فهرست مطالب

Travel Medicine and Global Health - Volume:7 Issue: 1, 2019
  • Volume:7 Issue: 1, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/11/23
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Wee Xuan Neo, Gerard Flaherty * Pages 1-3
    The literature on international travellers with psychiatric disorders is limited. This perspective article highlights various travel-related aspects of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including its aetiological association with maternal migration, the difficulties faced by long-term travelers with autistic children, and the facilitation of international travel for autistic individuals by the travel industry. Depending on the severity of their condition, autistic individuals may find specific aspects of the travel experience particularly distressing. Travel medicine practitioners should be aware of the unique needs of autistic travelers when providing pre-travel health counseling. There is also an onus on the travel industry to facilitate safe and enjoyable travel and remove barriers faced by autistic travellers.
    Keywords: Migrants, Travel, Autistic Disorder, mental health
  • Fabio Zicker *, Bruna Fonseca, Priscila Albuquerque Pages 4-9
    Introduction

    The increasing number of global health initiatives have contributed to improving access to health services and building knowledge platforms. However, the distribution of activities and knowledge produced has been uneven. To scope the scientific output in global health, publications from 2008-2017 were reviewed to identify major players, assess the extent of involvement of low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), and map areas of research interest.

    Methods

    A total of 3153 Web of Science (WoS) publications were retrieved, of which 2423 were selected for this review. The country of origin, institutions involved, types of documents, language of publication, journal titles, content categories, authorship, themes, and characteristics of collaboration were examined.

    Results

    Over the years, the number of global health publications from both high-income countries (HIC) and LMIC has increased. Authors from LMIC were engaged in 19.3% of the publications, representing 10.3% of first authors and 9.7% of single-author articles. Collaboration across World Health Organization (WHO) regions ranged from 29.6% to 64.6%. Themes of greatest research interest were capacity development, health policy and systems, and disease control.

    Conclusion

    Global health research is experiencing rapid expansion, but LMIC authors continue to have limited involvement. The current study revealed diversity in publications, journals, and actors with a marked influence from developed countries. As north-south and south-south research partnerships are increasing across the world, it is important to ensure open collaboration between partners and alignment with public health research priorities and needs.

    Keywords: Global Health, Research Collaboration, Research Networks, Bibliometric Review, Scoping Review
  • Gaetan Guiu *, Jonathan Monin, Eric Perrier, Olivier Manen Pages 10-12
    Introduction

    Since the 1950s, air travel has grown exponentially. In 2018, the number of international air passengers was estimated at 4.1 billion. Air travel exposes the passenger to a number of constraints (like physical constraints, stress) that can be correlated and lead to an inflight medical event, especially for passengers with chronic conditions or fragile health.

    Methods

    In June 2017, a mini review of the literature was conducted in order to summarize the data on inflight medical events and their frequency, types, and consequences.

    Results

    The most frequent inflight medical events are syncope and lipothymic discomfort, followed by digestive disorders, cardiorespiratory symptoms, neuropsychiatric disorders, and trauma. In almost two-thirds of all cases, these medical events are linked to a pre-existing pathology. There is no reliable register of inflight medical events, but their number is estimated to be between 120 to 350 each day throughout the world.

    Conclusion

    The definition of an inflight medical event deserves to be specified, and the collection of these events needs to be standardized. This will help bring about a better understanding of the issue and maybe raise awareness among passengers with chronic diseases or fragile health and their general practitioners.

    Keywords: Epidemiology, Digestive System Diseases, Syncope
  • Dennis Minoru Fujita *, Karina Takesaki Miyaji, Marta Heloisa Lopes, Heitor Franco De Andrade Júnior, Expedito José De Albuquerque Luna Pages 13-17
    Introduction
    Emerging countries have increased their presence in international travel (46.8% of travels). Pre- and post-travel consultations may provide insights about travelers’ health.
    Methods
    A retrospective descriptive analysis of the medical data of all travelers assisted at Ambulatório dos Viajantes, a free public health clinic for travelers in São Paulo, Brazil, from January to December 2016 was performed. The patients were profiled based on post-travel consultation data and screened by gender, age according to the United Nations working-age population distribution (0-14 years, children; 15-24 years, youths; 25-65 years, working age; over 65 years, older persons), travel destination, and diseases that affected travelers.
    Results
    In 2016 (n=280 appointments), 93.92% of clients received some type of vaccine (regular or booster dose). Post-travel consultations (n=27; 9.64%) were predominantly male (62.96% of appointments) and comprised cases of malaria (44.4%; 6 positive cases of Plasmodium falciparum, 4 positive cases of Plasmodium vivax, and 2 unclassified), fever (7.4%), AGE - acute gastroenteritis (7.4%), hepatitis A (3.7%), nausea (3.7%), insect bite (3.7%), abdominal pain (3.7%), arthralgia (3.7%), vaginal discharge (3.7%), and cases under investigation (18.5%). Brazilian travelers presented the same incidence of post-travel counseling as developed countries’ travel medicine clinics (~9%).
    Conclusion
    Immunization in pre-travel counseling may reduce the importation of preventable infectious diseases and increase Brazilians’ traveler vaccine coverage, a current concern in the country.
    Keywords: Clinics, counseling, Vaccination
  • Tiebing Liu *, Bing Qiu, Jinling Zheng, Chanyuan Zhang, Yanmin Qi, Jinhui Fan, Lili Li, Jixia Gao Pages 18-22
    Introduction
    Most of previous studies on dyslipidemia among pilots were cross-sectional surveys which cannot explore the temporal trend of dyslipidemia, and these studies were normally conducted at least five years ago. In addition, studies focusing on pilots in Southwest China are scarce. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of and trends in dyslipidemia among pilots from an airline in Southwest China.
    Methods
    This cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence of adverse concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) among all pilots from one airline in Southwest China in 2015. Analyses of linear trends in age-adjusted prevalence of dyslipidemia were conducted overall across a 3-year period (2013, 2014, and 2015).
    Results
    In 2015, 3.4% of participating pilots had a high TC concentration, 16.4% had a high TG concentration, 2.6% had a high LDL-C concentration, 25.1% had a low HDL-C concentration, and 33.1% had dyslipidemia. Between 2013 and 2015, there were decreasing linear trends in age-adjusted prevalence of high TG (32% vs. 19.9%; P < 0.001) and dyslipidemia (51.9% vs. 38.4%; P < 0.001). During this 3-year period, declining trends were also observed in age-adjusted prevalence of LDL-C (10.0% vs. 4%; P < 0.001) and HDL-C (33.2% vs. 28.3%; P = 0.015). However, there was no change from 2013 to 2015 in age-adjusted prevalence of high TC (2.8% vs. 5.0%; P = 0.168).
    Conclusion
    From 2013 to 2015, there were favorable trends in the prevalence of high TG, low HDL-C, high LDL-C, and overall dyslipidemia but no significant change in high TC among pilots from one airline in southwest China. The reasons for these trends need to be further explored.
    Keywords: Dyslipidemia, pilot, Prevalence, Trends, Lipids
  • Iqramul Haq *, Mahabub Alam, Injamul Haq Methun Pages 23-32
    Introduction
    Fertility transition is outright by prime four proximate determinants (marriage, contraception, postpartum infecundability, and abortion). The present study examines the contributions of proximate determinants on fertility decline and quantifies inhibiting the effect of major proximate determinants according to the socioeconomic characteristics in Bangladesh.
    Methods
    The current study was based mainly on the three Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys (BDHSs) carried out in 1993-1994, 2004, and 2014. Bongaarts’ fertility framework was applied to analyze the proximate determinants of fertility in the socioeconomic status of women in Bangladesh.
    Results
    In 1993-1994, contraception was the greatest impediment to fertility followed by postpartum infecundability, marriage, and induced abortion, respectively. In 2014, contraception was the highest fertility obstructing effect followed by marriage, postpartum infecundability, and abortion, respectively, in both rural and urban areas of Bangladesh. Throughout the study period and even now, fertility is revered in the Sylhet and Chittagong divisions of Bangladesh. The fertility-inhibiting effect of marriage, contraception, and abortion has an affirmative relationship with the educational status of women. Postpartum infecundability, however, displays an inverse relationship with the educational status of women.
    Conclusion
    The current study suggests that contraception plays a vital role in fertility reduction in Bangladesh. In particular, special attention should be placed on those regions (Chittagong and Sylhet divisions) that register low contraception prevalence rates. Special programs should focus on creating an awareness of the disadvantages of child marriage among women who reside in the division of Chittagong and Sylhet of Bangladesh.
    Keywords: Fertility, Proximate Determinants, Postpartum Infecundability, abortion
  • Zahid Ali Khan, Ittoop Pulikkottil Sunish * Pages 33-37
    Introduction
    In the past 10 years, a declining trend was seen in the annual parasite incidence (API) of malaria in the Car Nicobar Island. For the past few years, the API in the island has been below one. Car Nicobar Island is struggling with malaria cases reported to have been brought from other, malaria-endemic islands.
    Methods
    The movements of people were monitored by door-to-door visits during early morning hours, and the frequency of their movements to different islands (malarious and non-malarious areas) were monitored.
    Results
    A larger number of villagers visited non-malarious areas (OS-O) than malarious areas (OS-N). The maximum number of people was found out of station during the month of June. Thirty-seven percent of people were out of the station to non-malarious areas, while only 6% were out of the station to islands endemic for malaria. In the latter category, the majority of those who left the village were in the age groups of 16-30 years and 31–45 years. Even though fewer villagers visited malaria-endemic areas, their visits can pose a threat of malaria transmission, in view of the prevalence of local anopheline vectors.
    Conclusion
    Understanding people’s movement patterns to and from high malaria-transmission areas is important to designing strategic evidence-based control plans. In Car Nicobar, the main transport facilities within the inter-islands are ship and helicopter services. Hence, post-arrival medical examinations should be made mandatory to prevent the introduction of malaria parasites into the island.
    Keywords: Malaria, Travel, Islands