فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 79 (زمستان 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/02/25
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Zeinab Omidiyan Page 7

    Different and sometimes conflicting narrations from Imam Reza's Subrogation have been reflected in Sunni and Shia texts. Therefore, the problem of this article is to study Subrogation narratives in Islamic Historiography, And the author intends to answer these questions: How Has Imam Reza's Subrogation been reflected in historical sources, and have historians mention to Imam Reza's compulsion to accept succession? Which sources have mentioned this issue? The author intends to answer these questions using a descriptive-analytical method. The results of this study show that each of these historians, influenced by their own insights and attitudes, has reflected the Subrogation narrative in their text. Sunni religious historians have sought to legitimize the al-Ma'mun government and have rejected the report of al-Ma'mun compulsion to accept the Subrogation of Imam Reza, so that they intend to convey to the reader that acceptance of Imam Reza's Subrogation was based on consent. Shiite historians who have written their texts during the Shiite Buyid dynasty, have studied and mentioned in detail the issue of the compulsion of Imam Reza. The

    Keywords: al-Ma'mun, Imam Reza's Subrogation, Legitimacy, Shiite andSunni Historical Texts
  • Elahe Rezanejad Yazdi, Aliye Jahaniyan Page 39

    The first controversial issue after the death of the Prophet (PBUH) which led to division among Muslims was the issue of succession, political and religious leadership of Islamic society. Moreover, the early Islamic centuries marked the beginning of political and religious disputes and the emergence of sects with various ideas in Islamic society. The formation of the Khawarij flow in the event of Siffin in 37 AH and opposition to the Arbitration process caused a division among Imam Ali's troops. Their extremist ideas in the political and religious spheres led to a war against rulers and slaughter of oppositions and a division in the Islamic community. Moreover, In the last century, a new and innovative idea entered the arena of the Islamic world and took over the lands of Iraq and Syria under its influence and rule. Indeed, the ideas of ISIS stemming from Wahhabi thought which can be considered the ideas of Ibn Taymiyyah and his Simultaneous thinker like Sayyid Qutb. This research has been done by a descriptive-analytical method, and collecting data was done through librarya and internet sources in to order to answer these questions: What are the similarities and differences between the political and religious movement of the Khawarij and ISIS in the establishment of the Islamic State? It seems that the Khawarij and ISIL with their extremist religious ideas considered many Muslims as opposition for themselves who has to be slaughtered. However, in the political arena, ISIL succeeds in establishing its Khilafat in a short time at the land under its rule. However, Khawarij never had an opportunity to establish any kind of Islamic state except War and bloodshed and political turmoil.

    Keywords: Khawarij, ISIS, Islamic State, Political Thought, Muslims
  • Hasan Ramezanpur Page 63

    The Kharijites were political-religious sectarian that gradually entered the land of Iran after their emergence in the first half of the first century AH in today's Iraq. Moreover, they raised the flag of rebellion and revolt against the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphs. The Kharijite uprisings in Iran lasted for three centuries, and some of them were so important that the caliph himself had to take action to handle them. However, the Kharijites have never been a significant threat to the central government, and they revolted intermittently. The main question of the present study is why and how the Kharijites were able to last in Iran for three centuries, and they have fans and also failed to take effective action in Iran? The research findings show that the Kharijites were able to attract different groups due to some of their religious beliefs and fighting spirit, as well as the issues raised for the people of the conquered Islamic lands and on the other hand, due to some belief features, such as stubbornness in defending their personal opinion and a particular interpretation of religious issues and social justice, they failed to create an effective convergence between other groups and elements dissatisfied with the government and finally, they have never been presented as an influential leader in the history of Iran. This research seeks to analyze the Kharijite actions in Iran in a historical method and with a descriptive-analytical approach based on data collection from library sources.

    Keywords: Kharijites, Iran, First Islamic Centuries, Umayyads, Abbasids
  • Hamideh Shahidi Page 95

    The Iranian judicial system was based on the dichotomy of custom. This framework has been one of the most important issues raised in the legislation at the time of the constitutional system. Therefore, this article seeks to identify the status of religion and customs in the constitutional system. One of the most important sources of this research is the documentation of the administration of justice at the top of the constitution. These documents help the researcher to understand the hidden aspects of the legal and customary position in the constitutional system of law, which is less discussed elsewhere. The method used in this research is historical and, due to the nature of archival sources, it is done by a descriptive-analytical method. The findings show that one of the most important measures of the constitutional government in the development of the judiciary is the separation of Shari'a jurisdictions from customary jurisdictions; it cannot be claimed, however, that it has been fully distinguished between Shari'a and customary jurisdictions; The origin of the Iranian legal system has been Shari'a law.

    Keywords: Constitutional Period, Ministry of Justice, Shari'a Law, JudicialDocuments
  • Musā-alreza Nazari Page 115

    As it has been brought in this research, the first part of the toponym of Khabushan (Khabush) along with “Keufich” (“Keufichia” in ancient Persian inscription) and “Kofich” (in toponym of Kofijan) are same in the root. Moreover, as a Hypothetical and reconstructed form of “Khofach” and “Khooch” are reconstructable. In pre-Islamic period, all of a sudden, this last form (Khofach or Khooach) converted to Khaooch or Khaboch/Khabosh that the only root of Khabosh has been reminded in Khanoshan (An Arabized form of Khabochan) in Written sources. It seems it has the same root and mean with Hanoch in Habochestan (it is Khuzestan in Pahlavi language). Another sample in sound shift and change (Khofach or Khooach to Khaooach/ Khaaboch or Khabosh) is Sooashon /suvašun / that has been converted to Saooshon /savušun/. Khabushan means High and mountainous land which is hypothetically made Arabic as Khabouchan. The last form in the oldest written sources has been come like Khojan (Khochan), and from the Mongolian period onward, based on written sources has been pronounce as Qochan.

    Keywords: Khabushan, etymology, appell