فهرست مطالب

Nutrition and Food Security - Volume:5 Issue: 2, 2020
  • Volume:5 Issue: 2, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/03/07
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Sayyed Saeid Khayyatzadeh* Pages 93-96
  • Yadollah Khoshbakht, Reza Bidaki, Mahdieh Hosseinzadeh, Farhang Mirzavandi, Amin Salehi Abargouei* Pages 97-108
    Background

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in children. Children with ADHD usually have low blood pressure and weight disorders. Therefore, the present randomized clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) on weight and blood pressure of children with ADHD.

    Methods

    In this research, 86 children aged 6 to 12 years with diagnosed ADHD according to Conner’s Teacher's Questionnaire and DSM-4 criteria were investigated. Participants were randomly assigned into two groups to receive a DASH diet and a control diet for 12 weeks. Participants' anthropometric indices, blood pressure, physical activity, and dietary compliance were evaluated each month. Adherence to the diet was studied using a three-day food report completed by the participants' parents.

    Results

    A total of 80 children completed the study (40 in each group). No significant difference was observed in any of the weight composition indices measured before and after the intervention between the study groups (P > 0.05). No significant difference was reported in the systolic and diastolic blood pressure between the study groups at the baseline. However, diastolic blood pressure increased in the DASH group significantly compared to the control group (P = 0.02).

    Conclusion

    The DASH diet might increase the diastolic blood pressure in children with ADHD. Further studies with a longer follow-up period are necessary to confirm these results.

    Keywords: Dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH), Attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADHD), Children, Weight, Blood Pressure
  • Zohreh Sadat Sangsefidi, Abdolreza Norouzy, Mohammad Safarian, Roxana Kashanifar, Raheleh Pourbaferani, Fateme Ghafouri Taleghani, Sahar Fallahi, Ali Taghizadeh Kermani, Seyed Rasoul Zakavi* Pages 109-117
    Background

    Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is the most prevalent endocrine cancer. Evidence showed a significant association between diet and DTC. Thus, this study aimed to assess the relationship between dietary intakes and DTC.

    Methods

    This case-control study was accomplished among 300 adult patients and 300 matched (age and gender) controls in Mashhad city, Iran. Dietary assessment was conducted and the relationship between dietary intakes and DTC were examined by a validated food-frequency questionnaire and logistic regression analysis, respectively.

    Results

    After adjusting for the confounders, a protective effect was observed for the highest tertile of low-fat dairy (OR=0.3, 95% CI=0.17-0.53, P < 0.001) and fruits' intakes (OR=0.28, 95% CI=0.15-0.52, P < 0.001) on DTC. However, the highest tertile of sugar intake was significantly related to greater DTC chance (OR=4.01, 95% CI=2.07-7.79, P < 0.001). A protective role was also found for vegetables in the second tertile of consumption (OR=0.3, 95% CI= 0. 0.17-0.54, P < 0.001) and for tea in the second and third tertiles (OR=0.2, 95% CI= 0.11-0.53, P < 0.001; OR=0.42, 95% CI=0.26-0.69, P = 0.001 respectively). However, the second and third tertiles of the roasted or fried meat consumption were significantly associated with higher DTC chance (OR=1.66, 95% CI= 1.007-2.76, P = 0.04; OR=1.92, 95% CI=1.07-3.42, P = 0.02 respectively). No significant association was detected for other dietary intakes.

    Conclusions

    Consumption of low fat dairy, fruits, vegetables, and tea had a protective effect on DTC; whereas, roasted or fried meat and sugar consumption was significantly associated with higher DTC chance. Further studies are needed to confirm these results.

    Keywords: Thyroid neoplasms, Dietary intake, Food
  • Vahideh Banazadeh, Najmeh Jaberi, Fatemeh Hoseinkhani, Mohammad Bagherniya, Sayyed Saeid Khayyatzadeh*, Majid Ghayour Mobarhan Pages 118-131
    Background

    Dietary factors are associated with the development of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in adults, but no studies have ever investigated the relationship between dietary patterns and the risk of IBS among adolescents.

    Methods

    In this cross-sectional study a total of 750 adolescent girls aged 12 to 18 years old were recruited using a random cluster sampling method from several schools in different areas of Mashhad city, Iran. A validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the modified version of Rome III questionnaire were administered to assess the participants' dietary intakes and IBS, respectively. Socio-demographic data and anthropometric variables were also obtained. Factor analysis was performed to identify major dietary patterns.

    Results

    The dietary patterns of healthy, mix, and western were identified in this study. An inverse non-significant association was also observed between the healthy dietary pattern and IBS (OR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.47-1.48). The relationship of IBS prevalence with mix and western dietary patterns was also non-significant.

    Conclusions

    No statistically significant associations were found between dietary patterns and IBS among Iranian girl adolescents. Further studies, particularly longitudinal intervention studies with a larger sample size are required in this area.

    Keywords: Dietary patterns, Factor analysis, Gastrointestinal function, Irritable bowel syndrome
  • Elham Shareghfarid, Zohreh Sadat Sangsefidi, Mahdieh Hosseinzadeh, Amin Salehi Abargouei*, Mohammad Mohammadi Pages 132-140
    Background

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common chronic mental disorder among children. Children with ADHD may be at risk for a variety of nutrients' deficiencies. We aimed to assess the nutrients' intakes among ADHD children and compare them with the healthy ones.

    Methods

    This was a hospital-based case-control survey over 120 ADHD as the cases and 240 non-ADHD children as the control participants aged 6-13 years. Usual dietary intakes were assessed using a validated semi quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The P-values were considered significant if they were < 0·05.

    Results

    Energy: 2812.2 ± 1029.9 kcal/day vs. 3136.4 ± 1360.3 kcal/day, P = 0.001), fat: 78.3 ± 28.8 g/day vs. 87.2 ± 44.9 g/day, P > 0.001), and carbohydrate: 436.8 ± 192.6 g/day vs. 479.9 ± 244.2 g/day, P = 0.009) intakes were significantly lower in ADHD than healthy children. Similarly, consumption of calcium: 968.5 ± 358.3 mg/day vs. 1055.7 ± 453.4 mg/day, P = 0.03) and magnesium: 363.1 ± 173.9 mg/day vs. 411.9 ± 220.8 mg/day, P = 0.01) were significantly lower in the cases than control group. However, intakes of thiamin: 34.4±18.8 mg/day vs. 40.4 ± 25.6 mg/day, P = 0.002), riboflavin: 1.99 ± 0.76 mg/day vs. 2.21 ± 0.95 mg/day, P = 0.01), niacin: 24.9 ± 10.6 mg/day vs. 27.5 ± 13.2 mg/day, P = 0.01), and vitamin B5: 6.85 ± 3.35 mg/day vs. 7.49 ± 3.84 mg/day, P = 0.02) were significantly lower in the case than control group.

    Conclusion

    Children with ADHD consumed significantly lower quantities of energy, macronutrients, calcium, magnesium, B vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B5), and vitamin C compared with the healthy children.

    Keywords: Nutrients, Dietary assessment, Nutritional status, ADHD, Children
  • Ameneh Marzban, Elham Karimi Nazari, Asma Farrokhian, Amir Farrokhian, Mehran Barzegaran* Pages 141-147
    Background

    In the last two decades, genetic engineering has led to the production of genetically modified or transgenic products in the world using the modern biotechnology. However, accepting such products by consumers is still in doubt with respect to their negative effects on the environment and human health. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the attitude of housewives in Yazd towards transgenic food products.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 500 housewives in Yazd in 2018 by cluster-random sampling method. In order to collect the study data, a two-part questionnaire (demographic and attitude) was applied. The data were analyzed by SPSS software version 18 using descriptive statistics and ANOVA test.

    Results

    The mean and standard deviation of the participants' attitude toward transgenic food products was 19.24 ± 4.92. The participants' attitude scores were significantly different considering the participants' reading the food label and education level (P < 0.05). Half of the studied women reported that they have received their information on transgenic food products through television and radio.

    Conclusion

    Regarding the misconceptions in people with lower levels of education and those who do not read the food labels, culture promotion is necessary. Moreover, provision of scientifically proven trainings on the advantages and disadvantages of transgenic products seems to be essential in order to develop a proper attitude in housewives in Yazd.

    Keywords: Attitude, Transgenic food, Nutrition, Yazd
  • Manije Darooghegi Mofrad, Fereydoun Siassi, Bijan Guilani Guilani, Leila Azadbakht* Pages 148-158
    Background

    Previous studies reported controversial findings regarding the association of potato consumption with the risk of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of potato consumption with depression, anxiety, and stress in Tehrani women.

    Methods

    In this cross-sectional study, 488 women aged 20-50 years old who referred to health centers affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences were selected by multistage cluster sampling. Their usual dietary intake in the past year was evaluated using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire containing 168 items with confirmed validity and reliability. Psychological disorders were assessed using a validated Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS) questionnaires with 21-items. In the logistic regression analysis, the results were adjusted to the confounding factors.

    Results

    After adjustment of the confounding variables, consuming potatoes had no significant association with depression (P = 0.12), anxiety (P = 0.19), and stress (P = 0.63). Furthermore, consuming boiled potatoes had no significant association with depression (P = 0.59), anxiety (P = 0.19), and stress (P = 0.37).  Intake of fried potatoes had no relationship with depression (P = 0.16), anxiety (P = 0.27), and stress (P = 0.97).

    Conclusion

    Potato consumption has no significant relationship with depression anxiety and stress in Tehrani women

    Keywords: Potato, Depression, Anxiety, Stress, Women
  • Negin Niknejad*, Fereydon Siassi, Abolghasem Jazayery Pages 159-167
    Background

    Newborn birth weight is an important indicator for determining the health status of the human societies. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the critical factors affecting the newborn anthropometric indices in the health centers of Borujerd city, Iran.

    Methods

    This case-control study was conducted from September 2016 to June 2017. The participants included 22 infants with low birth weight (LBW) and 44 with normal birth weight (NBW). The demographic questionnaire and food frequency questionnaire were applied to collect data. For statistical analysis, SPSS version 16 was run and the significance level was set at P-value < 0.05. For comparing the quantitative variables between the case and control groups, the independent t-test and Chi-square test were performed.

    Results

    The results indicated that mothers older than 35 years, self-employed fathers, pre-pregnancy, mothers' body mass index of more than 25 kg/m2, first pregnancy, pregnancy surveillance of less than four times, irregular consumption of folic acid, iron, and multi-vitamins during pregnancy, as well as inadequate consumption of meat, legumes, nuts, milk, dairy products, and vegetables during the pregnancy could increase the risk of LBW among infants significantly.

    Conclusion

    Mothers' nutritional status before pregnancy, promotion of nutritional status by considering food sundry, nutritional balance, and care during pregnancy in the health centers can play a crucial role in improving the infants’ anthropometric indices.

    Keywords: Newborn, Low birth weight, Birth weight, Anthropometric indices
  • Soudeh Talezadeh Shirazi, MohammadHassan Eftekhari*, Afsane Ahmadi, Zohreh Mazloom, Mohammad Fararouei, Maryam Ranjbar Zahedani Pages 168-177
    Background

    Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) is the most prevalent human infection in half of the world population. Few studies investigated the reasons of infection to H pylori in societies. The current study was designed i to examine the relationship of food insecurity and quality of life with H pylori infection.

    Methods

    In this case- control study, 200 candidates were selected among the people who referred to Shiraz Imam Reza Clinic. They were asked to complete the general questionnaire, food security, and quality of life questionnaires. The H pylori excremental diagnosis test was also taken from them.  

    Results

    The prevalence of H pylori infection was 28%. No relationship was observed between H pylori and age, gender, household size, and body mass index. However, the prevalence of H pylori infection was significantly higher in married individuals and housewives and volunteers with lower educations and those who took digestive medications. In addition, food insecurity (P = 0.04) and low quality of life (P < 0.001) were significantly high in individuals with H pylori infection. However, the possibility of suffering from H pylori infection in individuals who consume digestive medicines was 3.97 times higher than other individuals (95% CI: 2.11-7.40). Furthermore, with reduction of quality of life, the possibility of suffering from H pylori infection increased 1.77 times (95% CI: 1.203-2.591).

    Conclusion

    The data indicated a statistically significant increased risk of H pylori in marital status, occupation, educational level, quality of life, and food insecurity in the affected individuals. The association of food insecurity and quality of life with H pylori infection should be examined in future studies in different populations.

    Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, Food insecurity, Quality of life
  • Khadijeh Yaghoobloo, Leila Azadbakhat*, Mojgan Nourian, Behzad Mahaki Pages 178-186
    Background

    Quality of diet is one of the most important factors in maintaining and improving the children's health; whereas, the quality of children's diet has not been studied in Isfahan City of Iran. This study was conducted to assess the adequacy of diet using healthy eating index (HEI)-2005 among 13-17 year-old students in Isfahan during 2014.

    Methods

    The empirical data on dietary intakes were collected after three-days of food record. Later, a valid and reliable standard questionnaire was administered to measure the participants' physical activities. The participants' dietary intakes, daily energy, and nutrients were recorded by four researchers and were analyzed using SPSS 22by running ANOVA and Tukey tests.

    Results

    The mean score of HEI in adolescents was 67.72. The correlation of calorie intake and mother's career with the HEI score was statistically significant (P < 0.05).

    Conclusion

    Adults taking care of adolescents are recommended to improve the quality of diet among teenagers. They should also apply  relevant methods to correct the adolescents' nutritional habits.

    Keywords: Healthy eating index, Healthy diet, Adolescence, Daily diet modification, Nutritional status