Greek ethnic motifs. In addition to floral and cruciform patterns, other shapes such as the depiction of a crown, ring, church dome, lamb, column capital, or the portrait of the deceased (both in the old and contemporary tombs), and written inscriptions (in Armenian, Latin and Farsi) have been common in the composition of these tombstones as well. All in all, there is a specific quality in the tombstones and frame proportions containing angelic motif. The placement of angelic motifs on the burial headstones and proportions of the area over the tombstones were variable. No similar proportions were observed between the overall frame and the one containing the angelic motif. Even though similar proportions were seen between the headstone frames, they were not similar to the golden ratio. At last, these frames can be categorized into four main groups: triangular gables (lachaki), quadrilateral cruciform-shaped, singular, and paired-symmetrical. The stone-carving method has been reliefs, engraved in three levels (shallow, deep and very deep), and the framing seems to be formed using the elliptical and pointed arches as well as the rectangular frames.

    Keywords: Angelic Motifs, Stone Carving, Tombstone, New Julfa Armenian Cemetery of Isfahan
  • AFSANEH GHANI *, Fatemeh Mehrabi Pages 69-83

    Prayer rugs are a large and important collection of Persian rugs that were produced in the Safavid era and attracted society’s interest. Since the prayer rug has been seriously considered and reproduced at some point in history, and the elements and designs used in these rugs were previously available in other Iranian rugs, it is necessary to be studied analytically. In these types of carpets which are categorized in different types, there are different artistic texts from different types of Persian carpets that come together to create a unified text known as the prayer rug. These carpets have different names depending on the designs and the texts which have been used in them, each of which testifies to the importance of a particular text or set of texts in the design of these special carpets. When faced with a literary or artistic work, a diverse collection of literary, artistic texts can be distinguished, and it is possible to reach and receive hidden meaning through reading and understanding that collection and the relationships among its members. It is clear that through such an analysis, one can be guided by how a set of pre-existing motives in a new structure creates content and meaning that is met with the general favour of the place of their creation. Combining a set of texts and achieving a unified text is a process that is and has always been done by the human mind to create new texts. The study of how meaning is formed in texts through the coexistence of earlier texts is possible in the context of various methods of intertextual criticism. One of the methods, which provides understanding of the hidden meaning in a text based on a set of constituent pre-texts and the relationships between them, is the Gérard Genette’s intertextuality theory. In this research, which aimed to study the texts of a Safavid prayer rug as well as their composition and relationship to formation of hidden meaning of the carpet, Gérard Genette's method showed its ability to reach the hidden meaning of the work. The main question that helped this research achieve its purpose is how intertextual relationships were used in shaping the meaning of the rug studied in this article. This research was a descriptive and analytical study based on Gérard Genette’s Intertextuality Theory and its information was gathered through library research and citation of primary sources. The data analysis of this study was performed using Gérard Genette’s Intertextuality theory and its trend was that after identifying the constituents of effect, the mechanism of their effect on shaping the final text was determined. The results of this study indicate that in the design of this rug, pre-texts have been expressed in two types: explicit and implicit. Since this work has an advertising function for Islam and Shi'a religion, it must, therefore, take an action that best represents its function. The way of presentation of pre-texts in this work attests to the fact that the artist has created both the formal and the content-related sections. In the formal section, he explicitly provided texts that are in harmony with religion and advertising, but in the content-related section, he implicitly extracts texts with dual pre-texts from both ancient and Islamic Iranian cultures and attempts to present them in a single format to show the compatibility of these two cultures. The way of presentation of these pre-texts, as mentioned, is in the form of citing and referencing. Since the basic premise of any promotional action is based on a completely explicit and verbal form, inscriptions have been quoted for this purpose, as Genette himself introduces this form in the most explicit and literal form of the relationship between the two texts, and again in the context of the more important source citation. That is, it is evident that the artist is referring to texts with dual pre-texts to confront the audience with the reference of the texts, thereby leading to thinking and ultimately adopting the implicit form of bringing texts into both ancient and modern Iranian systems. Islam is meaningful and this research seeks to make the audience aware of the compatibility of these two cultures.

    Keywords: Safavid period, Intertextuality, Gerard Genette, Mihrab Rug, Prayer Rug
  • Erfan Heydari * Pages 85-99

    Studying history through images is a new approach to historiography, because most of the chronicles were expressed in the form of writing, and only part of information about the past may be visually presented. Images can serve as a basis for reviewing the scenes and essence of events, and, of course, a historical study where there is access to the visual documents is much more accurate than a narrative and written study. The visual arts were welcomed in the mid-Qajar era, and the arrival of the camera in Iran accelerated the process of visual documentation. Painting, also influenced by the West, gradually took a step further in the form of portraiture and image documentation alongside the camera. In the meantime, the social structure of the country evolved, influenced by the relationship with the West and modern thinking, and led to the enlightenment of the people in some ways. Following the dissatisfaction with the ruling power, the nation arose alongside the Ulama, meanwhile the influence of the Europeans and their influential relationship with a particular group of the society led to the growth of the upper class, and the women's community undergone transformations to allow for modern communications. The present article aims at investigating the effects of these movements on the content of murals in the second half of the Qajar dynasty and introducing these images as a historical-visual document to study the history of the era. This article investigates the subject by asking two questions: 1) what are some of the manifestations of the effect of society’s development and its modern visage on these murals? 2) To what extent can these murals be named as documents to study the history of this era? This research collects information through historical-interpretive method as field and desk studies, and compiles contents by collecting documents, writing, photographing and surveying the murals of this era. In this research, 73 tile paintings and 38 murals were investigated, which were selected on a case-by-case basis and based on a selective method regarding the research topic. This article presents 17 examples of these images.  Based on the results, by studying the images of this period, one can clearly explore the trace of the three aforementioned streams. Due to their place in society and to be paid respect to, religious Ulama played a role in the murals of public and semi-religious places such as the Tekyeh Moaven al-Molk, with the distinction that in the murals prior to this era, no monograph theme can be observed by Ulama, and can only be observed in the form of images such as court and collective assemblies. Also women, who had a distinctive status, were depicted in the decorations of the palace walls and private mansions. At this time, the woman's presence in the pictures respects her character. The woman is now seen dressed in glittering dresses, jewelry and modern make-up, displaying a distinctive image of herself. The aristocrat social class was also associated with the Europeans because of their wealth, and in pursuit of showing off their wealth, they turned to art which had been neglected. Because of their familiarity with the Western world, as well as imitating the royal court and exhibiting their power through art, they gave rise to the formation of murals in their personal mansions, with pictures of foreign and Iranian women and men with distinctive structures. The princes and nobles who had never been seen before in such murals were now a new subject for drawing, and in some cases the Europeans who were associated with them were depicted on the walls of the nobles' mansions. In the past, if there had been an image of the Europeans, it was based on a diplomatic approach, and in most cases a courtship ceremony or some kind of copy of postcard images, however, it was now recognized as a new theme in these murals. The second part of the findings of the present study showed that visual history, and in particular murals, can be considered as evidence in the study of history. However, these examples can only be studied as complementary to the written documents, and can be relied upon to investigate the status quo of affairs of the time, which is distinctive by changing the coatings and selecting distinctive styles and using modern manifestations in them. Certainly, and based on the results of this article, the paintings alone are not capable of accurately expressing the history, as some of them have undergone changes in relation to the originality of the subject, depending on the painters' taste, and the painter also, influenced by his own community, has accepted the effects of society in creating images of the community. Many of these effects such as imitating the West are mentioned in the article.

    Keywords: Visual History, Mural Painting, Qajar Era Iran, Ulama, The Upper Class, Women's Society
  • Atefeh Shekofteh * Pages 101-121

    Khorasan’s architecture is famous for simple forms in the early Islamic period of Iran. In fact, from the 4th century AH decorations and Stucco decorations flourished; after simplicity of the Khorasan’s school, came an important decoration part in buildings of Iran. Stucco decoration, which was used in khorasan’s monuments, was a basic decorative element in the monuments such as the Seljuq-era Robat Sharaf and Faryoumad mosque that is attributed to the Saljuq, Khwarazmian and Ilkhanid periods. The similarities and differences of the decorations of these two monuments in the Great Khorasan have always been appealing to the experts. In this research, I tried to answer the questions regarding the similarities or differences of the stucco decorations in Robat Sharaf and Faryoumad in terms of types of decorations and their compositions. In this study, features and changes in stucco decorations from the Seljuq to the Ilkhanid periods are investigated using descriptive-analytical methods as well as comparative analysis of two monuments in the Greater Khorasan. Literature review and field survey were the methods of data collection. Due to the importance of these two monuments from Khorasan; those are selected as criteria and indicators of changes occurred in the decorative style of the Khorasan school. Comparative studies indicated that stucco decorations in Robat Sharaf are almost formed in “low relief” and “medium relief” while Faryoumad has “high relief” decorations. A combination of bricks and stucco motifs covers most parts of Robat Sharaf, in contrast, stucco is the common technique used to cover interior surfaces of Faryoumad. In fact, in Faryoumad the bricks had been covered with gypsum. Also, Faryoumad has muqarnas which has been decorated by stucco with different patterns in each “Tas”. “Ajed-e Kari” or honeycombed pattern was a common technique in the Seljuq and Ilkhanid stucco decorations, but there is merely one place that was decorated by honeycombed patterns in Rabat Sharaf, in contrast, this technique has been used in a great extent in Faryoumad stucco decorations. In terms of design, vegetative patterns covered a great extent of surfaces of Robat Sharaf which were designed in spiral compositions. In comparison, wavelike composition of vegetative patterns, or a combination of the wavelike and spiral patterns, including arabesque and “Ḵatāiee” (floral motifs resembling blossoms) motifs were used in Faryoumad. These combinations are symmetric in two or three layers in Faryoumad, but Robat Sharaf’s vegetative patterns, except one case, are in one layer and mainly include arabesques. Overall, comparison of motifs indicate that arabesque decorations are widespread in Robat Sharaf and there is one complicated geometric pattern, but sophisticated geometric patterns and inscriptive ornaments are widespread in stucco decorations of Faryoumad. In fact, geometric patterns in Robat Sharaf’s decorations, known as “Kaluk-band”, were mainly used between the bricks. They were simply designed and dressed with arabesque patterns in some spaces. In contrast, geometric patterns were elaborated and dressed with floriated ornaments (mainly Ḵatāiee motifs) of great variety in Faryoumad stucco decorations. Stucco ornaments in Robat Sharaf include knotty inscriptions in Kufic in mihrabs as well as one Thuluth inscription in the southwest Ivān. In contrast, Kufic and Thuluth inscriptions were used in various forms in Faryoumad including arabesques and floriated ornaments behind the inscriptions (in two or three layers). On the whole, Faryoumad has more than 12 different inscriptive ornaments which make it unique in this regard and in terms of stucco decoration. The colors used in two monuments are not completely intact and most of them have deteriorated. Considering the remaining colors on the surfaces, three colors including blue, white and black are commonly used in both buildings. These colors were used in similar areas, for example, blue was used in backgrounds to induce greater depth while white was used in upper areas to intensify the relief. In addition, yellow color was only observed in Robat Sharaf, while red and green colors have been used in Frayoumad. Results show that stucco decorations of Robat Sharaf and Faryoumad are similar in terms of techniques, patterns and motifs, but differ in some details, which represent the advancement and development of stucco arts throughout the above-mentioned centuries. In Faryoumad Jame mosque, high relief stucco has been added to the remaining Seljuq techniques. In the Seljuq style of decoration, brick and stucco were used in combination, but in the Ilkhanid art the method changed and gypsum became the main element for covering the bricks and decorations. Motifs are commonly vegetative in Robat Sharaf’s stucco decoration, while in Faryoumad, a combination of vegetative and geometric motifs were mainly used, meanwhile combination of geometric patterns with inscriptions gained more prevalence. The geometric knot is one of the prevalent patterns in Ilkhanid stucco decorations as well. In conclusion, motifs in Faryoumad are more complicated and more delicate than the motifs in Robat Sharaf, thus motifs in combination with decorated inscriptions have created more enriched, multi-layered surfaces.

    Keywords: Architecture, Stucco Decoration, Robat Sharaf, Faryoumad Mosque, Greater Khorasan
  • Parastoo Masjedi * Pages 123-141
    Rouyan district is one of the famous and historic regions of Iran, in general, and Mazandaran, in particular, which has had a very important role throughout Iranian history in the Islamic era and in the establishment of Alavian Dynasty in northern Iran and in the fight against the Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates. Governors of this region minted gold and silver coins. Padosbani dynasty ruled in Rouyan for nearly one thousand years; from 22 until 1006 AH. This area, which has been referred to as Rouyan, Rostamdar, and Mahal Salas, contains a relatively large number of tomb monuments that date back to the beginning of the ninth century. Over the time different decorations have been added. In the district of Rouyan, the Shi'ism has maintained prevalence since the 9 century AH. and thereafter, many burial monuments were built in the area. An important part in the construction of various Islamic-era monuments is their decoration. In this research following observation of 47 historical monuments in the region, 8 buildings of high importance were selected. Since the time of their construction, these works have been renovated and decorated several times. For example, the paintings within them belong to the Qajar period, Persian poems belong to the 11th and 12th centuries, plastering belongs to the Qajar period, and the inscriptions of this collection belong to the time of their construction. Despite the historical significance of these monuments, limited studies have been carried out so far. The destruction caused by natural and human factors in these valuables historical and cultural monuments has led to destruction of many paintings within the monuments, thus in order to preserve these valuable historical works and to introduce the decorations that have been used in these buildings, which may be considered as reflections of the religious thoughts and thoughts of the people of the region, the writer has examined the decorative arrays of these monuments. With regard to the importance of these historical monuments, the questions of this research are: What are the reasons for using these decorative motifs? What are the materials and decorative motifs used in the buildings? In this research, the research method is descriptive-analytic. The data collection method is based on library research and field study of the burial monuments. These monuments, which have been built in accordance with the existing methods of tomb construction in the ninth and tenth centuries by one or two masons and architects, are typologically very similar to each other and belong to a relatively short period. Historical sources point to a widespread change in the region in the ninth century AH and the conversion of religion from Sunni Islam (Shafi'i) to Shia Islam. It is possible to figure out that the ruling class began to construct magnificent buildings for the descendants of the Imams in the region following the advent of these changes in beliefs in order to take a step towards accelerating the acceptance of Shi'ism among the inhabitants of the region. People of the region during this time decorated and embellished these monuments. In this research, the author visited these historical monuments, recorded and classified decorative elements. The results show that various kinds of methods were used. Decorative methods consist of brickwork, stucco, tilework, woodworking, painting, calligraphy with tile and lime carving. In these methods, geometric, vegetative and animal designs are used. Studies show that due to Shi'a prevalence in the region from the 9th century onwards, the decorative elements used in the monuments reflect the Shiite thought of the Muslim artists. In these burial monuments, Shiite themes are represented in the form of inscriptions, motifs and religious symbols such as lion, sun, and cedar. In the belief of the people, lion played a major role in the plain of Karbala and guarded the martyrs after the martyrdom until the time of burial, which led to its perceptible presence at every ceremony. In the Islamic period lion was a symbol of power and courage, and gradually became one of the traditional elements of the new sect. Imam Ali (AS) was dubbed as the “lion of Allah" and lion became a symbol of his courage, and also the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was referred to in religious discourses with the symbol of Sun (Shams). In relation to plants, it should be noted that God in the Quran mentions many trees. In Islamic culture, the tree is the symbol of life, knowledge and divine blessing which has been mentioned in the Quran; the role of flowers and plants in monuments such as burial monuments has been an allegory of trees and paradise plants. In this way, the Muslim artist used motifs and elements in tilework, painting, and calligraphy not only as decoration, but also to disseminate his religious thoughts.
    Keywords: Architecture, Decoration, Funerary Monument, Rouyan, Mazandaran, Shia Contemplation