فهرست مطالب

Nanomedicine Research Journal - Volume:2 Issue: 3, 2017
  • Volume:2 Issue: 3, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/06/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Anoushe Raesian, Sepideh Arbabi Bidgoli *, Seyed Mahdi Rezayat Sorkhabadi Pages 142-149
    Objective(s)
    Silver nanoparticles have been widely used as new potent antimicrobial agents in cosmetic and hygienic products, as well as in new medical devices. Serious concerns have been expressed on the potential health risks of dermal applications of nanosilver containing consumer products (AgNPs), therefore regulatory health risk assessment has become necessary for the safe usage of AgNPs in biomedical products with special emphasis to their dermal toxicity potentials. We aimed in the present study to compare the dermal toxicity of three different AgNP containing disinfectantsin an albino rabbit model and tried to determine the role of size and other physicochemical properties on their possible dermal toxicity.
    Methods
    After the characterization of all three samples by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) , corrosive and irritant potentials  of AgNPs in three different sizes of three colloidal AgNPs were scored by the OECD 404 guideline with necessary modifications and were applied under the specified concentrations via nanosilver skin patches on the shaved skin of young female albino rabbits. All skin reactions were recorded in 3 min as well as in 1, 4, 24, 48 and 72 hours from the application and compared with the control group and followed up for 14 days.
    Results
    Although short-term observations didn’t show any significant changes in the weight of animals and macroscopic  variables, long-term histopathological abnormalities were seen in the skin of all test groups, which was not associated with the size and other physicochemical properties of AgNP samples. The toxicity manifestations were dry skin, scaling in doses lower than 100 ppm and erythema in higher doses up to 4000 ppm which was reversed.
    Conclusions
    This finding creates a new issue in the possible dermal effects of all colloidal AgNPs, containing nano health products, which should be considered in future studies by focusing on other physicochemical properties of AgNPs and possible underlying mechanisms of toxicity by conducting cellular models.
    Keywords: Dermal toxicity, Irritation, Corrosion, Nanosilver, AgNPs, Commercial products, Albino rabbit
  • Navvabeh Salarizadeh, Minoo Sadri * Pages 150-157
    Objective(S)
    Natural and artificial enzymes have shown important roles in biotechnological processes. Recently, design and synthesis of artificial enzymes especially peroxidase mimics has been interested by many researchers. Due to disadvantages of natural peroxidases, there is a desirable reason of current research interest in artificial peroxidase mimics.
    Methods
    In this study, magnetic multiwall carbon nanotubes with a structure of Fe3O4/MWCNTs as enzyme mimetic were fabricated using in situ co-precipitation method. The structure, composition, and morphology of Fe3O4/MWCNTs nanocomposite were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The magnetic properties were investigated by the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Peroxidase-like catalytic activity of nanocomposite was investigated using colorimetric and electrochemical tests with 3,3ʹ,5,5ʹ-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) substrate.
    Results
    The obtained data proved the synthesis of Fe3O4/MWCNTs nanocomposite. The average crystallite size of nanostructures was estimated about 12 nm by Debye–Scherer equation. It was found that Fe3O4/MWCNTs nanocomposite exhibit peroxidase-like activity. Colorimetric and electrochemical data demonstrated that prepared nanocomplex has higher catalytic activity toward H2O2 than pure MWCNT nanocatalyst. From electrochemical tests concluded that the Fe3O4/MWCNTs electrode exhibited the better redox response to H2O2, which is ~ 2 times larger than that of the MWCNTs.
    Conclusions
    The synthesis of Fe3O4nanoparticles on MWCNTs was successfully performed by in situ co-precipitation process. Fe3O4/MWCNTs nanocatalyst exhibited a good peroxidase-like activity. These biomimetic catalysts have some advantages such as simplicity, stability and cost effectiveness that can be used in the design of enzyme-based devices for various applied fields.
    Keywords: Magnetic carbon nanotubes, Nanozyme, Peroxidase-like activity, Characterization
  • Mahsa Musaei, Javad Mokhtari *, Mahdi Nouri, Zahra Pedram Rad Pages 158-164
    Objective(s)
    Encapsulated pharmaceuticals are presently the object of comprehensive investigations in many research centers due to their increased therapeutic efficiency, bioavailability, and high dissolution rate. There are different procedures for encapsulation and choice of procedure influences the size of particles for intended applications.
    Methods
    In this study, Nanocapsules of Poly-Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid (PLGA) containing Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) at ratios of 0.25/0.25, 0.4/0.1 and 0.45/0.05 were fabricated by electrospraying method. Also, the effect of some parameters in electrospraying was evaluated, including PLGA concentration, voltage and flow rate on the morphology and size of particles. 
    Results
    BSA loaded PLGA Nanocapsules were successfully prepared by using electrospraying technique. The formation of capsules was confirmed by TEM. SEM results of the samples showed that decreasing the flow rate and increasing voltage decreased the average size of nanocapsules and led to producing the capsules with a size in the range of 85-260 nm. The presence of the drug in nanocapsules was confirmed by DSC results. Drug release test showed that about 90% of BSA had been released during 24 h.
    Conclusions
    PLGA nanocapsules containing therapeutic proteins were produced by the electrospraying technique under different operation parameters and physical properties.
    Keywords: Nanocapsule, Electrospraying, Drug release, PLGA, BSA
  • Mostafa Hossein Beyki *, Farzaneh Shemirani Pages 165-170
    Objective(s)
    This work focuses on preparing an efficient bacterial capture system based on the magnetic polyphenolic nanostructure. For a reason, a one-step hydrothermally route was employed to prepare ZnFe2O4@hydroxybenzoic acid - resorcinol nanohybrid.
    Methods
    The nanostructure was characterized by X–ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE–SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) vibration sample magnetometry (VSM) and zeta potential measurement. Bacillus subtilis was employed as a sample pathogen to evaluate bacterial capture efficiency of the nanohybrid.
    Results
    Characterization results confirmed that the hybrid material is in nano scale. Moreover, it has a magnetic saturation of 6.7 emu g-1 which is in right level to be employed for magnetic separation. Effect of relevant variables on capturing efficiency including pH, contact time and adsorbent dosage was investigated, and optimum levels were obtained.
    Conclusions
    It found that the capturing efficiency is independent of solution pH. Moreover, capturing experiments showed fast equilibrium time of 20 min with the effectiveness more than 99%.
    Keywords: Subtilis, Polymer, Magnetic nanohybrid, ZnFe2O4
  • Keerthana Sivanesan, Priyanga Jayakrishnan, Sirajunnisa Abdul Razack, Pavithra Sellaperumal, Geethalakshmi Ramakrishnan, Renganathan Sahadevan * Pages 171-178
    Objective(s)
    The present investigation dealt with the biological production of manganese nanoparticles using Aegle marmelos fruit and assessing the antioxidant and antibiofilm activities.
    Methods
    The nanoparticles were produced using the fruit extract of Aegle marmelos as the reducing agent with potassium permanganate as the substrate. Manganese nanoparticles synthesized were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy and X Ray Diffractometry. Antibiofilm and antioxidant activities of the nanoparticles were assessed by DPPH and crystal violet staining methods respectively and were statistically analysed using SPSS software.
    Results
    The characterisation study reported that the average crystallite size of the formed nanoparticle was 23.7nm. The results indicated that biofilms of gram positive and gram negative bacteria were inhibited at 80 and 100 μg of nanoparticles/ml respectively showing more activity against gram positive bacterial biofilms. The highest activity was observed against E.coli as 1.217±0.43 at 80 μg/ml and B.subtilis as 1.705±0.37 at 100 μg/ml. Maximum activity of nanoparticle against reactive oxygen species was found to be at a concentration of 5mg/ml as 27.31±0.03%.
    Conclusions
    This study demonstrated that the biologically synthesized manganese nanoparticles are environment-friendly with its potential applications against pathogens and could be implied for various other biological purposes.
    Keywords: Aegle marmelos, Manganese nanoparticle, Characterization studies, Anti-biofilm, Antioxidant
  • Seyyed Ghoreishi *, Iman Akbari, Ali Hedayati Pages 179-188
    Objective(S)
    In this work, paclitaxel (PX), a promising anticancer drug, was loaded in the basil seed mucilage (BSM) aerogels by implementation of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) technology. Then, the effects of operating conditions were studied on the PX mean particle size (MPS), particle size distribution (PSD) and drug loading efficiency (DLE).
    Methods
    The employed SC-CO2 process in this research is the combination of phase inversion technique and gas antisolvent (GAS) process. The effect of DMSO/water ratio (4 and 6 (v/v)), pressure (10-20 MPa), CO2 addition rate (1–3 mL/min) and ethanol concentration (5-10%) were studied on MPS, PSD and DLE. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Zetasizer were used for particle analysis. DLE was investigated by utilizing the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).
    Results
    Nanoparticles of paclitaxel (MPS of 82–131 nm depending on process variables) with narrow PSD were successfully loaded in BSM aerogel with DLE of 28–52%. Experimental results indicated that higher DMSO/water ratio, ethanol concentration, pressure and CO2 addition rate reduced MPS and DLE.
    Conclusions
    A modified semi batch SC-CO2 process based on the combination of gas antisolvent process and phase inversion methods using DMSO as co-solvent and ethanol as a secondary solvent was developed for the loading of an anticancer drug, PX, in ocimum basilicum mucilage aerogel. The experimental results determined that the mean particle size, particle size distribution, and drug loading efficiency be controlled with operating conditions.
    Keywords: Aerogels, Basil seed mucilage (BSM), Paclitaxel, Gas antisolvent process (GAS), Supercritical drying
  • Sona Faalnouri, Ahmad Salmanogli * Pages 189-198
    Objectives
    In this article, a new procedure for increasing the light penetration depth in a tissue is studied and simulated. It has been reported that the most important problem in biomedical optical imaging relates to the light penetration depth, and so this makes a dramatic restriction on its applications. In the optical imaging method, the detection of the backscattered photons from a deep tumor is rarely done or is done with a low efficiency; it is because of the high absorption and scattering losses.
    Methods
    Unlike the common methods (using a high energy laser for deep penetration) by engineering the nanoparticles’ optical properties such as their anisotropy, absorption, and scattering efficiency, which are distributed into a tissue, the detected photons amplitude can be manipulated. In other words, by engineering the nanoparticle plasmon properties and their effect on the dye molecules’ quantum yield, fluorescence emission and more importantly influence on the scattering direction, the light penetration depth is dramatically increased.
    Results
    The modeling results (Monte-Carlo statistical method) illustrate that the detected photons dramatically increased which is on order of 4 mm. So, this method can fix the light penetration problems in the optical imaging system.
    Conclusions
    Finally, the original idea of this study attributes to the indirect and transient manipulation of the optical properties of the tissue through the nanoparticles plasmon properties engineering. Moreover, by engineering plasmonic nanoparticles, maybe, the penetration depth can be enhanced which means that we can easily send light into a soft tissue and get its back scattering.
    Keywords: Plasmonic, Core, shell nanoparticles, Light penetration, Monte Carlo
  • Fatemeh Mehrabi *, Tayebeh Shamspur, Ali Mostafavi, Asma Saljooqi, Fariba Fathirad Pages 199-207
    Objective(s)
    The purpose of this study was to compare novel sandwich-structured nanofibrous membranes, and coaxial and usual methods, to provide sustained-release delivery of morphine for drug delivery. In this work, synthesis ofnanofibrous cellulose acetate (NFC) was carried out by electrospinning.
    Methods
    A weighed amount of cellulose acetate (CA) powder was dissolved in 3:1 v/v acetone/dimethylformamide (DMF) to obtain a CA solution at a concentration of 8 to16% w/v. Acetaminophen or morphine-loaded CA solutions were prepared by dissolving CA powder and Acetaminophen (A) or morphine in the weight ratio of 5:1, in an acetone/DMF mixture. Under optimum condition, they were electrospun into sandwich structured membranes with the coaxial method and cellulose acetate as the surface layer and cellulose acetate/drugs as the core.
    Results
     Characterization of the radius of fiber is shown as 52.9 ± 0.1nm with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The full range drug release profiles of nanofibers are shown as 80.7% of the contained drug in 8h. The drug release from nanofiber was controlled through a typical Fickian diffusion mechanism from the cellulose acetate matrix by a release exponent value of 0.24 for conventional nanofiber, 0.35 for coaxial nanofiber and 0.40 (less than 0.45) for sandwich nanofibers.
    Conclusions
    All the cellulose acetate nanofibers showed that they could release large amounts of drugs in vitro for more than one day. However, among these three methods, the best one is a sandwich method because its release is slower than that of the other methods.
    Keywords: Drug Delivery, Controlled release, Electrospinning, Coaxial, Sandwich-method, cellulose acetate