فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:18 Issue: 1, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/03/17
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Fatemeh Azarian, Sirous Farsi *, Seyed Ali Hosseini, MohammadAli Azarbayjani Page 1
    Background

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a type of cognitive impairment that disrupts the mitochondrial function and metabolism of neurons. Studies have shown that training is a potent factor in enhancing mitochondrial biogenesis and saffron with its antioxidant properties can improve neurodegenerative disorders effectively.

    Objectives

    Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of endurance training (ET) with saffron consumption on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator (PGC-1α) gene expression in hippocampal tissue of rats with AD.

    Methods

    In this experimental study, 40 rats with AD (induced by 8 mg/kg trimethyltin (TMT) injection were divided into five groups of eight rats, including (1) AD control, (2) ET, (3) ET with saffron, (4) saffron, and (5) sham. To investigate the effects of AD induction on PGC1-α, eight healthy rats were assigned to the healthy control group. During eight weeks, groups 2 and 3 ran on a treadmill for eight weeks, three sessions per week, for 15 - 30 min at a speed of 15 - 20 m/min per session. Groups 3 and 4 received 25 mg/kg aqueous extract of saffron peritoneally. One-way ANOVA, Tukey’s post hoc, and two-way ANOVA tests were used for data analysis by SPSS software (P ≤ 0.05).

    Results

    Alzheimer’s disease induction significantly reduced PGC1-α gene expression (P = 0.001) while ET significantly reduced PGC1-α gene expression (P = 0.01) in AD rats. Nevertheless, saffron significantly increased PGC1-α gene expression in AD rats (P = 0.001). The interaction of ET and saffron was significant in increasing PGC1-α gene expression in AD rats (P = 0.001).

    Conclusions

    It seems that ET and saffron consumption have interactive effects on the increase of PGC1-α gene expression in the hippocampal tissue of rats with AD.

    Keywords: Saffron, Training, Alzheimer’s Disease, Hippocampus, PGC1-α
  • Zahra Hami * Page 2
    Background

    Curcumin is an active non-toxic component of turmeric and is a substance with strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Iron, as a micronutrient, plays an important role in physiological processes. Chitosan is a natural polymer derived from chitin and is known as a biocompatible product due to its high biocompatibility, non-toxicity, and biodegradation to harmless products.

    Objectives

    This study aimed to design and synthesize a modified magnetic nanoparticle to be used as a targeted drug delivery system.

    Methods

    Nanocurcumin loading was performed on the surface of chitosan-modified iron magnetic nanoparticles in two stages. In the first stage, chitosan was loaded on the surface of iron magnetic nanoparticles as a coating polymer. In the next step, the final reaction took place by the loading of nanocurcumin on the surface of magnetic iron nanoparticles modified by chitosan.

    Results

    The results of transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated the structure, morphology, physicochemical properties, and presence of nanocurcumin layers on chitosan in nanoparticles with a diameter of 20 nm. In the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the iron-oxygen peak indicated the magnetic nanoparticles of iron, and the oxygen-hydrogen peak showed nanocurcumin layers on chitosan. Moreover, X-ray spectroscopy confirmed the presence of these elements in the final composition by showing iron, carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen peaks.

    Conclusions

    The results of this study showed that nanocurcumin was successfully loaded on the surface of magnetic iron nanoparticles modified by chitosan.

    Keywords: Chitosan, Nanoparticles, Curcumin, Iron, Spectrophotometry
  • Ali Sharifi, Kamal Alizadeh* Page 3
    Background

    Chronic kidney disease is one of the most common diseases. The early diagnosis of this disease will reduce the length of treatment and decrease high medical costs. In recent years, the use of computer techniques in data mining and intelligent algorithms has accelerated the early diagnosis of this disease. One of the intelligent methods to diagnose this disease is artificial intelligence networks.

    Objectives

    This study aimed to investigate the diagnosis of chronic kidney disease using an artificial intelligence network based on the multilayer perceptron method.

    Methods

    The data of laboratory samples were collected from 140 healthy people and patients with chronic kidney disease. After preprocessing and normalization, the data were given to a multilayer perceptron and the accuracy of disease diagnosis was evaluated. All analyses were performed using MATLAB software.

    Results

    The simulation showed a 98% accuracy of diagnosis using the proposed model.

    Conclusions

    The results of real data suggested that the proposed system was more effective and faster than other methods in the diagnosis of acute kidney disease and it can be used as a physician assistant tool in clinical practice. In addition, it can be a cost-effective method for patients.

    Keywords: Multilayer Perceptron, Chronic Kidney Disease, Artificial Neural Networks, Chemometrics
  • Hasan Niroomand, Vahid Rezaei, MohammadReza Mirzaii Dizgah* Page 4
    Background

    Urinary tract stones are the third most common urinary tract diseases after urinary tract infections and prostate pathological conditions. An accurate assessment for appropriate medical treatment and lifestyle changes is important in reducing the recurrence of urinary stones.

    Objectives

    The present study aimed to determine nutritional habits of patients with urinary tract stones referring to the Imam Reza Hospital.

    Methods

    This descriptive study was performed on 150 patients referred to the Urology Clinic who had been given a definite stone diagnosis. The data collection tool was a three-part questionnaire.

    Results

    The mean age of patients was 41.34 (± 11.98) years. The history of kidney stones in the first-degree relatives of patients was 65.3%. One-third of the patients had fewer than 4 hours of physical activities. Forty per cent of patients drank 3 - 5 glasses of tea daily, 65.3% of them consumed at least one glass of carbonated drinks per week and a quarter of them added salt to food before tasting it.

    Conclusions

    Dietary habits of patients with urinary tract stones seems to be not appropriate prior to the diagnosis of the diseases. Therefore, the diet should be given more attention to prevent kidney stones.

    Keywords: Physical Activities, Nutritional Habits, Urinary Tract Stones
  • Payman Tavakoli , Minoo Shaddel *, Mohammad Yakhchali, Nasrin Raoufi, Hamid Shamsi, Mani Dastgheib Page 5
    Background

    Propolis is produced by honey bees from plants, buds, and exudates and as an antiseptic is used to treat several diseases, such as acne and wounds.

    Objectives

    Due to some difficulty in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis, the aim of this study was to evaluate the propolis extract function against Leishmania major.

    Methods

    Different concentrations (9.375, 18.75, 37.5, 75, 150, and 300 μg/mL) of both Ethanolic Extract of Propolis (EEP) and the standard drug (Glucantime) were prepared for the in vitro model, and then applied to the fixed number of promastigotes. The promastigotes were counted after 24, 48, and 72-h treatment. Then, the viability of promastigotes was tested by MTT after 72 h of treatment. Twenty mice with cutaneous leishmaniasis were divided into four groups for in vivo model, including a positive group (treatment with Glucantime), a negative group (without treatment), and two experimental groups (treatment with EEP 1% and 4%). The sizes of the ulcers were measured at the beginning of the experiment and weekly for four weeks.

    Results

    The in vitro model indicated that both EEP and Glucantime reduced the number of promastigotes and the difference between EEP and Glucantime was not significant at concentrations 37.5, 75, 150, and 300 μg/mL. The in vivo model demonstrated that EEP 4% and Glucantime were similar and decreased the size of ulcers more significantly than the negative control and EEP 1% (P < 0.05).

    Conclusions

    Propolis as an herbal drug had antileishmanial activity against Leishmania major in vitro and in vivo. We suggest using it for complementary treatment.

    Keywords: Propolis, Leishmania major, In Vitro, In Vivo
  • Keyvan Hejazi *, Seyyed Reza Attarzadeh Hosseini, Mehrdad Fathi, Mohammad Mosaferi Ziaaldini Page 6
    Background

    Visfatin and resistin are adipokines involved in metabolic regulation and physiological processes.

    Objectives

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of eight weeks of aerobic training with different intensities on serum levels of resistin and visfatin in obese male rats.

    Methods

    24 adult obese rats (weight: 250 to 300 gr, BMI > 30 g/cm2) divided into three groups: aerobic training with 28 m/min (moderate intensity), aerobic training with 34 m/min (high intensity) and, control group. All training groups did exercise training for 8 weeks (5 sessions/per-week for 60 minutes per session). 48 hours after the training period, the level of serum visfatin and resistin levels was measured.

    Results

    Unlike the levels of resistin concentration (P = 0.001) in different groups, there was no significant difference between visfatin levels in all three groups. Resistin concentration was not significantly changed in the moderate-intensity group compared to the control group, (185.10 ± 12.85 vs. 202.76 ± 17.39) (P = 0.05). There was a significant difference between the high intensity and control groups (P = 0.001). There was no significant difference in visfatin concentration in MI and HI groups compared to the control group (P > 0.05).

    Conclusions

    There is a significant difference in the levels of resistin concentration in different groups. There was no significant difference between visfatin levels in all three groups. Therefore, it seems that aerobic training with high intensity has a better effect on the prevention of obesity and cardiovascular disease.

    Keywords: Obesity, Resistin, Aerobic Training, Visfatin