فهرست مطالب

School Health - Volume:7 Issue: 2, 2020
  • Volume:7 Issue: 2, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/03/13
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Maysam Rezapour, Narges Khanjani *, Moghaddameh Mirzaee Pages 1-13
    Background

    The lack of a comprehensive instrument to measure school climate with good psychometric properties in Iran is strongly felt. This study aimed to examine the construct validity of the multidimensional structure of the Maryland Safe and Supportive Schools Climate Survey (MDS3) among Iranian pupils.

    Methods

    This validation study was peformed on a sample of 1540 pupils from 42 schools in Mazandran province in 2017. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) and exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) were employed to evaluate the construct validity of each of the three scales of the questionnaire (Safety, Engagement, and Environment). The current study tested measurement invariance across gender, school type, and grade levels.

    Results

    Our findings confirmed the factor structures and measurement invariance across gender, school types, and grade levels regarding Safety, Engagement, and Environment scales of the Persian version of the MDS3 Climate Survey. This study revealed a conceptual overlap between the dimensions of school climate which can be well shown by ESEM (CFI=0.975, TLI=0.945, RMSEA=0.053, SRMR=0.029 for Safety scale; CFI=0.987, TLI=0.961, RMSEA=0.027, SRMR=0.018 regarding Engagement scale; CFI=0.960, TLI=0.926, RMSEA=0.036, SRMR=0.025 concerning Environment scale). Furthermore, the Pearson correlations of all school climate sub-scales were significant (P<0.05) with the exception of correlations between disorder subscale and connection to teachers (r=0.03, P=0.239), academic engagement (r=0.04, P=0.116), and culture of equity (r=0.02, P=0.432).

    Conclusion

    The Persian version of MDS3 Climate Survey can be used to measure the three key domains of school climate (Safety, Engagement, and Environment) in Iranian context and the epidemiological studies associated with student health and behaviors.

    Keywords: Aggression, Environment, Factor analysis, Safety, Iran
  • Saeed Ghorbani *, Saharnaz Nouhpisheh, Masoud Shakki Pages 14-20
    Background

    An important topic regarding school health is to investigate the factors affecting students’ participation in physical activity inside and outside of school. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between perceived competence as one of the basic psychological needs and the physical activity of male and female middle school students inside and outside school, considering the role of enjoyment as a mediator variable. Gender differences were further examined.

    Methods

    A descriptive-correlation method was employed in this study. Participants were 600 male and female middle school students from Aliabad Katoul, Golestan province, Iran in 2019. Research tools included Scrabis-Fletcher and Silverman’s Perceived Competence Survey, Enjoyment Questionnaire, and Physical Activity Scale. Structural equation method was used to examine the relationship between variables and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was utilized to find out the gender differences.

    Results

    The results showed significant relationships between perceived competence and physical activity inside and outside school among boys (P=0.021 and P<0.001, respectively). However, in girls, enjoyment was more effective on the in-school and out-of-school physical activity (P=0.001 and P=0.003, respectively). In addition, boys reported higher perceived competence, more enjoyment, and more physical activity in comparison to girls (P<0.001).

    Conclusions

    Perceived competence and enjoyment in physical education classes are correlated among boys. In girls, it seems that enjoyment is a more important factor than perceived competence. Physical educators should encourage the perceptions of the students regarding their abilities in physical education classes, in order to improve their participation in physical activities.

    Keywords: Perceived competence, Enjoyment, Physical Activity, Middle school
  • Malahat Amani *, Mohamad Mahdi Arbabi Pages 21-29
    Background

    Academic procrastination can be influenced by personality and family factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mediating role of academic self-regulation in the relationship between parenting dimensions and academic procrastination among elementary students.

    Methods

    The method used in this study was correlation. The statistical population included all male students from the second period of elementary school in Garmeh city, Iran. Through cluster sampling, we selected a number of 278 male students. Data collection instruments were Academic Procrastination Scale, Academic Self-Regulation Questionnaire, and Parenting Style Scale. We finally analyzed the data via structural equation modeling.

    Results

    The results showed that paternal responsiveness (r=-0.29), paternal demandingness (r=-0.34), maternal responsiveness (r=-0.24), and maternal demandingness (r=-0.34) significantly correlated with academic procrastination (P<0.0001). Furthermore, paternal responsiveness (r=0.28), paternal demandingness (r=0.25), maternal responsiveness (r=0.30), and maternal demandingness (r=0.28) were significantly associated with academic self-regulation (P<0.0001). Academic self-regulation also had a relationship with academic procrastination (r=-0.24, P<0.0001). The results of structural equation modeling showed that academic self-regulation had a mediating role in the association between parenting dimensions and academic procrastination (RMSEA=0.037).

    Conclusions

    Parents with appropriate control and responsiveness promote the academic self-regulation of their children and prevent academic procrastination.

    Keywords: Academic self-regulation, Parenting, Academic procrastination
  • Mehdi Reza Sarafraz, Sarah Hemmati *, Hassan Asadi-Lari Pages 30-36
    Background

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) can negatively impact human functions and bother the close people around the patients. Perfectionism is among the factors associated with OCD. Investigating this relationship and other concepts such as self-regulation processes influencing this relationship can help us find better approaches to treat OCD. This study aimed to determine the moderating role of self-regulation processes in the relationship between perfectionism and OCD in 2019.

    Methods

    In this correlational study conducted in Shiraz, Iran, we selected 535 10-to-18-year-old students with an average and SD of 14.15 and 2.75 by multi-stage sampling method. We selected 30 schools and three classes in each of them. Afterwards, six students in each class willingly filled the questionnaires. In order to gather the data, we made use of Tehran Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, Padua inventory for obsessive-compulsive disorder, integrative self-knowledge questionnaire, self-control scale, and self-compassion scale as research instruments. Data were analyzed by Pearson’s correlation coefficient and stepwise regression analysis.

    Results

    Perfectionism was an important predictor of OCD (B=0.38, Beta=0.08, S.E=0.39, P=0.001), self-control was a major predictor of OCD (B=-0.18, Beta=0.08, S.E=-0.19, P=0.04), and the interaction between perfectionism and integrative selfknowledge was a significant predictor of OCD (B=-0.24, Beta=0.09, S.E=-0.24, P=0.03).

    Conclusions

    Perfectionism and self-control are predictors of OCD, hence important mental concepts. Furthermore, integrative self-knowledge plays a moderating role in the relationship between perfectionism and OCD.

    Keywords: Obsessive compulsive disorder, Perfectionism, Self-Regulation, Integrative self-knowledge, Self-Compassion
  • Oreoluwa Scott-Ashley, Samson Akande *, Ayodeji Adebayo, Oluwatomi Iken Pages 37-45
    Background

    Adolescents are prone to myriads of developmental issues, including early sexual debut, risky sexual behaviours, sexually transmitted infections, teenage pregnancy and abortions. These challenges could be worse among adolescents who lack the understanding of sexuality. Mitigating these challenges among this age group, constituting two-thirds of the Nigerian population, may require exploring the knowledge and perceptions of sexuality and teenage pregnancy. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the knowledge of sexuality and perceptions about teenage pregnancy among in-school adolescents in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria.

    Methods

    We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study using a qualitative approach. The population comprised 10-17-yearold female and male students of public and private secondary schools. We held focus group discussion sessions among 82 participants and manually analysed the data using a generated code book.

    Results

    The mean age of participants was 13.5 years with a male to female ratio of 1.1:1; 51% of the subjects were from co-educational public schools. Participants’ knowledge about the contextual meaning of sexuality was sub-optimal but better regarding the prevention of sexuality problems and the associated causes and problems. The participants perceived teenage pregnancy as being on the increase and replete with adverse consequences. The focus group discussants had divergent opinions as to what to do if involved in unwanted pregnancy.

    Conclusions

    A knowledge gap existed with regards to sexuality among the study participants. It is advocated that interventions be conducted to review the current status of sexuality education in secondary schools.

    Keywords: In-school adolescent, Sexuality, Knowledge, Perception, Teenage pregnancy
  • Mehdigholi Gholidahaneh, Saeed Ghorbani *, Akram Esfahaninia Pages 46-53
    Background

    Recognizing the factors influencing students’ participation in leisure-time physical activity is considered as an important topic concerning school health. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of basic psychological needs satisfaction in physical education (PE) classes on leisure-time physical activity behavior of primary school students, considering the role of autonomous motivation as a mediator variable. We further examined gender differences.

    Methods

    We made use of a descriptive-correlation approach in the present study, 2019. Participants comprised 516 primary school students from Gonbad Kavoos. Research instruments included Sport Climate Questionnaire, Sport Motivation Scale, and Leisure-Time Physical Activity Behavior Scale. To analyze the data, we used the structural equation method and Mann-Whitney U test.

    Results

    The results of structural equation method showed significant relationships between basic psychological needs satisfaction and leisure-time physical activity and autonomous motivation (all T>1.96). Furthermore, autonomous motivation had a positive association with leisure-time physical activity (all T>1.96), and it mediated the relationships between basic psychological needs satisfaction and leisure-time physical activity (all P<0.001). In addition, compared with girls, boys reported significantly higher satisfaction regarding competence and relatedness needs (P=0.040, P=0.009, respectively), higher intrinsic motivation and identified regulation (P<0.001, P=0.001, respectively), and higher leisure-time physical activity (P=0.045).

    Conclusions

    Basic psychological needs satisfaction in PE classes positively influenced motivation and leisure-time physical activity in primary school children. Physical educators should encourage basic psychological needs satisfaction in students with regard to their activities in PE classes, in order to improve their participation in leisure-time physical activities

    Keywords: Basic psychological needs, Autonomous motivation, Physical Activity, Primary School
  • Hamed Nouri, Rahman Sheikhhoseini *, Rasoul Eslami, Moosa-Reza Ghorbani Pages 54-60
    Background
    Reactive neuromuscular training (RNT) is a training method used in rehabilitation. However, its effectiveness onforward head posture (FHP) is still unknown. This study aimed to compare the effects of traditional training with 8-week RNTon the craniovertebral, shoulder, and kyphotic angles in high school students with FHP.
    Methods
    In this randomized clinical trial, conducted in Urmia city, Iran (2018), we selected a total of 60 male high schoolstudents using a convenient sampling technique. We assigned the subjects to one control group and two experimental groups;one of the experimental groups performed traditional exercises while the other did RNT. After the pre-test, the training programperformed three days a week under the supervision of a researcher. Posture assessment carried out in two steps: prior to training(pre-test data) and after eight weeks of training (post-test data). We applied a photogrammetric method to evaluate the sagittalangles of the neck and shoulder. Moreover, we conducted the ANCOVA test at a significance level of P.
    Results
    Both training methods improved trunk posture (F=156.07, P<0.001) and the sagittal angles of the neck (F=35.35,P<0.001) and shoulder (F=23.31, P<0.001); however, RNT was more effective than the traditional type of training (P<0.001).
    Conclusion
    Eight weeks of traditional and RNT exercises enhanced kyphotic, shoulder, and craniovertebral angles. It seemsthat RNT might have a better outcome in the management of high school students with FHP.
    Keywords: Exercise therapy, Neck, Head, Students
  • Dana Khdr Sabir_Karzan R Sidiq_Shakhawan M Ali * Pages 61-62