فهرست مطالب

Gene, Cell and Tissue - Volume:7 Issue: 2, 2020
  • Volume:7 Issue: 2, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/02/27
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
|
  • Sirous Farsi *, Narges Ahmadi, MohammadAli Azarbayjani Page 1
    Background

    Recent studies have shown that obesity and metabolic disorders are major contributors to heart diseases, and exercise training and proper diets can prevent these diseases.

    Objectives

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of continuous and interval training with adenosine consumption on adenosine A1 and A2A receptors in the heart tissue of obese rats.

    Methods

    We randomly divided 56 obese rats with a high-fat diet (40% fat, 13% protein, and 47% carbohydrate) into seven groups, including (1) control, (2) continuous training (CT), (3) high-intensity interval training (HIIT), (4) CT + adenosine consumption, (5) HIIT + adenosine consumption (6), adenosine consumption, and (7) sham. Groups 2 and 4 performed continuous training for 12 weeks, 15 - 31 min at 20 - 25 m/min, and groups 3 and 5 performed HIIT at 7 - 10 one-minute intervals at 31 - 55 m/min and six intervals and active rest at 15 - 25 m/min. The adenosine consumption groups received adenosine at 0.2 mg/kg daily in the peritoneum. The independent samples t-test, two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and Bonferroni’s post hoc test were used to analyze the data (P ≤ 0.05).

    Results

    Adenosine consumption decreased the levels of A1 and A2A gene expression (P ≤ 0.05). Continuous and interval training decreased A1 gene expression. The combination of training and adenosine consumption significantly reduced A1 gene expression (P ≤ 0.05). Exercise training and the combination of training and adenosine consumption showed no significant effect on A2A gene expression (P > 0.05).

    Conclusions

    It seems that adenosine consumption decreases the expression of A1 and A2A in the heart tissue of obese rats. Also, training and training with adenosine consumption significantly decrease A1 expression in the heart tissue of obese rats.

    Keywords: Obesity, Heart, Training, Adenosine, Adenosine Receptors
  • Arash Abdolmaleki *, Hussein A. Ghanimi, Asadollah Asadi, Leila Taghizadeh Momen Page 2
    Background

    Tissue engineering is the science of tissue design and one of the main branches of regenerative medicine that aims to improve and repair tissue injuries.

    Objectives

    This study aimed to decellularize the tissue of bovine Achilles tendon and create a natural 3D scaffold. Then, the interaction of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAd-MSCs) with this 3D scaffold was evaluated for use in tendon injuries.

    Methods

    The bovine Achilles tendon was obtained from a slaughterhouse and decellularized by the combination of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Histological and biomechanical tests were used to evaluate the quality of decellularized scaffolds. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells were cultured on scaffolds, and cell viability and cell behavior were evaluated by the MTT test and scanning electron microscopy.

    Results

    The results of histological and biomechanical tests showed the complete removal of cells with the preservation of the extracellular matrix. The results of cell culture on scaffolds also showed that optical absorption in scaffolds containing cells increased over time.

    Conclusions

    In general, the decellularized scaffold in this study did not undergo significant structural changes in the tendon tissue. The interaction between hAd-MSCs and the decellularized scaffold revealed that the scaffold was somehow suitable for cell culture. However, it needs to be more investigated for use in the treatment of tendon injuries of the athletes.

    Keywords: Stem Cell, Regenerative Medicine, Tendon, Tissue Engineering, Decellularized Scaffold
  • Sara Sarhadi, Fereshteh Shahidi *, Zakieh Keshavarzi Page 3
    Background

    Physical activity and dynamic lifestyle play an important role in the prevention and treatment of some common neurological diseases. One valuable approach to increasing health and reducing brain damage is to perform an exercise and physical activity.

    Objectives

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of exercise pre-training on the intervening factors and complications of cerebral ischemia.

    Methods

    In this study, forty Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, including (1) endurance training, (2) endurance-cognitive training, (3) ischemia, and (4) control. The training was performed for 3 weeks. After the last training session, the rats had to undergo cerebral ischemia. The ischemia was induced by occlusion of both common carotid arteries for 30 min. Real-time PCR method was used to measure the expression level of TrkB, Bax, and Bcl-2 genes.

    Results

    The levels of TrkB gene expression were significantly increased in the endurance training and endurance-cognitive training groups compared to the ischemia and control groups (P < 0.05). There was a significant increase in the levels of Bcl-2 gene expression in the endurance training group compared to the ischemia group as well as the endurance-cognitive group compared to the ischemia and control groups (P < 0.05). Also, the levels of Bax gene expression in the endurance training and endurance-cognitive groups were significantly lower than the control group (P < 0.05).

    Conclusions

    This study showed that exercise as a preconditioning stimulus has neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia.

    Keywords: Exercise, Ischemia, Apoptosis, Bax, Bcl2, TrkB
  • assan Pourrazi *, Masoud Asgharpour Arshad, Farhad Gholami, Soheila Abbasi Page 4
    Background

    Excessive apoptosis in the myocardium contributes to the pathogenesis of heart disease. Evidence indicates that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) can alter myocardial apoptosis-related signaling.

    Objectives

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of 12 weeks of HIIT on some indices of apoptosis, including Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3 in the myocardial tissue of male rats.

    Methods

    Thirty male Wistar rats (age range: 8 - 10 weeks) were randomized into three groups, including sham (n = 10), control (n = 10), and HIIT (n = 10). The experimental group underwent HIIT consisting of 2 - 8 repetitions of 4-min high-intensity intervals (85% - 90% peak speed) interspersed with low-intensity intervals (45% - 50% peak speed), performed five times/week over 12 weeks. Forty-eight hours after the last training session, animals’ hearts were removed. The gene expressions of Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3 were analyzed by the RT-PCR method. The independent t-test was used for statistical analysis (P < 0.05).

    Results

    The gene expressions of Bcl-2 and Bcl-2/Bax ratio were higher in the training group than in the control group (P = 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively). Regarding Bax and caspase-3 gene expression, although the mean levels were lower in the exercise group than in the control group, the differences were statistically insignificant (P = 0.57 and P = 0.27, respectively).

    Conclusions

    Overall, it seems that HIIT significantly increases the expression of anti-apoptotic indicator Bcl-2 and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax in the myocardium of male rats. However, further studies are needed to show the effects of HIIT on myocardial apoptosis.

    Keywords: Apoptosis, Myocardium, High-Intensity Interval Training, Apoptotic Genes
  • Mahtab Teimouri *, Tayebeh Sanchooli Page 6
  • Shima Sadat Lesani, Mohammad Soleimani, Pegah Shakib, Mohammad Reza Zolfaghari* Page 8
    Background

    Escherichia coli is considered as one of the causes of opportunistic infections. Nowadays, due to the increase in drug resistance, the treatment of these infections has become very difficult and they are recognized as the main causes of death in hospitalized patients.

    Objectives

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M genes in E. coli strains isolated from the urinary tract infection in patients in Intensive Care Units of three different hospitals in Qom, Iran.

    Methods

    This study was conducted in three months from October to December 2014. A total of 200 E. coli samples were taken from the patients with urinary tract infections in Intensive Care units of Qom hospital. The disc diffusion method was used to determine the susceptibility pattern of antibiotic and phenotypic confirmatory tests for screening of the expanded spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) isolates. The presence of blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M genes was evaluated by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay.

    Results

    Of 200 samples, ampicillin (96%) and nitrofurantoin (19.5%) showed the highest and lowest drug resistance, respectively. A total of 156 isolates (78%) were identified as ESBLs using the phenotypic method. Moreover, 76 (38%), 90 (45%), and 123 (61.5%) isolates consisted of blaCTX-M, blaSHV, and blaTEM, respectively.

    Conclusions

    Overall, the findings of this study showed that blaTEM was the most common gene with a frequency of 61.5% in ESBL E. coli.

    Keywords: Escherichia Coli, Cephalosporins, Beta-Lactamase, Intensive Care Units (ICU)