- Volume:2 Issue: 2, 2019
- تاریخ انتشار: 1397/10/11
- تعداد عناوین: 8
Choosing a Strategy for Maintaining Health Against the Possibility of Changing the Internal Environment and Social StressPages 185-186
Humans, in facing changes in the internal environment or the social environment, often ask themselves what strategy to choose against these changes, strategies that guarantee optimal health in their physical, psychological, and social dimensions. If no immediate answer is found for this question, the brain is in trouble to find the preferences in choosing the possible options, and thus, the concept of social stress is formed . Also, when the choices include concurrent benefits and risks, the context of the stressful processes in the brain is created.
To encounter such conditions, the body aims to maintain internal stability and, by activating the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis (HPA), tries to manage stress. Glucocorticoids, in turn, facilitate the acquisition of information for the central nervous system by reducing the threshold for brain cells stimulation. Thus the brain will spend energy and gain more information on a new level of preferences in strategy selection scenarios. However, when there are no preferences for choosing a scenario for the brain, stressful conditions continue, and the HPA axis activity will result in changes in immunoregulation .
Today, people live in very stressful societies. Studies have established an association between the increased prevalence of diseases and social and physiological stresses . Studies on both normal and induced stresses have shown their significant effects on the immune response [4-6]. Animal studies have found that increased incidence of aggressive behaviors is due to the higher cytokine production and cellular immune activity . Based on the type of stimulus and duration of contact, chronic stress influences both innate and acquired immune responses. Stress affects the immune system by activating the HPA axis.
It also affects the innate immune agents, such as monocyte, macrophage, and pro-inflammatory cytokines by increasing stress hormones (glucocorticoids and catecholamines). Chronic stress influences the acquired immune components by changing the immune cell population and disturbing the balance between immune cells and released cytokine levels [8-12]. These conditions also increase the likelihood of developing infectious diseases by influencing immune responses and allow the emergence of new diseases or the return of some old eradicated diseases.
The onset of metabolic syndrome, obesity, increased cholesterol, and diabetes is also known as other complications of brain exposure with no preferences, long-term uncertainty, and chronic social stress. For example, all known complications of diabetes may be due to long-term encounter to social stress. Hypertension, cardiovascular disease, increased risk of various types of cancers may be due to impairment of the regulation of cytokines and caspases, and disturbances in detecting and preventing mutations are other complications of the uncertain brain and social stress.
Recently, we have focused on monitoring the health of chemical victims of Sardasht City, Iran, regarding their socioeconomic status in causing complications, symptoms, and their response to the treatment. So that the socioeconomic status of chemical victims has been classified and observed in five levels, similar exposure to mustard gas (which was carried out during the Iran-Iraq war in 1995) it has been impressive to the clinical symptoms of patients in 2017. Also, the difference in biological age and actual age in people exposed to Iraq chemical attacks in Sardasht City has been found, which indicates that this long-term stress has led to premature aging in the affected patients.
We are going to discuss the issues of close and bilateral relationships, lack of selective preferences, deprivation, social inequalities, and the impairment of the regulation of various safety systems based on the results of our previous study and other studies in a detailed review article. We hope that this article is presented in the upcoming issue of the immunoregulation journal.
The Effects of Dental Pulp Stem Cell Conditioned Media on the Proliferation of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear CellsPages 187-192Background
Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs) are multipotent mesenchymal stem cells. DPSCs can renew themselves and differentiate into various cell types such as adipocytes, osteocytes, neurons, etc. DPSCs possess immunomodulatory properties and can inhibit peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation. Recent studies showed that conditioned-medium mesenchymal stem cells also had immunosuppressive activity. The ability of DPSC conditioned medium to suppress proliferation of allogeneic PBMC determined using BrdU (5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine) proliferation assay.Materials and Methods
Dental pulp stem cells were extracted from a wisdom tooth. These cells are characterized for differentiation potential to adipogenic and osteogenic lineage and expression of mesenchymal stem cells markers, including CD105, CD73, CD90, CD14, CD-34, and CD45. The characterized DPSCs were cultured, and the conditioned medium (CM) got isolated. Stimulated and non-stimulated PBMCs from the allogeneic donor were cultured with DPSC-CM for 24, 48, and 72 hours. The proliferation of PBMCs was measured with BrdU assay.Results
The BrdU test results showed that DPSC-CM reduced allogeneic PBMC proliferation at different time points. DPSC-CM could inhibit stimulated and non-stimulated PBMC in 48 and 72 hours after incubation.Conclusion
This study demonstrated that DPSC-CM had an immunomodulatory effect on the proliferation of allogeneic cells.Keywords: Dental pulp stem cell, Immunomodulatory, Conditioned medium, Stem cell
Microencapsulated Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Var. Boulardii and IgA Secretion From Intestinal Epithelia in Wistar RatsPages 193-196Background
Probiotics are live microorganisms with many health benefits for their host. The intestinal microbiota are the largest source of microbial variation and plays a significant role in host responses in health and disease. However, few studies have assessed the repercussions of probiotics regarding the morphology and immunology of the gastrointestinal tract in animal models. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of administering capsulated Saccharomyces species on gastrointestinal tract properties in rats.Materials and Methods
In this study mice rats were feed with Saccharomyces Boulardii intwo forms of capsulated and free. IgA was measured in duodenal and jejunal washings using ELISA assay according to the manufacturer’s instructions.Results
Probiotic S. boulardii could increase IgA secretion from duodenum and jejunum in comparison with the control group, and this increase was significant in microencapsulated S.boulardii-treated group and in the duodenum of S. boulardii-treated group (PConclusion
It can be concluded that S. boulardii is a potential probiotic yeast with immunostimulatory effects which can be used in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.Keywords: Probiotic, IgA, Intestine
Association of Nitric Oxide With Delayed Skin Problems After Sulfur Mustard Exposure: Part of Sardasht-Iran Cohort StudyPages 197-206Background
Exposure to Sulfur Mustard (SM) leads to short- and long-term adverse effects on various organs, including the skin. Despite several studies on long-term clinical manifestations of skin toxicity in SM-exposed individuals, the pathogenesis of SM-induced skin disorders is not fully understood.Materials and Methods
As part of Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study (SICS), this study aimed to find out the possibility of any correlation between the serums level of Nitric Oxide (NO) and skin problems due to the long-term effect of SM as well as the kind of skin illness. In this historical cohort study, 372 male SM-exposed subjects and 128 age-matched unexposed controls were studied. Clinical evaluation was carried out for all participants, and their serum concentration of NO was measured.Results
According to our results, the Mean±SD serum level of NO in the exposed group with skin disorders were significantly higher than that in the exposed group without skin disorders (1483.00±488.754µg/mL vs. 1364.50±487.887µg/mL; P=0.024). Also, among the exposed group, there was a significant elevation of serum NO associated with the type of lesion. For ezxample, specific lesions like mustard scar were associated with higher levels of NO compared to non-specific lesions like xerosis, itching, seborrheic dermatitis, etc. Also, a significant elevation in serum NO levels was found in the exposed subjects with pigmentation disorders (both hypo- and hyper-pigmentation) compared to the exposed participants without these skin problems (PConclusion
Our results show the highest serum level of NO in the exposed group with specific lesions and the lowest or normal level of NO in the unexposed group with no skin illness. The elevated serum levels of NO may be associated with the progression of some skin complications in the SM-exposed subjects. This finding serves as a basis for further research on the molecular mechanisms and pathways involved in the pathogenesis of skin disorders in SM-exposed patients.Keywords: Mustard gas, Skin, Nitric oxide, Cohort study
Immunoregulatory Properties of Arteether in Folic Acid-Chitosan-Fe3O4 Composite Nanoparticle in 4T1 Cell Line and Mice Bearing Breast CancerPages 207-220BackgroundMany studies have focused on the potent anti-cancer activity of Arteether (ARE). However, the hydrophobic property of this drug limits its application. To increase the bioavailability of ARE, we formulated a Nanosystem (NS) of Folic Acid (FA), Chitosan (CS), and Fe3O4 for delivery of ARE into breast cancer.Materials and MethodsThe CS-coated Fe3O4 was synthesized by co-precipitation of Fe2+ and Fe3+ in CS gel-like solution. Then, it was conjugated with FA and ARE. The properties of ARE loaded Nanoparticles (NPs) were characterized by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Fourier Transform-Infrared (FTIR) spectra, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), drug loading efficiency, and drug release. The bioactivity of this complex was evaluated in vitro and in vivo settings. Tumor volume was measured, and the cytokines of Interferon-gamma IFN-γ and interleukin 4 (IL-4) were assessed in mice splenocytes.ResultsDLS showed an average size of 198nm and the charge of about -7mV. FTIR confirmed the formation of ARE loaded NPs and SEM indicated its solid, dense structure. The drug exhibited a loading capacity of (20%) and significant release in citrate buffer with pH 5.4 compared with phosphate-buffered saline with pH 7.4. The NS showed significant inhibitory effect on the growth of 4T1 cell line and tumor volume. It also augmented IFN-γ and IL-4 production in breast cancer-bearing mice. ARE in FA-CS-Fe3O4 composite NPs may significantly suppress tumor growth.ConclusionThis NS can be utilized in the nano-based drug delivery system for the treatment of breast cancer.Keywords: Arteether, Nanosystem, Chitosan, Folic acid, Breast cancer
Serum Levels of Interleukin-10 and Tumor Growth Factor-β1 in Children With Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorders Compared to Control GroupsPages 221-228BackgroundEosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorders (EGID) are a heterogeneous group of gastrointestinal disorders, associated with an increase of the eosinophils in the gastrointestinal mucosal tissue. Regulatory T cells (Tregs), as a subset of T cells, have a proven prominent role in immunopathology and protection against allergic diseases. Also, they appear to play a role in EGID pathogenesis. In the present study, serum levels of Tumor Growth Factor (TGF)-β and interleukin (IL)-10 were measured in patients with EGID compared to patients with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) and healthy subjects.Materials and MethodsA total of 34 patients with EGID, 23 with GERD, and 25 healthy controls were included in the study. The diagnoses of EGID and GERD were made based on the patients’ clinical symptoms, endoscopic findings, and biopsy confirmation. A questionnaire of demographic information, allergy history, as well as endoscopic-pathological and skin prick test results were completed and performed. The serum levels of TGF-β and IL-10 were measured using the ELISA method.ResultsFamily history of allergic disorders in patients with EGID or GERD was significantly high compared to healthy controls (P=0.010, P=0.005, respectively). There was a statistically significant increase in serum levels of TGF-β1 (P=0.025), but no significant difference was observed in serum level of IL-10 among three groups. However, the serum level of IL-10 was significantly high in a subgroup of patients with upper gastrointestinal eosinophilic involvement compared to the healthy controls (P=0.018).ConclusionSignificant increase in the serum level of IL-10 and TGF- β might be due to the Tregs dysfunction in EGID patients. Further studies should determine the role of Tregs in the pathogenesis of EGID.Keywords: Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGID), Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), Tumor growth factor (TGF)-β, Interleukin (IL)-10, Eosinophilic Esophagitis
miR-320 and Inflammation Regulation in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Through Interference With Tumor Growth Factor-β Signaling PathwayPages 229-238BackgroundMicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and involve in many cellular and physiological mechanisms. Recent studies have revealed that dysregulation of microRNAs might contribute to autoimmune disorders such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Based on these findings, we examined the potential role of miR-320 isoforms; miR-320-3p and miR-320-5p, in the context of autoimmune neuroinflammation and pathogenesis of EAE, which is an animal model of MS.Materials and MethodsThe expression levels of miR-320-3p and miR-320-5p, and their predicted target genes, TGFBR2 and Smad2, were quantified in the CNS tissue in mice with Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) using RT-PCR method. The expression was also examined in splenocytes macrophages and astrocytes. To examine the interaction of miR-320-3p and miR-320-5p with the 3′-UTR of potential target transcripts, the mimic sequences of both isoforms were transfected into splenocytes and then examined by RT-PCR.ResultsThe expression of both isoforms of miR-320 significantly increased in different phases of EAE and activated lymphocytes, whereas the levels of their predicted target genes, Smad2 and TGFBR2 decreased in these cells. Obtained data revealed that miR-320-5p level significantly increased in activated macrophages and astrocytes; however, the miR 320-3p level did not show significant changes in these cells after Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. The levels of TGFBR2 and Smad2 decreased in transfected splenocytes.ConclusionOur findings suggest that upregulation of miR-320 isoforms might be involved in the neuroinflammation and pathogenesis of MS through targeting and suppression of TGFBR2 and Smad2, i.e. protective genes in MS.Keywords: MicroRNA, Neuroinflammation, Multiple Sclerosis, Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, miR-320
Wounds and their healing process are among the most crucial medical issues, especially in the field of dermatology and surgery that imposes notable costs to the health care system.Materials and Methods
Wound healing requires specific fundamental steps, such as angiogenesis and inflammation. Angiogenesis is controlled by different cytokines such as Hypoxia-Inducible Factor α (HIF-α), Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF), Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF), Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNF-α), and Matrix MetalloProteinases (MMPs).Results
Celecoxib, an inhibitor of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), is widely used in medicine and different fields. This medication can inhibit angiogenesis via suppressing all mentioned cytokines. Thus, suppression of angiogenesis by celecoxib, especially in chronic wounds, may result in the poor or delayed healing.Conclusion
Authors suggest complementary clinical studies to evaluate the possible role of celecoxib on the wound healing focusing on angiogenesis.Keywords: Celecoxib, Angiogenesis, Wound healing, Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor