فهرست مطالب

Medical Reviews - Volume:7 Issue: 1, 2020
  • Volume:7 Issue: 1, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/11/29
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Sadegh Zarei, Solmaz Sadat Hosseini Zijoud * Pages 1-6

    Sleep is an integral part of the human life, and its disorders, depending on cognitive or emotional behaviors, cause a series of changes in the physical and mental activity of human beings. Therefore, as quality of sleep decreases, quality of life, performance and work efficiency will decrease as well. Military societies are in dire need of high quality sleep because of their duty of securing and protecting countries. For many reasons, including stressful and dangerous martial situations, sleep disorders are seen in both active and retired military personnel. The aim of the present study was to review the sleep disorders and their consequences on the military staff.

    Keywords: Sleep disorders, Sleep Quality, Military Personnel
  • Wafa Abdullah Alshahrani * Pages 7-10

    Bacterial meningitis is the 10th most common cause of death worldwide. Early detection and treatment can decrease the mortality and morbidity rates. In this review, the treatment regimen of bacterial meningitis will be discussed in adult patients based on the microorganism. The benefits of the usage of corticosteroid (Dexamethasone in particular) will be elaborated in lowering the rates of death and neurological complications. The results of different studies on patients in developed and developing countries will the presented. Also, meta- analysis studies will review the patients with different ages and those affected with different microorganism to emphasize the benefit of the corticosteroid regimen as a part of the bacterial meningitis treatment.

    Keywords: Bacterial meningitis, Adults, treatment, corticosteroid
  • John Nolan *, Audrey Wijaya, Agatha Lianto, Made Saraswati Pages 11-14

    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disorder which results in the INS pancreatic β-cell destruction and contributes to around 5 to 10% of all diabetes mellitus cases, especially in children. At the moment, the only treatment for T1DM is by insulin injection, which is injected in order to prevent the complication of T1DM. However, several studies have shown that combination between Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs) and the Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 (FGF-2) may be a successful modality to treat T1DM. Actually, the ESCs may become the potential therapy in treating T1DM.

    Keywords: Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus_Embryonic Stem Cells_Fibroblast Growth Factor-2
  • Basma Saleh *, Ahmed Saedi, Ali Al Aqbi, Lamees Salman Pages 15-24

    Data mining is characterized as searching for useful information through very large data sets. Some of the key and most common techniques for data mining are association rules, classification, clustering, prediction, and sequential models.  For a wide range of applications, data mining techniques are used. Data mining plays a significant role in disease detection in the health care industry. The patient should be needed to detect a number of tests for the disease. However, the number of tests should be reduced by using data mining techniques. In time and performance, this reduced test plays an important role. Heart disease is a cardiovascular disease that causes death. Health problems are enormous in this recent situation because of the prediction and the classification of health problems in different situations. The data mining area included the prediction and identification of abnormality and its risk rate in these domains. Today the health industry holds hidden information essential for decision-making. For predicting heart problems, data extraction algorithms like K-star, J48, SMO, Naïve Bayes, MLP, Random Forest, Bayes Net, and REPTREE are used for this study (Weka 3.8.3) software. The results of the predictive accuracy, the ROC curve, and the AUC value are combined using a standard set of data and a collected dataset. By applying different data mining algorithms, the patient data can be used for diagnosis as training samples. The main drawbacks of the previous studies are that they need accurate and the number of features. This paper surveys recent data mining techniques applied to predict heart diseases. And Identifying the major risk factors of Heart Disease categorizing the risk factors in an order which causes damages to the heart such as high blood cholesterol, diabetes, smoking, poor diet, obesity, hypertension, stress, etc. Data mining functions and techniques are used to identify the level of risk factors to help the patients in taking precautions in advance to save their life.

    Keywords: Data mining, heart disease, prediction, Classification, Dataset, WEKA tool, Prediction techniques
  • Lydia Ferrara * Pages 25-29
    Introduction

    Spices are an ingredient that today is considered indispensable in the kitchen not only for the important role of flavoring and coloring food, but also for the antibacterial, antioxidant, eupeptic, antidiabetic and anticancer properties, which have been highlighted through chemical and pharmacological analysis.

    Methods

    In order to use spices in the food sector, it is necessary to have a product with characteristics of authenticity and genuineness such as to protect the consumers from possible health risks. The aim of the present study was to find the best extractive conditions for vanilla capsules with the use of different solvents such as ethyl ether, methyl alcohol and dichloromethane and subjecting the extracts obtained to qualitative and quantitative analysis.

    Results

    From the analysis carried out it was possible to highlight that the main component of the vanilla pod is vanillin from which the particular aroma derives. Other important compounds are: vanillic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, anisic alcohol; and vanillin degradation products which are also available in small concentrations.  In addition, the following flavonoids have been identified: rutin, morine, quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, apigenin, whci are considered to be responsible for pharmacological activities.

    Conclusions

    Knowledge of chemical composition of a spice is necessary to guarantee its authenticity. In the case of vanilla, possible sophistications can be highlighted considering the relationship between vanillin and the other main components which in the natural extract is well defined and, in addition to being an index of good quality, allows to identify the origin of the plant and to discover any adulterations,as by adding synthetic vanillin or other spices.

    Keywords: Spice, Vanillin, Analytical methods, Pharmacology
  • Naina Mohamed Pakkir Maideen * Pages 30-31

    Nitrovasodilators are used to treat many conditions including coronary artery disease, chronic congestive heart failure, and arterial hypertension. They induce smooth muscle relaxation by increasing intracellular cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate (cGMP) concentrations and activating K+ channels through the release of Nitric Oxide (NO). Thus, they could interact with the drugs preventing the breakdown or increasing the synthesis of cGMP and induce the accumulation of cGMP resulting in excessive vasodilation and severe hypotension. Pharmacologically relevant drug interactions of Nitrovasodilators are discussed in this review. Coadministration of Nitrovasodilators and the drugs preventing the breakdown of cGMP like Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors or the drugs increasing the synthesis of cGMP like Riociguat could induce the accumulation of cGMP resulting in excessive vasodilation and severe hypotension. The prescribers and pharmacists are required to be aware of the drugs interacting with Nitrates to predict and prevent the adverse drug interactions.

    Keywords: Drug interactions, Nitrovasodilators, Nitrates, Nitroglycerin
  • Masoud Mohammadi *, Ali Akbar Vaisi Raygani, Rostam Jalali, Nader Salari, Maryam Sabbaghchi Pages 32-38
    Background and Objectives

    The mental health of nurses, who are a part of the health care system, is extremely important in order to be able provide effective health care services to patients. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to determine the prevalence of depression in nurses working in Iranian hospitals in order to point out to the importance of this issue to health policymakers. 

    Methods

    This study is a systematic review and meta-analysis which was conducted by adherence to the PRISMA checklist and STROBE Statement. All related published articles during April 2000 to March 2016 were searched on SID & Magiran, Medline (PubMed), ScienceDirect and Google Scholar databases. The different combinations of keywords like nurse, depression, prevalence, hospital and Iran were used. The heterogeneity of the studies was assessed using I2 index and the data were analyzed in Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (CMA) software.

    Results

    A total of 12 studies were included in this review. The overall prevalence of depression in Iranian hospital nurses was 29.9% (19.4-43.2%: 95% confidence interval). The highest prevalence of depression was reported among nurses in Tehran hospitals in 2000 which was 73.1% (64.8%-80%: 95% confidence interval) and the least prevalence of depression was recorded among nurses in Ilam hospitals in 2014 which was 5.8% (2.4-13.2%: 95% confidence interval).

    Conclusion

    Considering the high prevalence of depression (29.9 %) in nurses working in hospitals of Iran, it is necessary that health policy makers and hospital managers pay more attention to this issue.

    Keywords: depression, Nurse, Hospital, Iran, Meta-analysis