فهرست مطالب

Research Journal of Pharmacognosy - Volume:7 Issue: 2, 2020
  • Volume:7 Issue: 2, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/03/13
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • HamidReza Monsef Esfhahani, Keyvan Amirshahrokhi, Hoda Babaei Boroujeni, Ahmadreza Dehpour, Mansour Miran* Pages 1-4
    Background and objectives

     Anxiety is a chronic and common disorder worldwide and impairs the quality of life of affected people. Herbal medicines have long been used to treat CNS related disorders. Salvia species are important medicinal plants that have shown various pharmacologic activities including CNS effects. Salvia hypoleuca is an annual and herbaceous plant which is endemic to Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anxiolytic activity of the hydro-alcoholic, n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extract of S. hypoleuca in mice. 

    Methods

     n-hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and hydroalcholic extracts were prepared from aerial parts of Salvia hypoleuca. Anxiolytic activity of the extracts was evaluated using open field and hole-board tests. The mice were randomly divided into different groups and were treated with normal saline, diazepam, and the extracts of S. hypoleuca (500 mg/kg, ip). 

    Results

     The results of open field and hole-board tests showed that treatment of mice with the hydro-alcoholic and methanol extracts of S. hypoleuca(500 mg/kg, ip) produced a significant anxiolytic effect as compared to the normal control group.  

    Conclusion

     This study demonstrated that the hydro-alcoholic and methanol extracts of aerial parts of S. hypoleuca have anti-anxiety activity. The isolation and identification of the active compounds of the effective extracts are suggested.

    Keywords: anti-anxiety, behavior tests, Salvia hypoleuca
  • Sara Zakerin, Homa Hajimehdipoor, Seyed Alireza Mortazavi*, Rasool Choopani, Shirin Fahimi, Masoumeh Sabetkasaei, Fatemeh Tavakolifar Pages 5-11

    Herbal medicines play a significant role in global healthcare systems. In this investigation, “Monzej soda” syrup was prepared by decocting a mixture containing Lavandula angustifolia, Melissa officinalis, Echium amoenum, Cordia myxa, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Ziziphus jujuba, Foeniculum vulgare, Fumaria parviflora, Adiantum capillus-veneris and Alhagi spp. Manna. along with glycerin, sodium benzoate and potacium sorbate. Physicochemical characteristics of the syrup were examined. Moreover, an HPLC technique was designed for analysis of rosmarinic acid in the syrup using C18 column, isocratic H3PO4 0.085% as the mobile phase, flow rate of 1 ml/min in λmax 330 nm. The method was validated for selectivity, linearity, precision, accuracy, LOD and LOQ. The herbal syrup was brown color with special taste and flavor. Density, pH, viscosity, dry residue, total phenolics, rosmarinic acid content were found 1.085 g/ml, 5.56, 5.35 cP, 15.22±0.43 %, 194 mg/100ml and 47.5 mg/100 ml, respectively. The syrup was stable during laboratory stability tests. The HPLC method was valid according to selectivity, linearity (72-110 µg/ml, r2: 0.9995), intra-day and inter-day precisions (RSD%˂2), accuracy (103.38-106.47%), LOD 1.6 µg/ml and LOQ 4.9 µg/ml. The syrup is a good candidate for pharmaceutical companies after pharmacological and clinical tests.

    Keywords: depression, HPLC, Iranian traditional medicine, rosmarinic acid, Validation
  • Vahid Azizi, Farzin Allahyari, Farnoosh Rezaali, Abdolkarim Hosseini* Pages 13-20
    Background and objective

    Epilepsy one the most prevalent neurological illness which affects behavioral statuses like anxiety, depression and balance. Based on the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of Tanacetum polycephalum, its effect on anxiety and depression caused by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindling in rats was investigated.

    Methods

    In order to prepare the required extract, aerial part of the Tanacetum was powdered (100 g) and macerated in 1 L of ethanol (80%) for 24 h. Twenty-four rats were randomly assigned to four groups: PTZ (sub-threshold dose 35 mg/kg for one month, intraperitoneal (i.p)), PTZ + phenobarbital (30 mg/kg, i.p), PTZ + Tanacetum extract (300 mg/kg, i.p), and PTZ + Tanacetum extract (600 mg/kg, i.p). Elevated plus maze (EPM), forced swim test (FST) and rotarod test were employed to assess the anxiety parameters, antidepressant and balance potential, respectively.

    Results

    Tanacetum extract administered at the doses of 300, and 600 mg/kg, exert antidepressant-like activity in the FST test and reduced the immobility time. In the EPM test, Tanacetum extract at the same doses produced anxiolytic-like effects. Also, the rats which received Tanacetum extract showed a significant improvement in the rotarod test in contrast to the PTZ group.

    Conclusion

    The finding from current study showed that Tanacetum could ameliorate neurobehavioral parameters of anxiety and depression in the PTZ-kindled rats.

    Keywords: Anxiety, depression, Epilepsy, Pentylenetetrazole, Tanacetum
  • Sheyda Ahmadi Koulaei, Abbas Hadjiakhoondi, MohammadReza Delnavazi, Zahra Tofighi, Yousef Ajani, Fatemeh Kiashi, Narguess Yasa* Pages 21-31
    Background and objectives

    Antibiotics resistance and unpleasant side effects of AChE inhibitors have led to an increased interest in herbs as potential sources. Ferula aucheri (Syn: Dorema aucheri) an indigenous species of Ferula (Apiaceae) grows in Iran and is used as food and medicinal plant. The present study was aimed to identify the oil composition and evaluate antimicrobial and AChE inhibitory activity of flowering tops, fruits and roots.

    Methods

    The chemical composition of the oils was recognized by GC and GC‐MS. The antimicrobial effects were assessed on 12 microorganisms by disc diffusion and micro-well dilution methods and AChE inhibitory potentials by a modified version of Ellman's method.

    Results

    Sixty five compounds were identified from different organs and the notable characteristics have been high amounts of sesquiterpenes. Germacrene B (14.96%) and β-caryophyllene (12.87%) were distinguished as major components of flowering tops. Cis-dihydroagarofuran (9.02%) and δ-cadinene (8.28%) were identified as the remarkable constituents of fruit. δ-cadinene (18.25%) and gurjunene (12.62%) were detected from the roots by high content. All volatile oils exhibited lower MICs on Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Shigella dysenteriae,and Salmonella paratyphi-A serotype compared with gentamicin. Root and fruit oils were more effective than gentamicin against Escherichia coli and flowering tops oils proved lower MICs versus Staphylococcus aureus. Fruits and root oils showed weak potency for inhibiting AChE with IC50 values 554.05±4.65 and 239.69±3.5 μg/mL, respectively and flowering tops exhibited moderate activity (179.06±4.3 μg/mL).

    Conclusion

    The findings demonstrated that F. aucheri essential oils possessed antimicrobial activities with inhibition properties toward AchE.

    Keywords: AChE inhibitory activity, Antimicrobial activity, Dorema aucheri, Essential oil, Ferula aucheri
  • Nayebali Ahmadi, Mohammadreza Razzaghi, Maryam Hamzeloo-Moghadam, Mohammad Rostami Nejad, Majid Rezaei Tavirani, MohammadHossein Heidari, Saeed Safari, Mostafa Rezaei Tavirani* Pages 33-42
    Background and objectives

     Crocus sativus L. (Iridaceae) commonly known as saffron, is a popular spice which is used for its pleasant aroma and favored color. Regarding the previous reports about the neuroprotective behavior of saffron or its constituents, in the present work, the neuroprotective property of saffron in rat retina was investigated against light damage in a system biology study. 

    Methods

     Retina gene profiles of 4 groups (each group including 3 samples) of rats (control; C light damage; L, Saffron; S, and saffron-light damage; SL) which are included in GSE22818 were extracted from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO).  The significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from C-L groups analysis which are not included in S-SL comparison were screened by pathway analysis to find the critical protected genes against light damage by saffron. 

    Results

     Numbers of 46 gene were protected by saffron versus light damage significantly. The findings revealed that Casp3, Myd88, Birc3, Tnfrsf1a, Myc, Nfkb2, Fgf2 were the important protected genes by saffron against light damage. “MAPK signaling pathway” and “apoptosis” were highlighted as important related pathways for 46 DEGs. 

    Conclusion

     Saffron protects a part of light damage which is controlled mostly by Casp3, Myd88, Birc3, Tnfrsf1a, Myc, Nfkb2, Fgf2. It seems other parts of damage should be studied in more details to find a complete prospective of molecular mechanism of light damage effect on retina.

    Keywords: Crocus sativus, genetic association studies, Rats, Retina, Saffron
  • Mahdi Alvandi, Dara Dastan, Sara Soleimani Asl, Amir Nili Ahmadabadi* Pages 43-51
    Background and objectives

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is a common analgesic medicine whose overdose leads to severe hepatic dysfunction. Due to the known antioxidant properties of Alliumspecies, the present study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of Allium saralicum plant on APAP induced liver toxicity.

    Methods

    The hydro-alcoholic extract of A. saralicum was prepared by maceration and ultrasonic methods. Forty-two rats in seven groups were treated by gavage as follows: groups 1 and 2 received normal saline, groups 3 received 400 mg/kg of A. saralicum hydro-alcoholic extract, and the groups 4-7 were treated with 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of A. saralicum extract, respectively. After two consecutive weeks, the therapeutic groups, as well as the positive control (APAP) group, were administered a single dose of APAP (2 g/kg). After 48 hours, the animals were anesthetized, and blood and liver samples were collected for histological and biochemical examinations.

    Results

    Our findings indicated that APAP caused a significant rise in ALT (p<0.001), AST (p<0.001), ALP (p<0.001) and LDH (p<0.001) serum levels, total and direct bilirubin (p<0.001), hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO; p<0.001) and nitric oxide (NO; p<0.001). In addition, APAP let to the decreasing of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC; p< 0.001), total thiol molecules (TTM; p<0.001), and structural changes in the hepatic tissue. Following administration ofA. saralicum extract, a remarkable improvement was observed in the functional and oxidative stress indices of liver tissue alongside histopathologic alterations.

    Conclusion

    Our results showed that A. saralicum extractsignificantly improved APAP-induced hepatic failure through inhibition of oxidative/nitrosative stress.

    Keywords: Acetaminophen, Allium saralicum, hepatotoxicity, oxidative stress
  • Ali Karimi, MohammadTaghi Moradi*, Asghar Gafourian Pages 53-60
    Background and objectives

    Human adenoviruses cause a wide range of diseases, from self-limiting and mild infections to some life-threatening infections. Many studies have shown that components derived from medicinal plants have antiviral activity. Pistacia genus is rich in phenolic compounds and has antioxidant and antimicrobial effects. The aim of this study was to investigate antioxidant potential and antiviral effects of ethanol and crude extracts and different fractions of Pistacia atlantica Desf. leaves on adenovirus. 

    Methods

     Crude P. atlantica leaf extract was prepared by maceration with 80% ethanol. Hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions were prepared using liquid-liquid extraction method. Toxicity on HEp-2 cells and anti-adenoviral activity of the extract/fractions were evaluated by MTT colorimetric methods. The concentration that caused 50% viral inhibition (IC50) and 50 % cytotoxicity concentration (CC50) were evaluated using regression analysis. Selectivity index (SI), as a marker of antiviral activity, was calculated. To determine antioxidant activity the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was used. 

    Results

     Ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest antioxidant activity with IC50of 1.54±0.12 μg/mL in DPPH scavenging assay. Based on our results, IC50 of P. atlantica crude extract on adenovirus was 15.72 μg/mL, with SI of 8.09; n-butanol fraction showed the highest anti-adenoviral activity among the fractions with IC50of 16.38 µg/mL and SI of 26.5. 

    Conclusion

     The ethanol extract and n-butanol fraction of P. atlantica leaves showed inhibitory effects on adenovirus and could be a new promising anti-adenovirus agent.

    Keywords: Adenovirus, Antioxidant effect, Antiviral, Pistacia atlantica Desf
  • Ziba Talebi, Gholamreza Kord Afshari, Saman Ahmad Nasrollahi, Alireza Firooz, Maedeh Ghovvati, Aniseh Samadi, Mehrdad Karimi, Sima Kolahdooz, Mahdi Vazirian* Pages 61-69
    Background and objectives

     Acne vulgaris is one of the most common dermatologic conditions. The available anti-acne treatments are not satisfactory and safe. In this regard, searching for new treatments, especially natural materials with reasonable side effects and satisfactory effectiveness, could be promising. The aim of the present study was to explore the safety and efficacy of a topical formulation containing Trachyspermum ammi (ajwain) fruits essential oil in patients with facial acne. 

    Methods

     The essential oil of the fruits was extracted by hydrodistillation method and formulated as a 1% gel. In this open-labeled, uncontrolled clinical trial, 20 patients with mild to moderate acne received topical ajwain gel twice daily for 8 weeks. The outcomes of acne lesion count, red fluorescence parameters and biophysical skin profiles were evaluated at baseline, 4th and 8th weeks. Any adverse reaction was recorded during the study.  

    Results

     All patients completed the study. Two months after treatment, the mean reduction in the total (8.2±3.36; P=0.000) and non-inflammatory (7.3±4.53; p=0.000) lesions was statistically significant. Furthermore, a significant reduction in the size and quantity of red fluorescence spots was also observed. Biophysical skin profile measurements revealed a significant reduction in erythema (p=0.033) and sebum (p=0.026) and a significant increase in pH (p=0.005). No serious adverse events were reported. 

    Conclusion

     The results of this pilot study provided a basis for the effectiveness of topical ajwain gel for the treatment of mild to moderate facial acne. Conducting further double blind clinical trials are necessary to confirm the efficacy and safety of the product.

    Keywords: acne vulgaris, ajwain, Clinical trial, Essential oil, Trachyspermum ammi
  • Alireza Barzegar, MohammadAmin Salim, Parmis Badr, Ahmadreza Khosravi, Shiva Hemmati, Hassan Seradj, Mehrdad Iranshahi, Abdolali Mohagheghzadeh* Pages 71-80

    Asafoetida and sagapenum as valuable Iranian oleo-gum-resins from Ferula spp. (F. assa-foetida, F. persica, F. foetida and F. alliacea) have received interest during the history for producing valuable perfumes and common spices or as pharmaceutical agents. The aim of the present work was to characterize sources of asafoetida and sagapenum, according to botanical aspects, traditional and conventional medicine and phytochemical data. Available publications have been gathered from databases up to May 2019, and common Persian literatures were reviewed. We showed that sources for asafoetida and sagapenum should be differentiated botanically according to basal leaves, size of rays, fruits and petals. Furthermore, despite similarities, volatile sulfur components in F. assa-foetida are disulphides, in F. persica tri/tetra/pentasulphides, and in F. alliacea trisulphides. In the case of coumarins, conferol, conferone, farnesiferol A and B, samarcandin and samarcandin acetate are so far reported from F. assa-foetida and F. persica, and asacoumarin A from F. assa-foetida and F. foetida samples; while, persicaosides A-D have been reported only from F. persica. Moreover, farnesiferol C as the major coumarin in F. assa-foetida and mogoltavidin in F. persica would be new pharmacopeia markers. However, coumarins and essential oils similarities and differences among Ferula species should be more studied in a comparative research. Such studies would be essential for determining reliable sources and minimum requirements for standardizations of worldwide valuable wild growing medicinal and economical plants.

    Keywords: asafoetida, Ferula alliacea, Ferula assa-foetida, Ferula foetida, Ferula persica
  • Zahra Ghiravani, Mohammadmehdi Hassanzadeh Taheri, Mahsa Hassanzadeh-Taheri, Mehran Hosseini * Pages 81-92

    Walnut (Juglans regia L.) is a well-known member of the Juglandaceae family and its kernel is widely consumed around the world for both unique nutritional characteristics and health-related benefits. Even though several studies investigated the composition and biological activities of different parts of the walnut tree, the internal septum of the walnut kernel is less evaluated. In the last two decades, some studies investigated phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of the walnut septum. Their results showed a wide range of biological properties along with safety of walnut septum constituents convincing us to shift our view to walnut septum as a useless by-product to a natural herbal material with valuable properties. The purpose of this review was to summarize the currently available investigations on chemical composition and biological activities of the walnut septum.  Several phytochemical studies showed that the walnut septum is a rich source of secondary metabolites like polyphenols are which estimated to be responsible for its high antioxidant property. Further experimental studies confirmed many biological activities of this by-product such as radical scavenging, food preservative, antibacterial, antitumor, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and hepatorenal protective properties.

    Keywords: Juglandaceae, Juglans regia, Walnut