فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 34 (بهار 1399)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/03/12
  • تعداد عناوین: 13
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  • فاطمه کوشکی*، آزیتا افراشی صفحات 7-26
    برخلاف بسیاری از انسان ها، عواطف و احساسات را نباید اموری ناملموس و بی اساس دانست. جایگاه اصلی آن ها روشن است و می توان آن ها را به سیستم های مشخصی در بدن و مغز مربوط کرد. هدف از این پژوهش، بررسی مجازهای مفهومی مفهوم عاطفی نفرت از دیدگاهی شناختی-پیکره ای و تطبیق نتایج تحلیل داده های زبانی با یافته های عصبی-زیستی است. در این مقاله، ابتدا، تعریف «عاطفه» و تمایز آن با «احساس» از دیدگاه عصبی-زیستی ارایه گردید. سپس، با بررسی مجازهای مفهومی نفرت، معلوم شد که در زبان فارسی به روشنی، هر چهار وجه اثرات عاطفه بر انسان (جسمی، روانی، چهره ای و رفتاری) بیان می شوند. همچنین، تحلیل های زبانی مورد اشاره، یافته های عصبی-زیست شناختی عواطف را تایید کردند. در پایان، نیز یک الگوی سه مرحله ای در پیوند با شکل گیری و بروز عواطف از جمله عاطفه نفرت که نتیجه تحلیل شناختی-عصبی-زیستی پژوهش حاضر است، ارایه شد؛ نخست، وقوع رویداد خلاف؛ علت شکل گیری نفرت؛ دوم، شکل گیری عاطفه نفرت و سوم، بروز نفرت.
    کلیدواژگان: نفرت، زبان شناسی شناختی، مجاز، احساس، عاطفه
  • علی اسودی، خدیجه احمدی بیغش* صفحات 27-46

    این پژوهش به شیوه تطبیقی، تحلیلی و توصیفی، در پی پاسخ گویی به این پرسش است که «ترجمه های فارسی حسن تعابیر قرآنی، با استفاده از سطح دوم الگوی ارزیابی ترجمه گارسس- سطح نحوی واژه شناختی- چگونه ارایه شده است؟». ارزیابی ترجمه این تعابیر در چهار ترجمه معروف، بر پایه ترجمه های تحت اللفظی و تفصیلی فارسی الهی قمشه ای، معزی، آیتی و مکارم شیرازی، به ویژه درکاربرد نمونه های نمایاننده کبر، بخل و خواری، انجام شد. یافته ها نشان دهنده آن است که تفاوت های فرهنگی موجود میان دو زبان فارسی و عربی، معادل یابی در سطح واژگانی و دستوری، از مهمترین چالش های این حوزه است. همچنین، در ترجمه تحت اللفظی، بلاغت ساختار این تعابیر سلب شده و با تکیه بر این نوع ترجمه، معنای مورد نظر قرآن پنهان مانده است. این امر، مشابهت های لفظی به زبان فارسی را محدود و کفایت و مقبولیت را کاهش می دهد.

    کلیدواژگان: ترجمه، ارزیابی، حسن تعابیراصطلاحی، مدل گارسس، قرآن کریم
  • فائزه سلیمانی فرد، بیوک بهنام*، سعیده آهنگری صفحات 47-79
    امروزه، اینترنت یک عنصر ضروری در نظام آموزشی کشورهای پیشرفته است. به سبب پیشرفت سریع فناوری، سهولت برقراری ارتباطات و قابلیت اجتماعی این رسانه، اهمیت آن در آموزش رشته های گوناگون آموزشی، از جمله زبان انگلیسی در سراسر جهان رو به افزایش است. پژوهش های گسترده ای در پیوند با تاثیرات مثبت بهره گیری از اینترنت در آموزش زبان انگلیسی انجام شده است. با این وجود، بررسی انتقادی آن، مبحث جدیدی است که کمتر مورد مطالعه قرار گرفته است. در این راستا، پژوهش حاضر با استفاده از مدل چهاروجهی ایدیولوژیک ون دایک (Van Dijk, 2004) به بررسی انتقادی بازنمایی تصویر انگلستان در درس های بخش «LingoHack» وب گاه یادگیری زبان انگلیسی بی بی سی، طی دو سال پرداخته است. بر پایه تحلیل گفتمان انتقادی درس هایی که دربرگیرنده واژه کلیدی مرتبط با انگلستان بودند، یافته هایی به دست آمد. بر پایه این یافته ها، بی.بی.سی با استفاده از دست کاری های زبانی ویژه ای که گرایش به بازنمایی مثبت و مطلوب اعضای گروه خودی دارند، به ترویج هنجارهای اجتماعی و ارزش های اعتقادی، القاء برتری علمی و فناوری و تبیین سیاست های نظام انگلستان می پردازد. پرورش چنین ذهنیت ایده آلی از نظام و تفکر انگلیسی، در بین زبان آموزان سراسر جهان از برنامه درسی پنهان وب سایت یادگیری زبان انگلیسی بی.بی.سی سرچشمه می گیرد که سعی در ترویج شکل جدیدی از استعمار را دارد. بر پایه پیش بینی نظریه استعمار الکترونیک مک فیل(McPhail, 2006) ، قرار گرفتن در معرض چنین درس هایی در دراز مدت، از سویی درک زبان آموزان از هویت و فرهنگ خودشان را به خطر انداخته و از سوی دیگر ارزش ها و هنجارهای انگلیسی را رواج می دهد.
    کلیدواژگان: آموزش زبان انگلیسی به کمک اینترنت، نظریه استعمار الکترونیکی مک فیل، برنامه درسی پنهان، تحلیل گفتمان انتقادی، مدل چهاروجهی ایدئولوژیک ون دایک
  • سمیه شوکتی مقرب*، جلال رحیمیان صفحات 81-107

    در یک تحلیل زبان شناختی، سطح های گوناگون از جمله واژه، جمله، ساختار متنی، ترکیبات، اصطلاحات و موارد مشابه در اندرکنش با یک دیگر بن مایه ها، اصول اولیه و بافتار یک اندیشه و ایدیولوژی را می سازند. ایدیولوژی ها و هویت های برساخته آن ها در پشت واژه ها و واحدهای گوناگون زبانی پنهان هستند و باید از آن ها رمزگشایی شود. این رمزگشایی در فراگرد توصیف، تحلیل و تبیین متن ها به انجام می رسد. در واقع، ایدیولوژی به هر اندیشه و رهیافتی این امکان را می دهد تا مرزهای هویتی و دگرسازانه خود را نسبت به رقبای خویش ترسیم نماید. این جستار در پی پاسخ به پرسش «در نخستین سخنرانی پس از انتخابات روسای جمهور جمهوری اسلامی ایران، امریکا و فرانسه مرزهای هویتی تولید و بازتولید اقتدار به چه صورتی بازنمایی می شود؟» تحلیلی در سطوح خرد و کلان را در پیش می گیرد. نگارندگان به منظور پاسخ به این پرسش بر این فرض هستند که «کاندیداهای پیروز در انتخابات ریاست جمهوری ایران، فرانسه و امریکا ابتنای سامانه نشانه شناختی خویش را بر روی مفصل بندی هویت ایجابی حداکثری و تنظیم دایره غیریت حداقلی (شمول بیشنه و برون رانی کمینه) استوار نموده اند». در این نوشتار، نخست، روابط سازه های زبانی پیکره مورد بررسی با استفاده از تحلیل دلالت صریح و ضمنی و حضور و غیاب واکاوی می شود. سپس مولفه های خود و دیگری، غیریت سازی، چگونگی برجسته سازی و حاشیه رانی و منطق تفاوت و زنجیره هم ارزی هرکدام از گفتمان های مورد بررسی تبیین می گردد. تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها بیانگر آن است که زنجیره هم ارزی و هویت ساز روحانی آشکارا تبیین می شود و حاشیه رانی دگرهای منفی این گفتمان به صورتی ضمنی انجام می گیرد. دگرهای گفتمانی ترامپ و مکرون نیز به صورت ضمنی بیان می شود، اما زنجیره هم ارزی دال بر گفتمان های هم سوی آن ها ترسیم آشکاری ندارد.

    کلیدواژگان: تحلیل گفتمان انتقادی، خود و دیگری، برجسته سازی و حاشیه رانی، نخستین سخنرانی انتخابات ریاست جمهوری ایران، آمریکا، فرانسه
  • ملیحه میری، شهلا شریفی*، اعظم استاجی صفحات 109-129

    اختلال طیف اتیسم، یکی از مهم ترین اختلال هایی است که بر رشد اجتماعی کودکان و توانایی های آن ها در تعامل های اجتماعی و برقراری ارتباط با دیگران تاثیر می گذارد. یکی از مشکلات اصلی در مبتلایان به اختلال طیف اتیسم، تاخیر در آغاز سخن گفتن و یا عدم تکامل گفتار در این کودکان است. این مقاله، به بررسی تاثیر قصه گویی بر زبان گفتاری کودکان طیف خفیف تا متوسط اتیسم پرداخته است. به این منظور، 20 کودک 7-4 ساله که اتیسم خفیف تا متوسط داشته و به مرکز نورهدایت مشهد مراجعه کردند، با استفاده از آزمون کارز انتخاب شدند. سپس، آن ها به طور تصادفی در دو گروه 10 نفری شاهد و مورد، قرارداده شدند. گروه مورد، تحت آموزش درک و تولید گفتار از طریق قصه گویی قرار گرفت. تعداد 30 داستان تصویری مناسب سن 7-3 سال انتخاب شد که طی سه ماه و هر روز به مدت نیم ساعت، برای این کودکان بیان شد. مهارت های زبانی کودکان در هر دو گروه در ابتدا و پایان بررسی، با استفاده از آزمون رشد زبان ویراست سوم مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. داده های پژوهش در مقایسه درون گروهی نشان داد، بهره زبان گفتاری در گروه شاهد در پیش و پس از بررسی اختلاف معناداری با هم ندارند (p=0.066). این در حالی است که این اختلاف در گروه مورد معنادار بود (p=0.004). همچنین با مقایسه بین گروهی معلوم شد اختلاف بهره زبان گفتاری کودکان گروه های مورد و کنترل بعد از پایان مطالعه و فرآیند قصه گویی معنا دار است (p=0.030). یافته های پژوهش، نمایانگر تاثیر قصه گویی در افزایش مهارت های زبان گفتاری کودکان دارای اتیسم (طیف خفیف تا متوسط) است.

    کلیدواژگان: اختلال طیف اتیسم، قصه گویی، آزمون رشد زبان، زبان گفتاری
  • عزت الله کلانتری خاندانی*، محمدحسن فرخی، موسی غنچه پور صفحات 131-156

    نقش و تاثیرگذاری شبکه های اجتماعی از جمله توییتر، انکارنشدنی است. توییت ها می توانند کنش های اجتماعی را شکل دهند و جامعه را به سمت و سوی ویژه ای، رهبری کنند. بنابراین، تحلیل گفتمان انتقادی توییت ها، نوع تعامل های میان کاربران توییتر را بازنمایی می کند. در پژوهش حاضر، توییت های ترامپ بر پایه روش تحلیل گفتمان انتقادی ون دایک  واکاوی شدند. به این منظور، از ابتدای ژانویه تا انتهای مارس 2018، حدود 400 توییت از صفحه شخصی دونالد ترامپ- رییس جمهور وقت آمریکا، با روش تصادفی هدف دار، گرد آوری شده و مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. سپس داده های پژوهش با بهره گیری از نشانه ها و عناصر زبان شناختی مدل ون دایک، تفسیر و تبیین شدند. یافته ها نشان می دهند که ترامپ، در سطح معنایی از عناصر زبان شناختی بسیاری مانند مقوله بندی، قطب بندی، تعمیم دادن، ایجاد فاصله، مفهوم تلویحی، مبالغه و خلاف واقع بهره می گیرد. او همچنین، در سطح سبک به واژه گزینی و حذف عمدی برخی واژه ها می پردازد. علاوه بر این، تراپ در سطح استدلال مقوله استدلال را با مغالطه کاری جبران می کند. یافته های پژوهش همچنین نمایانگر آن است که کاربران توییتر، پیوسته در مواجهه با گفتمان های ایدیولوژیک قرار می گیرند. این گفتمان ها در جامعه، فرایند تاثیرگذاری خود را با سرعت پشت سر نهاده و پایه گذار نظریه های اجتماعی می شوند. همچنین این گفتمان ها، نقش تعیین کننده ای در چگونگی زندگی و دیدگاه افراد یک گروه و یا روابط میان گروهی دارند.

    کلیدواژگان: ترامپ، توئیتر، تحلیل گفتمان انتقادی، ون دایک
  • عبدالحسین حیدری* صفحات 157-176

    پژوهش حاضر، نقش نماهای اسم فارسی را در گفتار گویشوران ترکی آذربایجانی، بر اساس مدل چهارتکواژ بررسی نموده است. داده ها از منبع های معتبر زبان ترکی آذربایجانی و تعاملات زبانی گویشوران منطقه های مرکزی استان اردبیل گردآوری شده اند. ابتدا نقش نماهای اسم فارسی در چهارچوب مدل چهارتکواژ، به تکواژهای محتوایی (حروف اضافه)، تکواژهای نظام مند متقدم (حروف ندا) و تکواژ نظام مند پیونددهنده متاخر (کسره اضافه) گروه بندی شد. با بررسی داده ها، معلوم شد که برخی حروف ندای فارسی به صورت عناصر قرضی در زبان ترکی آذربایجانی رایج هستند. این در حالی است که تعدادی از حروف اضافه آن زبان، طی فرایند رمزگردانی زبانی در گفتار دوزبانه های ترکی آذربایجانی-فارسی ظاهر می شوند و کسره اضافه نیز مابین حروف ندا و حروف اضافه قرار دارد. به نظر می رسد که بین ماهیت گونه های مختلف تکواژها (فعال شدن تکواژها در سطوح انتزاعی تولید گفتار) و ترتیب ورود آن ها به زبان یا گویش دیگر، ارتباط وجود دارد. بر خلاف تکواژهای نظام مند، تکواژهای محتوایی اعطاکننده نقش های تتا (حروف اضافه) به ندرت توسط گویشوران یک زبان قرض گرفته می شوند. همچنین راه یابی تکواژهای نظام مند متقدم به زبان یا گویش های دیگر، راحت تر از تکواژهای نظام مند متاخر انجام می پذیرد. زیرا تکواژهای نظام مند متاخر در سطح متاخرتر فرایند تولید انتزاعی، با فراخوان چارچوب نحوی-ساختواژی زبان ماتریس انتخاب می شوند. این در حالی است که انتخاب تکواژهای نظام مند متقدم به صورت غیرمستقیم در سطح مفهومی-واژگانی و همزمان با انتخاب مستقیم تکواژهای محتوایی زبان ماتریس یا زبان درونه صورت می گیرد. یافته های پژوهش حاضر، نمایانگر کارآیی مدل چهارتکواژ در تبیین ترتیب راه یابی سازه ها به زبان پذیرنده در پدیده تماس زبانی است.

    کلیدواژگان: نقش نماهای اسم، فارسی، ترکی آذربایجانی، مدل چهارتکواژ
  • ابوالقاسم غیاثی زارچ*، فاطمه جعفری صفحات 177-204

    تحلیل خطای زبان آموزان، یکی از ابزارهای سنجش کارایی آموزش به شمار می آید. با بهره گیری از این ابزار، می توان علاوه بر عیب یابی نظام آموزشی، به نقاط ضعف زبان آموزان در مهارت های گوناگون پی برد تا کیفیت آموزشی را بهبود بخشید. تحلیل خطا در دو شاخه نظری و کاربردی بررسی می شود. در تحلیل نظری خطا، سبب و چگونگی ایجاد خطا در ذهن زبان آموز بررسی می شود. در تحلیل کاربردی خطا، با بررسی و دسته بندی خطاها، راه حل های مناسبی از جنبه منابع و شیوه های آموزش برای رفع مشکلات زبان آموزان پیشنهاد می شود (Keshavarz, 2012, p. 59). بر همین اساس، این پژوهش به تحلیل کاربردی خطاهای نوشتاری دوره عمومی زبان آموزان مرکز آموزش زبان دانشگاه بین المللی امام خمینی (ره) می پردازد. در این مقاله، 100 متن نگارش (انشاء و توصیف یک متن تصویری) در دوره عمومی به روش تصادفی انتخاب شده اند. زبان آموزان از ملیت های گوناگون از جمله آذربایجانی، بروندی، کنیایی، سوری، عراقی، مالی، چینی و نیجریه ای بودند. تحلیل داده ها نشان داد که پربسامدترین خطاهای نوشتاری آن ها مربوط به واژه و املاء است. خطاهای واژگانی به سبب عدم شناخت و یادگیری نامناسب زبان آموز از زبان دوم پدید می آیند. خطاهای املاء، بر پایه علت هایی مانند ناتوانایی در درک شنیداری، ناتوانی در بازشناختن واکه ها و نیم واکه ها و ضعف حافظه دیداری و حرکتی به وجود می-آیند (Hashemzadeh, 2008, p. 429-431). نکته قابل توجه در این پژوهش آن است که زبان آموزان عرب زبان، بیشترین تعداد این گروه را تشکیل می دادند، با وجود آشنایی بیشتر آن ها با زبان فارسی (مانند الفبا و واژه های مشترک)، جزء گروه های پرخطا بودند. همچنین، شمار بسیار این خطاها، دور از انتظار و غیر قابل پیش بینی بود. هر چند بررسی علت های بسامدی این خطاها نشان می دهد که عواملی مانند گزینش محتوای آموزش، درجه بندی مواد آموزشی و شیوه آموزش، نقش با اهمیتی در کاهش این خطاها دارند.

    کلیدواژگان: تحلیل خطای نوشتاری، آموزش زبان فارسی، زبان دوم، خطای املا، خطای واژه
  • نرگس نوری زاده*، سوسن قهرمانی قاجار، شهلا بختیاری صفحات 205-228

    آموزش زبان انگلیسی، بستری مناسب و ظرفیتی نادیده گرفته شده در دست یابی به هدف های آموزش و پرورش است. محتوای آموزش زبان انگلیسی در ایران، برگرفته یا الگوگرفته از محتوای بازار جهانی است که بیشتر مبتنی بر تفکرات مادی گرایانه و لیبرالیستی است. به همین سبب، این محتوای آموزشی در ناسازگاری آشکار با هدف اصلی آموزش و پرورش اسلامی، یعنی رسیدن به حیات طیبه است. بر پایه متن های قرآنی، تفکر در مخلوقات به عنوان آیات الهی، از قدم های اولیه در راستای دست یابی به حیات طیبه است. در این راستا، برای تولید محتوا، موضوع طبیعت و به ویژه عنصر آب، که یکی از منبع های اصلی تفکر، قابل فهم و در دسترس برای همه انسان ها است، انتخاب شد. سپس چگونگی پرداختن به این موضوع در آیات مربوط به آب در قرآن کریم و تفاسیر نور، نسیم حیات و تسنیم مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. یافته های پژوهش، در قالب رهنمودهایی برای تولید محتوا بر پایه تصویرها و مفاهیمی که قرآن کریم در این آیات به انسان ارایه کرده، تنظیم شده اند. در این زمینه، قالب «بنگر، بیاندیش و زندگی کن» به عنوان طرح اصلی درس پیشنهاد شده است. بر پایه این قالب تصویری از طبیعت توصیف می شود، انسان دعوت به تفکر و عبرت گرفتن از آن می شود. سپس آموزه ها و مفاهیم آن با زندگی پیوند می خورد. در هر یک از تصاویر بر پایه سبک و سیاق زبان قرآن که شامل پرسشگری، تخاطب، استفاده از داستان و تمثیل، و واژه های همنشین است، می توان مفاهیم اساسی مانند توحید و معاد را در محتوا ارایه کرد.

    کلیدواژگان: تولید محتوا، آموزش زبان انگلیسی، حیات طیبه، طبیعت، آب
  • اسحاق رحمانی*، لیلا ریسی صفحات 229-250

    در زبان عربی معاصر، اسلوب های تعجب سماعی، در مقایسه با اسلوب های قیاسی آن پرکاربردتر و متنوع تر است. هر چند، این اسلوب های تعجب سماعی، هنوز هم همانند قدیم کمتر مورد توجه قرار گرفته اند. پژوهشگران به این مسیله که ساختارهای  تعجب سماعی نیز خود می توانند از ساخت های ویژه ای پیروی کنند، نپرداخته اند. همین امر به همراه کاربرد متنوع این نوع جمله ها در زبان عربی و معادل یابی آن ها در زبان فارسی، بیانگر اهمیت پژوهش حاضر است. این مقاله به دسته بندی 460 جمله تعجبی در دو کتاب «الشمس فی یوم غایم» و «زهره العمر» که اولی به زبان گفتار و دومی به زبان نوشتار نزدیک تر است، پرداخته است. در این راستا، پژوهش حاضر بر آن است ابتدا جمله های تعجبی سماعی را بر پایه تقابل میان زبان فارسی و عربی توصیف کند. سپس معادل یابی، ساخت و کاربرد جمله های تعجبی سماعی در زبان گفتار و نوشتار مورد ارزیابی قرار گیرد تا تفاوت ها و شباهت های موجود میان جمله های تعجبی سماعی در فارسی و عربی نمایان شود.یافته های پژوهش نشان می دهد که در زبان گفتار، سبک و آهنگ در تشخیص ساختار جمله های مورد اشاره مهمترین نقش را بر عهده دارند. همچنین، تمنی، قسم و گاه ضرب المثل ها و اصطلاح های عامیانه، تکیه و تاکید بسیار مورد استفاده قرار می گیرند. در زبان نوشتار نیز ساخت های تاکیدی نقش پررنگ تری داشته و جمله ها با تنوع بیشتری می آیند. در این میان، جمله های نمایاننده مقدار و مقایسه، اسلوب های منفی، اسلوب های تاکیدی که گاهی در قالب جمله های خبری منفی مانند اسالیب حصر، استثنا، تقابل و تباین می آیند، بسیار اهمیت دارند. در معادل یابی - به ویژه در زبان گفتار- حرف «که» نقش موثری دارد. به نظر می رسد در زبان نوشتار عربی بیشتر این جمله های با ژرف ساخت به کار می روند و در زبان فارسی اغلب با روساخت معادل یابی می شوند. همچنین، این پدیده در زبان گفتار بیشتر به چشم می خورد.

    کلیدواژگان: اسلوب تعجب، تعجب سماعی در عربی، تعجب در گفتار و نوشتار، معادل یابی تعجب سماعی
  • مژگان چگنی*، سید مهدی سمائی، بلقیس روشن، بهمن زندی صفحات 251-272

    تعیین مقوله دستوری واژه های چندنقشی- واژه هایی که در نقش چندین مقوله دستوری ظاهر می شوند، یکی از مشکلات فرا روی فرهنگ نویسان است. ابهام مقوله های دستوری و هم پوشی میان آن ها و برخی فرآیندها مانند حذف، کوتاه شدگی و تغییرمقوله از جمله عوامل موثر در چندنقشی شدن واژه ها هستند. برخی از این عوامل، بر مقوله دستوری واژه ها تاثیری پایدار نهاده و برخی دیگر فقط سبب تغییر نقشی می شوند که در شرایط ویژه ای صورت می گیرد. تمییز این دو از یک دیگر برای فرهنگ نویسان  و دستور نویسان امری ضروری است. در این پژوهش، برای دست یابی به معیارهای تفکیک هر یک از این فرآیندها، 1172 واژه دو مقول های اسم و صفت از فرهنگ سخن (Anvari, 2014)، گرد آوری شده و به روش تفسیری و تاویلی مورد تحلیل قرار گرفتند. در پایان، مشخص شد بخش مهمی از تغییر رفتار این واژه ها، پیامد نوعی ساده سازی نحوی و نتیجه فرآیندهایی مانند حذف ارجاعی و یا ناشی از هم پوشی نقش دستوری میان طبقه های دستوری است که نباید در فرهنگ های لغت در نظر گرفته شوند.

    کلیدواژگان: فرهنگ نگاری، مقوله دستوری، واژه های چندنقشی، تغییرمقوله، حذف
  • ندا بیگدلی، وحید صادقی* صفحات 273-295

    در رویکردهای ادارکی به انطباق واجی وام واژه ها، انطباق واجی، نوعی همگونی ادراکی است که هنگام درک شنیداری گفتار روی می دهد. بر اساس این رویکرد، آواها و ساخت های آوایی غیربومی، به نزدیک ترین آواها و ساخت های آوایی در زبان وام گیرنده نگاشته می شوند. پژوهش حاضر، میزان شباهت واکه های انگلیسی با واکه های معادل احتمالی شان در زبان فارسی را در چارچوب نظریه همگونی ادراکی بررسی می کند. در این پژوهش، ساخت های طبیعی دارای واکه های زبان انگلیسی، به عنوان محرک های هدف ادراکی در برخی آزمایش های درک مقوله ای برای گویشوران بومی زبان فارسی پخش شد. هدف این بود که شنوندگان درباره میزان شباهت واکه های انگلیسی با واکه های معادل احتمالی شان در زبان فارسی قضاوت کنند. بر این مبنا، واکه ها در دو سطح نوایی مستقل، یعنی سطح واج و سطح هجا، به شنونده ها ارایه شدند. یافته های به دست آمده، نشان داد که پاسخ های شناسایی شنونده ها با یافته های صوتی مربوط به فضای واکه ای تطبیقی زبان فارسی و انگلیسی مطابقت کامل دارد. به این صورت که، شنونده ها هر واکه انگلیسی را به صورت واکه ای در زبان فارسی درک می کنند که بیشترین شباهت صوتی ممکن را با آن دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: واج شناسی وام واژه ها، انطباق واجی، نظریه همگونی ادراکی، شباهت صوتی، فضای واکه ای
  • زینب جعفری*، بتول علی نژاد صفحات 297-324

    واکه ها، طبقه ای رسا از آواهای زبانی هستند. برای توصیف دقیق تولیدی واکه ها می توان از یک فضای دوبعدی به نام فضای واکه ای بهره برد. نمودار فضای واکه ای، روشی گرافیکی است که نشان می دهد یک واکه از جنبه صوت شناختی و تولیدی در چه ناحیه ای قرار گرفته است. هدف اصلی این پژوهش، بررسی صوت شناختی واکه های خیشومی شده زبان فارسی، ترسیم نمودار فضای واکه ای آن ها و مقایسه آن با فضای واکه ای واکه های دهانی این زبان بوده است. به این منظور، 2400 داده، استخراج شدند که به وسیله 10 گویشور زن و مرد فارسی زبان تولید شدند. سپس داده ها، در چارچوب قواعد حاکم بر آواشناسی صوت شناختی بررسی شدند. در این پژوهش، تاثیر خیشومی شدگی بر میزان بسامد سازه های اول و دوم واکه های زبان فارسی بررسی شد. همچنین، تاثیر این عامل بر گستره بسامدی سازه های اول و دوم واکه های این زبان مورد مطالعه قرار گرفته است. این پژوهش، همچنین تاثیر متغیر جنسیت را بر میزان بسامد سازه های اول و دوم واکه های زبان فارسی در دو بافت دهانی و خیشومی شده مورد بررسی قرار داده است. یافته های به دست آمده از تحلیل های آماری نشان می دهد که خیشومی شدگی بر میزان بسامد سازه اول و دوم تمامی واکه های زبان فارسی تاثیر معنادار دارد. همچنین، خیشومی شدگی بر گستره بسامدی سازه اول و دوم واکه های زبان فارسی تاثیر معناداری ندارد. علاوه بر این، متغیر جنسیت در هر دو بافت دهانی و خیشومی شده بر میزان بسامد سازه اول و دوم واکه ها به جز واکه /u/ تاثیر معنادار دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: فضای واکه ای، واکه های دهانی، واکه های خیشومی شده، فارسی
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  • Fatemeh Koushki *, Azita Afrashi Pages 7-26
    The experience of sense is based on first, our sensory-motor experience, our emotions, and our inner relation with the world; and second, our diverse creative capacities in using sensory-motor processes to understand abstract concepts. Even the most abstract concepts, such as emotions, have a meaning that is rooted in our sensory perception and our physical experience. Our knowledge and experience are dependent on our brain, which is within our body and the body operates in the world, so that when the body ends up in a general and destructive way, we lose the power of experience (Johnson, 2007, p. 36). Over the past two decades, there has been a striking breakthrough in our knowledge of what emotions are and how emotions can help us with meaning. “Conceptual metonymies” are one group of the cognitive mechanisms of meaning making that were first introduced in the book “The Metaphors we live by” (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980). Actually, emotional effects are expressed in terms of conceptual metonymies in the language. Unlike many people, emotions and feelings should not be considered intangible or unfounded. Their main position is clear and they can be related to certain systems in the body and the brain (Damasio, 2005, p. 246).  In this article, we intend to present the conceptual metonymies of the concept of hatred in contemporary Persian language in a figurative way, and in fact, we seek to reach the goal that Persian speakers feel the concept of hatred. Because feelings of emotion can be expressed through conceptual metonymy, this cognitive mechanism will be used to achieve this goal. The purpose of this research is to examine the conceptual metonymies of the emotional concept of hatred from the cognitive-corpus perspective and to adapt the results of the analysis of linguistic data with neurobiological findings. In this paper, we will present the definition of “emotion” and distinguish it from “feeling”. The conceptual metonymies of hatred showed that in Persian Language, all four aspects of the effects of affection on human beings (physical, mental, facial, and behavioral), along with the linguistic analysis, confirmed the results and neurobiological findings of the emotions. Analysis of data related to the emotional concept of hatred in Persian speakers of the fact that an emotion in addition to the stimulus that causes it (the cause of affection) has a variety of effects on human beings, and these effects are spoken language by means of a conceptually perceptual cognitive tool Expressing From the neurobiological point of view, feelings, cognition of the viscera and musculoskeletal status provide us; in other words, feelings allow us to live up to our body and provide us with a glimpse of what our skin and our flesh pass through. Because emotions are the guarantor of our survival and our ability to function in harmony with the environment and with individuals, so the foundation of the human nervous system is often composed of inherent regulating tendencies that guarantee the survival of living beings. Survival is coincident with the final analysis of the unpleasant state of the body and the achievement of coexistence, that is, balanced biological functions. For example, this internal nervous system is inherently intent on avoiding pain and looking for potential pleasure. In Kövecses’s view (1393, p. 157), conceptual metonymies is a situation in which part of a domain (concept) represents another part of the same domain and vice versa. He says that emotional metonymy can be divided into two general categories: “the cause of emotions instead of emotions” and “the effect of emotions instead of emotions”. Conceptual metonymies related to the concept of hatred fall into two broad categories: the cause of hatred instead of hate and the effects of hatred rather than hate. Of the contemporary Persian language, from a total of 96 extracted data, 39 are related to the effects of hatred that fall into subcategories and 57 are related to hatred. Finally, a three-stage model for the formation and emergence of emotions, including the hatred that was the result of cognitive-neurobiological analysis, was presented for the occurrence of the opposite event and the cause of the formation of hatred (the acts and words of the particular people who cause hate): “hateful or disgusting” attributes as the external motive that creates hatred in humans; the formation of the hatred (the effect of hatred on the face and body of hatred experincer); the appearance of hatred (showing hatred in a different way).
    Keywords: Hatred, cognitive linguistics, metonymy, Feeling, Emotion
  • Ali Aswadi, Khadijeh Ahmadi Bigash * Pages 27-46

    Translation evaluation is one of the methods of critique that is used to determine the quality level of translated texts. The use of Qur’anic or moderate interpretations for unpleasant concepts has led to recognition of these interpretations and their influence on Quranic textures, and raised the problems of translating these interpretations into different languages including Persian. The exists the need for translators’ knowledge of the methodology of Qur’anic discourse, translation tools, and matching equivalents. In this comparative, analytical and descriptive study, Persian translations of these interpretations are presented using the second level of the Gaussian translation-grapheme syntax assessment model. The assessment of the translation of these interpretations in four well-known translations, from Persian literal and detailed translations, namely, Qumashi, Ma’azi, Ayati and Makarem Shirazi’s translation, especially in the use of examples of compassion, chastity, and eulogy, suggests that cultural differences existing between the Persian and Arabic languages, and equivalence at the lexical and grammatical levels are among the most important sources of challenge in this field. In rhetorical translation, the rhetoric of the structure of these interpretations is denied, and based on this kind of translation, the hidden meanings of Qur’an remain, verbal similarities in Persian are restricted, and the adequacy and acceptability are reduced. The term “good” Qur’anic terminology is a summation between two concepts; the first concept: idiomatic terms; the second concept: the stylized or good meaning of the term (nickname, word of mouth) that is defined in the new semantics of science: an expression that has a certain meaning and is obtained from the sum of words (Al-Bebalaki, 1990, p. 235; al-Qasemi, 1979, p. 25; Abuzlaal, 2006, p. 1 & 68). The stylization also means using a word or phrase as a mask or cover to cover painful, ugly and unpleasant concepts (Casas Gomez, 2009, pp. 725-739). For this reason, the compound term is the reference through a linguistic and explicit method. It seems to have become commonplace among linguists to use linguistic tools for what is ugly and banned in society, such as: disease, death, sexual relations, some parts of the body, poverty, natural disasters and some sensory and spiritual traits, etc. to make them interpreted as unobtrusive and acceptable. Regarding the stance of linguistic or stylized interpretation, it should be said that in the process of establishing communication, it is a positive and useful tool because it removes barriers from the ideal way of communication, promotes the level of dialogue, and transcends the boundary of passage implicitly and implicitly (Abu Khazdar, 2013, p. 10; Abuzlaal, 2006, p. 1 & 68; al-Qasemi, 1979, p. 25). It also brings about artistic dimensions through a rhetorical structure such as calligraphy, metaphor, and likeness. The Holy Qur’an, as the heavenly book at the height of eloquence and rhetoric, has a strong link with a well-interpreted or stylized discourse (Sini, 1996, p. 11). On the other hand, translation is institutionalized and expanded through the process of theorizing in the mind. In the translation process, an interpreter has two or more different languages; therefore, it is necessary to study and compare all levels (micro and macro) of these languages, to analyze them in the original text, then, to combine them in the context of the destination. The method for transfer from the source language to the target language is very important and requires the acquisition of translation techniques and strategies (Mobaraki, 1392, p. 151). The proper understanding of the concept of the text is the most important stage of correct equivalence and it is possible that the misunderstanding of the content generally changes the meaning of a text in general. Therefore, the translator must first and foremost, on the basis of a proper understanding, compare the words and phrases of the text to the correct equation, then, proceed to the next steps of the translation. Among these views, is the model of translation of Mrs. Carmen Grosses, one of the best and most recent models for the evaluation of literary translation, which is designed in four levels (lexical, grammatical, discourse, and lightness), in which the relevance of the translation of the text is an important issue. In this research, we aim to evaluate the use of the second level of the Garses-semantic grammatical level on four of the well-known translations, both literal and implicit types in Farsi (Elahi Qomshei, Ma’azi, Ayati and Makarem Shirazi) to the most important allegations of these translators, in the translation of the Qur’anic terminology to Farsi, and present a suitable way to solve the existing lexical challenges when translating from Arabic to Persian.

    Keywords: Qur’an, Evaluation, goodness of definitions, translation, Garcus Model
  • Faeze Soleimanifard, Biook Behnam *, Saeideh Ahangari Pages 47-79
    The Internet is already an essential element of education in all developed countries and its worldwide educational significance will continue to increase due to its constant technological development, communicative power, and social potential. Internet-mediated English learning has lately attracted both English teachers and learners due to the numerous advantages including the increased accessibility, quick information retrieval, flexibility in the pace of learning, etc. In spite of their popularity, the Internet-mediated English learning materials have rarely been critically analyzed. The present study aimed to critically investigate LingoHack lessons of BBC English Learning Website which claims to teach new words and phrases through watching and reading the transcripts of the latest BBC World News bulletin, trying to investigate whether these educational materials were promoting different aspects of electronic colonialism. This is a theory proposed by McPhail (1987) which tries to discover and uncover the colonial goals of multimedia giants produced in the core countries which seek to control the minds of people from the periphery countries. Thus, the lessons that were published from the beginning of the year 2016 to the end of the year 2017 were searched for the key term Britain plus its directly and indirectly related items both electronically and manually and 77 out of 270 news articles were found to contain the key terms. The corpus was analyzed by being classified based on their subject matters into three categories: Britain’s science and technology (26 news stories), Britain’s health and lifestyle (42 news stories), and Britain’s politics (9 news stories). Applying Van Dijk’s (2004) Ideological Square Model of critical discourse analysis (CDA), the researchers attempted to critically analyze the representation of Britain within BBC news lessons in terms of their hidden potential curriculum. Ideological Square Model accounts for the ways discourses represent groups of people in a process of polarization between Us and Them through: (a) emphasizing information that is positive about Us, (b) emphasizing information that is negative about Them, (c) de-emphasizing information that is positive about Them, and (d) de-emphasizing information that is negative about Us (van Dijk, 1998, p. 267).Van Dijk believed in a hierarchy of power in which those who are able to influence and control people’s minds can indirectly control their actions through persuasion and manipulation as well. Therefore, his model plus 27 strategies for ideological discourse analysis listed by van Dijk (2004) were suitable for exploring the manipulations applied to the target educational materials in this study. In order to answer the research question, all BBC news video transcripts from LingoHack lessons involving the key terms were critically analyzed and noteworthy results were obtained and since the CDA analysis of all these news stories were too long to be included in this article, 6 samples from those presenting the manipulative functions of the target ELT content were discussed in detail. Even before considering CDA analysis, BBC Online appeared to be biased in selecting news video stories as ELT materials which were claimed to be international, while there existed plenty of British stories. The findings for the first category revealed that BBC Internet-mediated lessons have had manipulative purposes in choosing particular news stories and attempting to obtain illegitimate domination through the formation of biased mental models offered by emphasizing positive information about Britain’s superior scientific and technological capabilities. Similarly, critical analysis from the second category showed that Britain as a core country also attempted to advertise its own values and norms through selecting biased news articles within health and lifestyle domain which tried to direct the audience’s attention toward ideal and high quality living conditions in Britain. Findings from the third category also revealed that Britain was presented positively as a powerful and supportive country in political news stories and that was a true example of promoting electronic colonialism. On the whole, BBC Internet-mediated English learning program was found to promote certain British ideological values, scientific superiorities, and political messages through applying particular discursive structures that tend to describe in-group members in a positive or at least neutral way. Developing such an ideal British mentality in English learners was on the basis of a hidden curriculum which tried to promote a new kind of colonialism. So, as McPhail’s (2006) Electronic Colonialism Theory postulates, long term exposure to these English learning materials would threaten individuals’ perception of their identity and culture and disseminate British norms and values. Therefore, the Website users need to be conscious of the secret threats of the Internet technology and develop critical view in order to be wise autonomous learners. The researchers also have to closely investigate the one-way flow of media messages from the core to the peripheral countries, including online English educational materials and the purposes of the producing nations as well as the influences on receiving nations.
    Keywords: Internet-Mediated English Education, Electronic Colonialism Theory, Hidden Curriculum, critical discourse analysis, Van Dijk’s Ideological Square Model
  • Somaye Shokati Moqarab *, Jalal Rahimian Pages 81-107

    In a linguistic analysis, different levels such as words, sentences, textual structures, combinations etc. interact with each other and make the bases, principles and the context of a thought and an ideology. In fact, ideology lets any thought and approach to draw its identity-based and other-making borders with its antagonists. Power construction and social context interact with each other in the political elections. In this arena, the political elites represent their discourse in a manner leading to grasping the utmost votes. Therefore, in this rivalry, besides legitimizing their ideology, these elites delegitimize their antagonists. Besides, what is presented before the elections, what the candidates utter in their inaugural speeches is somehow a different material. What is uttered in the inaugural speech generally contains all the political currents, parties, groups and thoughts. In this era other-makings is articulated through a hidden discourse. It seems that elections provide a ground in which power and hegemony get integrated in a peaceful manner. Therefore, it is important to find the reason of the supremacy of an ideology and the failure of the other. In the years 2016 to 2017, three presidential elections were held in the Islamic Republic of Iran, the United States of America and France. Iran elections were held on May 19th, 2017 and Hassan Rouhani was re-elected for a second term. The United States presidential election of 2016 was held on November 8th and Donald Trump won the White House. The presidential election of France was held on May 7th, 2017 in which Emmanuel Macron was elected. In this study, by considering the context-based situation of each discourse, the authors investigate how identity making, representing self and others and different social actors is formulated throughout these political events. There are many questions asked regarding what happens throughout the elections period. How can language-use foreground a discourse and let it gain its expected results? How does the hegemon discourse attract all the groups and parties? What is the role of linguistic mechanisms? However, this investigation is about to answer the question that “how are the identity-based borders of producing and reproducing authority represented in the first inaugural speech of the elected presidents after the elections?” This analysis is done in the micro and macro levels. The study’s hypothesis is that “the elected candidates in the presidential elections of Iran, the US and France have based their semiotic system on the articulation of their maximal positive identity and defining a minimal other-making circle (maximal inclusion and minimal exclusion)”. The corpus of this study is composed of three inaugural addresses of the three case discourses. Their usage of different pronouns, the manner they address their audience and their high frequency references is part of the analysis and the manner they represent their identity is another part. Therefore, the study’s theoretical framework has two main levels, a micro and a macro one. The micro level investigates the linguistic strategies each president applies and the macro one is found through critical discourse analysis (CDA). So, the framework is based on a combination of Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe’s discursive theory and some ideas obtained from Roland Barthes and Jacques Derrida. As a result, firstly, the linguistic mechanisms are analyzed through the implicit and explicit implication of Barthes and the presence and absence ideas of Derrida. Then, other factors like self and other, other-making, foregrounding and backgrounding, chain of equivalence and logic of difference in each of the speeches is analyzed. As the interdisciplinary studies like this one are based on a two-level method, they can provide an appropriate ground for understanding the linguistic trends, processes and structures that have a special importance in policy-making. The data analysis proves that the three analyzed discourses, despite their different contexts, have common grounds in the application of the linguistic mechanisms. The findings present us three macro-structures the first one of which is “the pronouns”. Using the pronouns “I” and “we” is a strategy for the ideological representations and the political inclusions and exclusions. In fact, the first person singular pronoun is used for foregrounding the self and displaying the positive side and the plural one gathers all the parties and thoughts together. The second macro-structure is the “speech content”. The analyses reveal different topics each having their special importance in the related context. The repeated issues are some strategies that are consciously used to encourage the audience and create hope for a better future by the help of the government. This is a repeated subject in all the analyzed speeches. The third macro-structure is the opening and closing remarks containing appreciation in the beginning part and the commitment to compliance in their closing part. Another point is that the findings prove that the chain of equivalence and the identity-maker one is evidently described in Rouhani’s speech. Furthermore, backgrounding the negative others of Rouhani’s discourse is done implicitly. On the other hand, while the discursive others of Trump and Macron are implicitly represented, they do not have an evidently drawn chain of equivalence. In each of the studied discourses, a kind of ideological reality is hidden. In other words, the ideological context reproduced by each discourse represents self and other in a special way that outlines the borders of each discourse positively and negatively. This kind of representation in each discourse describes how each one is legitimized. As politics has mostly been studied from a social and political lens, and linguists have had fewer productions in this field, it is recommended that linguists apply their specialized view in this domain and prove how language can affect politics. As this study demonstrates, linguistic mechanisms help the candidates have an effective representation of their identity, legitimize themselves, delegitimize their others, and finally win the votes.

    Keywords: Critical discourse analysis (CDA), self, other, foregrounding, backgrounding, Presidential Inaugural Speeches, Iran, USA, France
  • Mahiheh Miri, Shahla Sharifi *, Azam Estaji Pages 109-129

    Autism spectrum disorder is one of the most important disorders affecting children social development, interactions and communication with others (Matlabi, 2016, p. 2). A main problem in autism spectrum disorder children is delay in the onset of speech or lack of speech evolution (Manteghi, 1993, p. 5). Unfortunately, no definitive treatment for this disorder has been proposed. Quick diagnosis and intervention can provide basis for establishment of a suitable and effective educational program that can help these children. Educational systems and approaches are trying to help different people acquire knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary to overcome their problems. Storytelling is an important and old way of teaching and transmitting information to children. It is used as a way to develop the verbal skills of children. Various studies have been done on the linguistic characteristics of people with autism, for example, Jarrold et al. (1997), Kjelgaard and Tager-Flusberg (2001), Ahadi (2016 & 2017), Khalil Khane (2011), Roh Parvar (2014) and Matlabi (2016). In these studies, verbal and linguistic features of patients with autism and their differences with normal children and people with other language disorders and psychiatric disorders were discussed. This study investigated the effect of storytelling on children with autism to enhance their spoken language skills. According to numerous reports on the direct and indirect effects of storytelling in increasing the knowledge, behavioral, verbal and language skills of normal children and improving their verbal, behavioral and educational performance, this study investigated the possibility of using this approach as an educational tool for children with autism. The statistical population of this study was 4-7 year old boys with mild to moderate autism. To eliminate the effect of educational program, differences in the results and also to increase the synergy of the samples, 20 male children (available samples) were selected from children with autism who referred to Nor-e-Hedayat center of Mashhad. Grading of children with autism was performed based on the CARS test. Selected children were randomly divided into two groups: the first group included children with autism disorders that were not trained in the comprehension and production of speech through storytelling, the second group included children with autism who were trained to understand and produce speech through storytelling. Language Development Test (version 3) was used as a tool for determining the effect of storytelling on the spoken language skills of the participants. To this end, the rate of development and spoken language abilities of these children was evaluated by the speech therapist of the center before beginning of the study. Then, 30 appropriate pictorial stories were selected for the age of 3-7 years, and told to the second group of children for three months and every other day for half an hour. At the end of the study, development of spoken language of all children participating in the study was reassessed with the help of the speech therapist in the center. The language Development Test sub-scores were added up and then, the score was converted to other standard score (rate) using the test tables. Afterwards, using the rate table, the score was converted to ranking scores. Statistical analysis of data obtained from the study was carried out using SPSS software version 24. Comparison of linguistic skills between the control and experimental groups was performed before and after the study using Mann-Whitney non-parametric statistical tests and Wilcoxon test was used for intra-group comparisons. The study data showed that there was no significant difference between the spoken language proficiency in the control group before and after the study (p = 0.066), while the spoken language proficiency difference was significant in the experimental group (p = 0.004). Also, by inter-group comparison, the difference between the language proficiency of children in the experimental and control groups was significant after the end of the study and the storytelling process (p = 0.030), while the difference was not significant at the beginning of the study (p = 0.199). The children of the two groups were close to each other in terms of linguistic skills, at the average and lower than average levels, and there was no one with the linguistic level above average. These findings showed that use of appropriate educational stories and having a systematic and continuous storytelling program is effective in increasing language development and language-related systems in children with mild to moderate autism, and, along with other educational and therapeutic programs (such as speech therapy, neurofeedback, etc.), storytelling can be a useful tool to improve spoken skills in children with autism.

    Keywords: Autism spectrum disorder, storytelling, Language Development Test, spoken language
  • Ezatollah Kalantari Khandani *, MohammadHasan Farrokhi, Mousa Ghonchepour Pages 131-156

    Twitter has changed the way information and data are circulated among a lot of users. Most of them are spreading through the societies, because certain thoughts and ideas are going to be imposed. Authorities have found this great powerful tool can successfully make common people make decisions as they wish to do. It seems that more than 500 million tweets are sent daily from 320 million active users across the world and it increases everyday (Twitter.com). This unbelievable number of tweets can create new groups and shape new ideologies among active users. A widespread stream of quickly communicated suppositions and thoughts might lead to uncontrollable event and supervise the life style of millions of people around the world. It might also interfere with political affairs and drastic changes happen due to intentional spread of thoughts putting policy makers in severe troubles. Amazingly, journalists make use of this tool as a monitoring system to find private and fascinating news about celebrities and famous sportsmen and women. They want to feed their media enough firsthand information to attract a lot of readers and users. They want to sell more, if they can have direct access to popular figures’ twitter page, their missions are completely done; that is why tweeter is important to them.  The present study aims to study and analyze some of the issues raised by critical discourse analytical approach to the study of speeches, e.g. tweets. Since social networks have given a lot of opportunities to people put forward, acquire, express and reproduce their views, thoughts, ideologies and even their own daily routine activities largely by text or talk, a discourse analytical study of these language interactions seem to be necessary and most relevant. The more people become familiar with social media, the less they are vulnerable to be misled by indecent authorities. As present societies are now experiencing different ways for language interactions, the role and the influence of social networks, e.g. Twitter, are undeniable and need to be analyzed. The study of tweets has made the linguists believe that twitting is a kind of social action and leads to processing social issues and if tweet lexicons are chosen appropriately, they can have big effecton followers’ decisions and cause shapingideological groups. Houston and colleagues (2015) firmly believe that tweets can form social actions and guide the societies towards certain directions. The discourse analysis of tweets will reveal the type of interactions that twitter users have. It can also represent the way in which knowledge and power are produced. In other words, speech order, discourse and discourse analysis are to be seen as social productions that have changing and dynamic forces. They can have influences over social values and interactions, whether positive or negative (Ziahosseiny, 2012, p. 97). Of course, this kind of discourse analysis has to be certainly social-critical, because it has to find the roots of social problems (Ziahosseiny,2012, p. 98). That is why we have made use of critical discourse analysis to clarify the ways by which realities are represented in social networks. Although, in this paper, the main attention has been given to the discourse analysis, its theoretical structure is based on different disciplines, especially on Van Dijk triangulation of discourse, cognition and society; they are necessary for analyzing sociolinguistics phenomena. Social sciences and philosophy have made the best use of this framework and they can critically explain social actions. These can also play an important role in reshaping the traditional approaches to social events as those approaches cannot fully and adequately elaborate on the sociocognitive nature and structures of ideologies and their discursive reproduction.In the present study, Trump’s tweets are analyzed based on the aforementioned considerations related to Van Dijk model. To do that, 400 of Trump’s tweets from his twitter page, between January and March 2018, were studied. Then, based on linguistic signs and strategies put forward by Van Dijk (2003 & 2006), the tweets were analyzed carefully. Those linguistic signs and strategies are: classification, polarization, generalization, distancing, implications, hyperbole, counterfactual, contrast, lexicalization, evidentiality, comparison, fallacy and euphemism. The findings show that Trump uses these strategies to create his own ideology. They also demonstrate that Trump makes use of hyperbole instead of logical reasoning. The data indirectly prove that tweeter followers are constantly exposed to new ideologies; also, the dialogues have their own prompt influences on societies, make new social theories, play basic roles in people’s life style and create new ideologies in groups.

    Keywords: Tweet, rhetorical analysis, Van Dijk Model, Trump, critical discourse analysis
  • Abdolhossein Heydari * Pages 157-176

    This paper attempted to study the case markers of Persian noun in Azerbaijani speakers’ speech on the basis of the 4-M model. Based on the understanding that in bilingual speech, one of the languages is normally dominant over the other, Myers-Scotton (1993, 1997) formulated the Matrix Language Frame (MLF) model, in which she classified morphemes in complementizer phrases (CP) into two kinds: content morphemes, such as nouns and verbs, and system morphemes, such as inflections and most function words. A major difference between content morphemes and system morphemes is that most content morphemes either assign or receive thematic roles, while system morphemes do not. The contact languages play different roles. The language with the dominant role, that is the one that is used for the system morphemes, is called the matrix language (ML). The embedded language (EL) is the language from which content morphemes are inserted into the ML. The MLF model claims that in mixed ML+ EL constituents, only the ML is used to build the frame. That is, the ML determines the morpho-syntax of ML+EL constituents. Modified versions of the model have appeared since then (Myers-Scotton, 1997; Myers-Scotton, 2002; etc.), and the definitions of some of the terms of the MLF model have been elaborated on or revised. By extending the MLF model, a new morpheme categorization model called the 4-M model has been proposed (Myers-Scotton, 2002, 2006; Myers-Scotton & Jake, 2000). There are four categories of morphemes in the 4-M model, i.e. content morphemes and three types of system morphemes. This model is a refined version of the content vs. system morpheme opposition and explains how different morphemes are accessed in different ways in speech production. The heart of the 4-M model is the fact that system morphemes are activated at two different abstract levels. They are classified as early and late. Furthermore, late system morphemes are in turn divided into two types: bridges and outsiders. Early system morphemes are activated at the lemma level together with their content morpheme heads for their maximal projection. Levelt defines “lemma” as the “nonphonological part of an item’s lexical information.” He also states, “lemmas are the driving force behind the speaker’s construction of the surface structure. It is in the lemmas of the mental lexicon that conceptual information is linked to grammatical function” (1989, p. 162). Unlike content morphemes and early system morphemes, late system morphemes depend on other types of information for their activation, and this information is only available at the level of the formulator, where language specific morpho-syntactic patterns must be realized. Information about all types of morphemes is present in lemmas, information about content morphemes and early system morphemes is salient at the conceptual level, and information about late system morphemes becomes salient at the positional level of the formulator. The model has been tested in many language contact situations with positive results. In some studies of language contact phenomena, these different system morpheme types have been shown to play different roles in language production. For example, in second language acquisition, early system morphemes are acquired first, and late system morphemes are more difficult to acquire. Of those few system morphemes occurring in mixed constituents in codeswitching, early system morphemes are most likely to appear in the EL (Myers-Scotton & Jake, 2000). However, while no paper has focused explicitly on Persian- Azerbaijani contact using the 4-M model; this paper attempts to do so. The research method of this study is descriptive-analytic. First, on the descriptive level, it characterizes the case markers of Persian noun in terms of their entries in the mental lexicon (i.e., lemmas). Evidence indicates that morpheme appearance order in receptive language would not be explained without characterization of morphemes themselves, and such a characterization depends on the formalization of a connection between the underlying abstract lexical entries in the mental lexicon and surface realizations. Second, the study goes beyond describing the nature of different types of morphemes to investigating the morpheme appearance order in receptive language. The data were collected from Azerbaijani resources and its speakers in Ardabil province. The case markers of Persian noun were classified into three types on the basis of 4-M: content morphemes (adposition), early system morphemes (vocative articles) and late bridge system morphemes (genitive marker). The data analyzing indicates some Persian vocative articles have been borrowed by Azerbaijani while some adpositions appear as code-switched elements in bilinguals’ speech and genitive marker lies between them. It seems there is a relation between different morphemes nature and their order of entrance into other language. Unlike system morphemes, content morphemes assigning theta roles are rarely borrowed by other languages. Early system morphemes are borrowed more easily than late system morphemes. Late system morphemes are activated later in the production process as required by the grammatical frame of the matrix language, while early system morphemes are indirectly elected at the same time that content morphemes are directly elected by the speaker’s intentions. This paper’s findings indicate the 4-M model efficiency in explaining the order of morphemes appearance (as borrowed or code-switched) in receptive language.

    Keywords: Noun case markers, Persian, Azerbaijani, 4-M model
  • Abolghasem Ghiasi Zarch *, Fatemeh Jafari Pages 177-204

    Written texts are part of language production skills that can well measure the writing ability of foreign language learners. Writing errors are important because of the fact that the students have enough time to write and review their written texts, and more research can be done on them. In addition, written texts can measure the writing competence of non-Persian language learners. It is also a criterion for assessing teaching methods, content and evaluation methods for language teaching centers. About analyzing and evaluating errors of non-Persian language learners and different nationalities, valuable studies have been done so far, but a study that examines the common language errors of learners is rare. It is important to identify the common mistakes of non-Persian language learners with different nationalities, because of the benefits to educational planning, provision of educational content, and coherence in the choice of teaching methods by instructors. This article reviews the errors of foreign language learners based on the error analysis branch, which is a subset of applied linguistics. This research analyzes the spelling and vocabulary errors among the learners of Persian as a Second Language in Imam Khomeini International University. As one of the key means of assessing the efficiency of teaching and improving the learning experience, error analysis can help identify the flaws of the teaching system and the weaknesses of students in relation to different learning skills. Many researchers have emphasized the importance of errors. One of the pioneers of language error analysis is Corder. In his article in 1967 “The significance of Learner’s Errors”, he reviewed the errors from three perspectives:“They [Errors] are significant in three different ways. First to the teacher, in that they tell has progressed and, consequently, what remains for him to learn. Second, they provide to the researcher evidence of how language is learned or acquired, what strategies or procedures the learner is employing in his discovery of the language. Thirdly (and in a sense this is their most important aspect) they are indispensable to the learner himself, because we can regard the making of errors as a device the learner uses in order to learn. It is a way the learner has of testing his hypotheses about the nature of the language he is learning.” (Corder, 1967, p. 167) Through the error analysis approach, researchers can identify and categorize students’ errors and propose appropriate teaching materials and methods that can resolve those errors. This research analyzes the written errors of the basic level (general) of the language learners at Imam Khomeini International University. For the present study, we randomly chose 100 texts (including compositions and descriptions of pictorial narratives) written by the basic level students. The learner nationalities were Azerbaijani, Burundi, Kenyan, Syrian, Iraqi, Mali, Chinese, and Nigerian. The age of the students was between 18 and 26 years, and in the research, component of gender did not affect. This group had 320 hours of Persian language teaching (including the books like Let’s Learn Persian 1, Let’s Learn Persian 2 and Listening Comprehension) at Persian Language Center of Imam Khomeini University. All the errors in the test, including grammatical, lexical and spelling mistakes, were examined. In studying and categorizing errors, errors are not categorized as minor or major and all the errors in this research have been studied with a degree of importance. Our analysis indicates that spelling and vocabulary errors are most common among the students in this study. While vocabulary errors are caused by the students’ lack of familiarity with and incomplete learning of the target language (Persian), spelling errors are the outcome of their poor listening skill, inability to recognize vowels and semivowels, and weakness of visual memory. Students except in a language that they have a lack of knowledge and inability to communicate, just simply use their reserves. At levels two and three, they are somehow confronted with the problem of using or not using proper words. This problem appears in two areas of precise understanding of the word and its proper application in the context. The most difficult lexical and intercultural problems of learners was their return to mother tongue. They used the first-language patterns to use the second language. The biggest problem of language learners in the lexical and intercultural section was their return to mother tongue patterns. They used the first-language patterns to use the second language. Also, their lack of knowledge of the role and use of words and expressions affected the errors. A surprising finding in our study is that despite the students’ familiarity with the Persian alphabet and vocabulary, Arab speaking learners, who were the majority of the learners, had more errors than the others. Our further analysis reveals that the sheer volume of errors among these learners is associated with teaching methods, selection of syllabus, and also rating of teaching materials.

    Keywords: Writing Error analysis, teaching Persian language, second language, spelling error, vocabulary error
  • Nargess Nourizadeh *, Sue San Ghahremani Ghajar, Shahla Bakhtiari Pages 205-228

    We have been teaching English in Iran for decades now; however, the materials used at schools and in institutes have been adopted from or influenced by the commercial textbooks published by dominating powers. The themes, topics, and the lexical networks dispose learners toward internalizing secular and materialistic values in life. There have been attempts on the part of Iranian material developers to detach from the inconsistencies of the commercial materials with Islamic and Iranian values; however, the ideal Islamic life4, which is the ultimate goal of education in Islam has rarely received due attention. Moving toward such a lifestyle demands a harmony among all the parts of the educational system, including all the different school subjects and their corresponding materials and methods. Nevertheless, English language courses have remained unaffected by Islamic teachings and have focused on the lowest level of life without considering the critical questions regarding the meaning of life. One of the main steps toward understanding the purpose of life in the Glorious Qur’an is to look around at nature which is one of the richest sources of understanding for people in Islamic thought. Therefore, in this research, the verses about nature in the Glorious Qur’an, specifically the ones about water as the element of life and the source of all living creatures, were studied carefully to find out how the divine language of Qur’an reminds people of the purpose of life by referring them to natural phenomena. Accordingly, the verses from the Glorious Qur’an related to the subject of water, including verses containing the words “water”, “rain”, “spring”, “river”, and “the sea”, along with their interpretations in Tasnim (Javadi Amoli, 2012), Nasime Hayat (Bahrampour, 2013), and Noor (Gharaati, 2009), were checked and analyzed. In these verses, a picture from nature is first described and explained in carefully selected words and then people are urged to think about it. These verses also refer to the people’s responsibility and what they should do in different contexts and situations and try to help them understand how they should manage their likes and dislikes according to God’s Words. The pictures were taken from the verses of the Glorious Qur’an and organized into four images including “life-giving water”, relating to the fact that rain from the sky gives life to the dead land and brings back hope to people; “creation from water”, which is about water as the main element of life from which a great percentage of the creatures’ body is made; “a divine living from the sky: the water we drink, the food we eat”, reminding people of the source of whatever they have and need for life; and at last “such a short life it is”, which refers to the picture shown in some verses of a dead land which is brought back to life by rain, the greenness which is created, and how soon it changes to something like straw which is spread all over with the wind. For the purpose of developing materials, these pictures were summarized into sentences from Qur’an with a list of words from the same verses, which together will take thoughts closer to the concepts intended by the Glorious Qur’an. In these scenes, pictured through words for people, they are reminded that it is God who has created and controls everything and He is the One who is praiseworthy. This is referred to as the foundational concept of “Tawhid” or the oneness of God which has a leading role in different aspects of life and stands against the positivistic view toward the natural phenomena assumed to be bestowed upon us by Mother Nature. Furthermore, people are reminded about death and life afterwards by being strongly advised to look at the death and life happening around in spring, when the earth gets green. These two concepts are fundamental in Islamic ideology of life and determine every aspect of life style; therefore, the purpose of materials should be to delineate these concepts and their applications. The language of the Glorious Qur’an has presented these concepts in stories, metaphors, and similes, in all of which words come together beautifully to serve the purpose of teaching man the divine concepts essential to both worldly and spiritual life. Moreover, man is asked questions to rise from the death of ignorance and be challenged to think by being addressed in these verses. Based on these findings, the units in the materials can be organized around the structure of “look, think, and live”, in which learners will be shown a picture from nature, descriptions of which should be worded according to the words and sentences from the Glorious Qur’an. Some questions are also suggested for each picture which can be formed into a writing or speaking task in class, which are Tawhid- and Maa’d-based. These questions can help learners relate these concepts to their real life, broaden their views toward nature, and deepen their thoughts by stepping beyond mere enjoyment and worldly benefits from nature.

    Keywords: Material development, English language teaching, the ideal Islamic life, Nature, Water
  • Eshagh Rahmani *, Lila Raisi Pages 229-250

    In contemporary Arabic language, the auricular exclamatory styles are more widely used and diversecompared to the deductive styles but still less attention has been paid to them; and the researchers are unaware that this type of structures can follow the determined structures. This matter along with the diverse use of this type of sentences in Arabic language and its equivalent finding in Persian language are the reasons for the importance of the present study. Moreover, it seems that there are similarities and differences between the structure of these sentences as well as their equivalence in the language of speech and writing. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify and introduce the structure of these sentences in order to find an appropriate answer to this question: what is the difference between the exclamatory styles in the Arabic syntax and what is found in the language of stories and dramas closer to the language of speech. Another question is that: what differences are in the styles used in the writing language for this structure? Reviewing the written grammar books in accordance with the old syntax, shows the attention to the pronunciation and the ignorance of the meaning of words. Of course, new studies have been targeted on semantic implications and the production of meaning. By taking advantage of linguistic achievements in syntax and rhetoric, they have tried to consider sentences and to investigate the vocabulary in the combinations of sentence and/or the style of the text. Therefore, based on Jorjanii, they have expanded the context of studying to the syntax to insert the stylish and structural meaning into that. Based on these studies, it can be concluded that, in contemporary Arabic language, the auricular styles are more applicable in comparison to the deductive styles; and a special order can be considered for them in such a way that using the auricular word to refer to them is not appropriate. Old rhetoric in Arabic language also has used “exclamation” as secondary meanings of sentences in numerous lexical compounds which are beyond the syntactic principle. Although this a partial study. According to them, “exclamatory” is a rhetorical concept arising from the order of the compounds, certain terms and specific expressions. Today, scholars interested rhetoric into the framework of the text style and by using the linguistic achievements have investigated this structure in the inspirational and declarative sentences. After conducting these studies, we investigated the matter that emotional sentences, and especially exclamatory sentences, are widely used in both speaking and writing languages. Accordingly, this study is based on the classification of 460 exclamatory sentences in two books including “Al-Shams Phi Yaum Ghaem” –that is closed to the speech language– and “Zahrat al-Omr” –that is based on the written language. The purpose of this study is to describe auricular exclamatory sentences and then to investigate the contrast between the Persian language and Arabic language. Moreover, to find equivalents, create and use them in the speaking and writing of the languages to be investigated; so that the similarities and differences of them can be found. The spoken language is closer to the affection, and based on its style, it is necessary to be used in shorter length, with more feelings, emotions, emphasis and exclamation in comparison with the written language. Their combined meaning can be detected only if the word and/or the phrases to are inserted in the particular style of the text. We thought the variety of these sentences in the speaking language is more, but a review on the selected 190 sentences suggested that this is not true. The results show that the harmony and style play the most important roles in recognizing the structure of the spoken language. Wishing, swearing, relying, emphasizing, using proverbs and slangs are used a lot. In finding equivalents –especially in the spoken language– the word “that” plays an important role. It seems that in the written Arabic language, most of these sentences are used with profound making; and in the Persian language often the equivalents are found by superficial making. This matter is seen more in the speaking language. In the review of the written language, 270 sentences were also examined. The important issue in this regard is the role of affirmation words and styles in the emotional sentences allocating most statistics to themselves. In the written language, the emphasis made sentences have a more significant role; and more diversity is seen in them. In the meantime, the sentences implicating quantity as well as comparison, negative and emphasizing styles that sometimes are seen in the format of negative declarative sentences such as exclusive, exception, contrast and inconsistency styles are important as well.

    Keywords: Auricular wondering, Arabic, Persian, Wondering in speaking, writing, Equivalent finding
  • Mozhgan Chegeni *, Mehdi Samai, Belqheis Roushan, Bahman Zandi Pages 251-272

    Determination of the grammatical category is one of the problems faced by the lexicographers. Multifunctional words -words that show characteristics of more than one word class- make this task more difficult. Multiplicity of the function may be the result of ambiguity of lexical categories and interrelationship between them. Lakoff (1986) believes category membership is a matter of degree and words can be more or less member of a category. Neustupny (1966) speaks of marginal elements in each class that belong to the given class, but realize functions proper to another. According to Neustupny, these words are divided into two groups: peripheral elements, those which are characterized by features of another class but still belong to the given class, and the boundary elements which is not clear whether they belong to the given or to the opposite class (Balterio, 2007, p. 71). Some processes, such as ellipsis, polysemy and conversion can also cause that words to perform different functions. However, each of these processes has a different effect on the words that distinguishing these processes is not always easy. Some such as conversion change the lexical category of the word while the others such as ellipsis are a kind of syntactic simplification that occur only in certain circumstances. However, what should be considered in lexicography and recording lexical entries is the process of word formation that creates new words or change the grammatical category of the already- existing words. It is crucial to note that the membership of a word in another word-class is possible only if it can accept all the functions and behaviors of that word-class and can appear in all possible positions for that word-class. Therefore, different criteria, syntactic, semantic and morphologic, should be regarded. Syntactically, the word must be able to appear in all possible positions and functions for the new category. Morphologically, it must be able to accept all inflectional affixes of the new category. Semantically, the meaning of the word in the new category should be related to its meaning in the previous category or be defined on it. To distinguish ellipsis, Adams (1973, p. 19) suggests a semantic specification criterion. He believes when an adjectival noun refers to a specific and limited semantic field, what happens is the process of shortening or ellipsis that is a kind of syntactic simplification and not a word formation process such as conversion. However, sometimes the words derived from the processes such as ellipsis, as a result of extensive use by speakers, are entirely independent and accepted in the new category. In such a case, recording both lexical categories for these words is recommended. Finally, diachronic and synchronic criteria are used in distinguishing homonymy, polysemy and conversion. Lyons (1995, p. 58) and Huddleston (1993, p. 105) suggest the etymological and semantical criteria for differentiating between homonymy and polysemy. Polysemous words are said to be semantically related and have the same etymology, but homonymous pairs are said to be semantically unrelated and have different etymological sources. In addition, part of speech for the polysemous words is the same, but for the homonymous words can be the same or different. Converted words, such polysemous pairs have the same etymology and different but related meanings. The difference between these two is part of speech: converted words have different parts of speech but part of speech of the polysemous words is the same. In this research, some problems of lexicographers in this field have been examined and attempts have been made to find solution to overcome them. To achieve this aim, multifunctional words from a dictionary (Sokhan) were collected and studied. Statistical society of this research included all words listed in this dictionary, among them multifunctional words were picked as the sample. The research method was description and content analysis. Data in this research were indexed using Microsoft Excel 2010. Recorded items were 2459 words divided in different groups according to the recorded grammatical categories. The group of adjective-noun that is studied in this research was the biggest one with 1172 words. The members of this group semantically referred to different concepts, so were divided into semantic subcategories such as color terms, numbers terms, curses and offensive terms (which were nouns referring to the animals or unpleasant things or adjectives with negative connotation), words referred to nationality or ethnicity, profession terms and sundry words (which referred to various concepts that could not be included in one group). These data were analyzed in an interpretive way. Results showed numbers and colors are only adjectives the application of which as their name is the result of the anaphoric ellipsis and cannot be considered multifunctional words. Profession terms, although defined in this dictionary as members of adjective-noun group, do not show any adjectival behaviors. These words in another dictionary (Farsi-e-Emrouz) are only defined as noun. Ethnic terms morphologically simple or derived both are defined as adjective-noun in this dictionary. However, the simple ones are only noun and the derived ones are adjectives which are made by adding suffix "-I" to the end of simple ones. These adjectives can be used as nouns to refer to people or languages, so can be considered multifunctional words.  Besides, offensive terms defined in this dictionary as both adjective and noun are only nouns or adjectives which are metaphorically used to address people. Finally, members of the sundry group have undergone various processes such as ellipsis or polysemy. Functional changes of the words after ellipsis are not recorded in other dictionaries. As conclusion, most of the functional changes are the result of different phenomena some of which are only a kind of syntactic simplification and should be ignored by lexicographers.

    Keywords: lexicography, Grammatical category, Conversion, Ellipsis, Multifunctional words
  • Neda Bigdeli, Vahid Sadeghi * Pages 273-295

    Loanword adaptations are transformations applied to words when they are borrowed into a foreign language. Words from a source language that are ill-formed in the borrowing language are thus transformed into well-formed words (Hyman, 1970; Yip, 1993). These adaptations are typically accounted for by philologists in terms of the same conceptual framework used for standard phonological processes in the native language. That is, loanword adaptations are treated the same as phonological facts within the borrowing language, and are thus considered to be part of the native phonology (Jacobs & Gussenhoven, 2000). However, recent research suggests that loanword adaptations are the formal reflex of perceptual assimilation, a process that applies during speech perception and maps non-native sound structures onto the phonetically closest native ones (Peperkamp 2005; Peperkamp, Vendelin, & Nakamara 2008). In perceptual models of loanword adaptations, phonological adaptations applied to loanwords are assumed to be phonetically minimal transformations that apply during speech perception (Peperkamp, 2005). Thus, loanword adaptations are not computed by the phonological grammar of the borrowing language, but are assumed to be phonetically minimal transformations that apply during speech perception. The present research addresses the phonological adaptation of English vowels in Persian vowel system based on the theory of perceptual assimilation Model (Peperkamp, 2005). Two perception experiments were carried out in this research to test the predictions of this theory. In these experiments, the perceptual similarity between each English vowel and its close equivalents in the Persian vowel system was tested in a number of identification tasks. We examined to what extent the perception of English vowels reflects the phonetic distances between vowels of the two languages found in a production experiment (Sadeghi & Bigdeli, 2018). In the first experiment, instances of English words with 9 English vowels were extracted from Oxford Bookworms corpus (three tokens for each vowel) and used as natural vowel stimuli in an identification task with two or three possible response options. Data for the second experiment included syllables containing the same 9 English vowels extracted from Oxford Bookworms corpus. Thus, the target vowels were presented to subjects at two prosodic domains, namely at the phoneme level (Experiment 1) and at the syllable level (Experiment 2). In both experiments, participants had to classify each of the auditory stimuli as “being phonetically most similar” to the auditory stimuli. Fifteen people participated in each perception experiment. The stimuli were played back through headphones. Participants were presented with two or three Persian vowels as the possible response options, and were asked which option was phonetically most similar to the auditory stimulus (English vowel) they perceived. Results of the first perception experiment showed that listeners associate the high front tense English vowels /i/ with Persian /i/, but the high front lax vowel /I/ and /E/ with Persian /e/. Furthermore, it was shown that they perceive both the high back tense and lax vowels /u/ and /U/ as Persian /u/. It was also observed that English /Q/ is clearly associated with Persian /a/, and that all the three vowels /Ã/, // and /A/ in English are associated with Persian /A/. In the second experiment, we observed similar patterns in the results. Listeners clearly associated the high front tense English vowels /i/ with Persian /i/, and the high front lax vowel /I/ with Persian /e/. Moreover, they perceived both the high back tense and lax vowels /u/ and /U/ as Persian /u/. It was also observed that English /Q/ is clearly associated with Persian /a/, and that both /Ã/ and /A/ in English are associated with frequent distributions with Persian /A/. However, listeners encountered a greater degree of ambiguity when processing English /E/ as the vowel is associated with a very similar distribution between Persian /a/ and /e/. English // was also perceived with a high identification rate as Persian /A/. Overall, the results of identification tests suggested that the perceptions of English vowels by Persian speakers highly correspond to the acoustic distances between the source (English) and the target (Persian) vowel segments. The perception of English vowels by Persian listeners reflects, to a large extent, the acoustic proximity between vowel categories of the two languages. Thus, listeners clearly associateeach English vowel with the vowel in the Persian sound system with which it shares the maximum acoustic characteristics. Therefore, our findings provide further support for the theory of perceptual assimilation which proposes that loanword adaptations are due to the automatic process of phonetic decoding, which maps nonnative sound patterns onto the phonetically closest native ones.

    Keywords: Loanwords phonology, phonological adaptation, theory of perceptual assimilation, acoustic similarity, vowel space
  • Zeynab Jafari *, Batool Alinezhad Pages 297-324

    This paper is an acoustic analysis of Persian nasalized vowels which aims to develop an acoustic vowel space of these vowels compared to that of oral vowels (the vowel space provides a graphical method for showing where a speech sound, such as a vowel, is located in both “acoustic” and “articulatory” space. The illustration shows an acoustic vowel space based on the first two formants for vowels. The vertical axis represents the frequency of the first formant (F1) and the horizontal axis shows the frequency gap between the first two formants (F2-F1) (Giacomino, 2012). In this regard, such a survey is investigating the effect of nasalization on the first and second formants of Persian vowels as well as the effect of this factor on their F1span and F2span. In addition, this article studies the effect of gender on the first two formants of oral and nasalized vowels. In order to reach the purposes of this survey, the speech of a total of ten Persian speakers, including five women and five men were recorded. All of the speakers were between the ages of 25 and 35. A list of forty-eight words (the words were embedded in a common carrier sentence) was presented to the speakers and their utterances of the words were recorded with a Huawei G750-U10 sound recorder. The words the participants had to pronounce were two to three syllabic nouns and adjectives. The findings of this paper are based on the pronunciation of six vowels, i.e., /i/, /e/, /a/, /A/, /o/ and /u/ found in the unstressed syllable of these words. Some of these unstressed syllables contained a consonant-vowel-consonant phoneme structure (i.e. /CVC/) and some others contained a nasal-vowel-nasal one (i.e. /NVN/) in order to examine oral and nasal vowels, respectively. Each word was uttered five times by each speaker, so each one provided 240 tokens. Collectively, 2400 tokens were provided by the participants. The recorded words were converted to .WAV files and analyzed acoustically with the free program, Praat (an online open source software designed for acoustic phonetic analyses). The data taken were the first two vowel formants, i.e., F1 and F2. For the purposes of this study the central part of each vowel, which reaches a practically steady state, was measured. Averages were taken for each value for each speaker and then calculated for the entire group. It should be mentioned that mahalanobis distance criterion was used to remove outlier data. Generally, this criterion is used when the data are two-dimensional. The data, when so analyzed statistically, reveal that nasalization significantly affects all vowels’ first and second formants. In fact, the F1 frequency of the nasalized vowels, except for the vowel /a/, is more than that of oral vowels. In comparison with the oral vowel /a/, the F1 frequency of its nasalized counterpart is less. Moreover, the F2 frequency of the nasalized vowels is more than that of oral vowels. It is also found that nasalization has no significant effect on vowels’ F1span and F2span. The data show that, gender significantly affects the frequency of the first two formants in both oral and nasalized vowels, except for the vowel /u/. The effects may be indicated as follows. a. In nasalized vowels as well as oral ones, the F1 frequency of the vowels /o/, /A/, /e/ and /a/ for female speakers is more than that of these vowels for male ones. Additionally, the F1 frequency of the nasalized vowel /i/ for females is less than that of this vowel for males, but conversely, the F1 frequency of the oral one for females is more than that of this vowel for males. b. In both nasalized and oral vowels, the F2 frequency of the vowels /A/, /i/, /e/ and /a/ for female speakers is more than that of these vowels for male ones. Furthermore, the F2 frequency of the nasalized vowel /o/ for females is less than that of this vowel for males but conversely, the F2 frequency of the oral one for females is more than that of this vowel for males. Finally, it should be noted that the vowel space has been studied in different languages, for instance, the studies of Barney and Peterson (1952), and Hillenbrand et al. (1995) on English vowels, Klein’s study (1970) on Dutch vowels, the survey of Johngman et al. (1989) on modern Greek and German vowels, and the article of Most et al. (2000) on Hebrew Vowels. There are also some papers on Persian vowel space, such as Gharaati (2010), Mohammadi et al. (2011), Bijankhan (2013), Modarresi Ghavami (2013), Esfandiari and Alinezhad (2015), and Alinezhad (2016).

    Keywords: vowel space, Oral vowels, Nasalized vowels, Persian