فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:4 Issue: 4, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/03/21
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
|
  • Maryam Poursadeghfard*, Sara Azhdari Pages 128-130

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is known as an autoimmune disorder which affects transmission in neuromuscular junction. The serologic tests used for diagnosis include acetylcholine receptor and muscle specific receptor tyrosine kinase antibodies. Studies often have reported that patients with formal antibody are negative for the latter one. However, very limited studies have reported positive anti-muscle specific receptor tyrosine kinase antibody in a small percentage of patients with acetylcholine receptor antibody. Here, we reported a young woman who was diagnosed with MG and had a rapid and progressive course of the disease. She was seropositive for both acetylcholine receptor and muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase antibodies simultaneously. However, she discharged from the hospital with good condition after treatment.

    Keywords: Myasthenia gravis, Acetylcholine receptor antibody, Muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase
  • Amin Afshari Moghaddam Pages 131-136
    Introduction

    Metabolic syndrome as one of the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases has recently been the focus of clinical studies. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in hemodialysis patients in Iran.

    Methods

    The present systematic review was done using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist. Case-control, cohort and crosssectional studies conducted in Iran were included. Clinical trials, case reports, letters to editors, systematic reviews, study protocols, narrative reviews, and case series were excluded. Subgroup analysis was conducted for determining the heterogeneity based on the participants as well as their gender. Meta-analysis was conducted using STATA version 14.0.

    Results

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among 799 patients was 50% (95% CI: 47.0, 53.0, I2 = 50.6). The analysis of subgroups was conducted for determining the heterogeneity based on the participants as well as their gender. Based on the analysis of the subgroups using a random effects model, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was found to be 44% and 55% in Iranian men and women undergoing hemodialysis, respectively.

    Conclusion

    Given the high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in hemodialysis patients, it is advisable and logical that patients with chronic renal failure should be regularly evaluated for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors both at the diagnosis time and afterwards.

    Keywords: Metabolic syndrome, Hemodialysis, Dialysis, Kidney failure
  • Vahid Azizi*, Shahrbanoo Oryan, Homayuon Khazali, Abdolkarim Hosseini Pages 137-142
    Introduction

    The neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the neural circuits of the hypothalamus has a stimulating effect on reproductive activities in mammals. Kisspeptin (KiSS1) is a quintessential neurotransmitter in the reproductive axis which directly stimulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the hypothalamus. The distribution of KiSS1 expressing cells in the pituitary was described previously. Despite earlier reports showing the KiSS1 receptor, G-protein coupled receptor 54 (GPR54) expression in the pituitary, the potential physiological roles of kisspeptin at this gland have remained obscure. Accordingly, this study investigated the role of NPY on the relative expression of Kiss1 and Gpr54 genes in the pituitary gland in male Wistar rats.

    Methods

    In general, 20 male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g in 4 groups (5 in each group) received saline, NPY (2.3 nM), BIBP3226 (NPY receptor antagonist, 7.8 nM), and NPY+ BIBP3226. Then, they received the simultaneous injection of these molecules through the third ventricle of the brain. Finally, the relative mean expressions of Kiss1 and Gpr54 genes in the anterior pituitary were quantitatively analyzed by the real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Results

    The central injection of NPY increased the relative mean expressions of Kiss1 and Gpr54 genes in the pituitary gland compared to the control group although the injection of BIBP3226 eradicated these effects. However, the gene expression of Gpr54 in the rats receiving NPY coupled with BIBP3226 in hypophysis in comparison to the group receiving only NPY demonstrated a significant reduction (P < 0.05).

    Conclusion

    Overall, the central injection of NPY stimulated the gene expression of Kiss1 and Gpr54 in the pituitary gland.

    Keywords: Neuropeptide Y, BIBP3226, Kisspeptin, GPR54, Gene expression, Pituitary gland
  • Alireza Rezaeifar*, Fatemeh Dahmardeh Pages 143-147
    Introduction

    Opioid addiction (OA) is a neurologically life-threatening challenge associated with socioeconomic and health concerns for individuals and society. The addictive drugs trigger neuromodulators and neurotransmitters through the opioid receptors and corresponding endogenous peptide ligands. In addition, drug addiction is reportedly related to the mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) encoding gene and its variants. According to the role of the rs648893 polymorphism of the OPRM1 gene in numerous disorders, it has been suggested as a candidate associated with drug addiction. The present case-control study was conducted to evaluate the role of OPRM1 rs648893 polymorphism in the OA risk.

    Methods

    To this end, the rs648893 polymorphism was genotyped by tetra amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction among 160 Iranian subjects consisting of 105 OA cases and 155 controls.

    Results

    According to our findings, there was no significant association between OA and the OPRM1 rs648893 gene polymorphism. Moreover, a marginally insignificant difference was found between OA cases and controls in accordance with the allelic frequencies (P = 0.05)

    Conclusion

    In general, our results reported no association between OPRM1 rs648893 gene polymorphism and OA although further research among various ethnicities with larger sample sizes is needed to draw a definite conclusion on the association of rs648893 polymorphism and other OPRM1 intronic variants with opioid and other addictions.

    Keywords: Addiction, Opioid receptor, OPRM1, Polymorphism
  • Bahram Sheikhi Pages 148-154
    Introduction

    Patients with non-specific low back pain (NSLBP) and movement control dysfunction demonstrate alternation in hip muscles flexibility and spinal movement patterns. Therapeutic modalities that augment hip muscles flexibility could help these patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of global postural reeducation (GPR) on pain and hip muscle flexibility in patients with NSLBP and movement control dysfunction.

    Materials and Methods

    A total of 27 men with a mean age of 31.21 ± 2.5147 years, height of 166.44 ± 6.11 cm, and weight of 64.21 ± 5.25 kg participated in this study. The visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to evaluate pain. The flexibility of hip muscles (rectus femoris, tensor fasciae latae, external rotators and hamstring) was measured using universal goniometer. All data were assessed at baseline and after the intervention. The Shapiro-Wilk test and paired t test were used for statistical analysis at significance level of P = 0.05.

    Results

    Our results revealed a decline in pain (P < 0.004) and an increase in the flexibility of the hamstring muscles in the right (P < 0.003) and left (P < 0.003) legs. There were no statistically significant differences in the flexibility of rectus femoris muscle, external rotators, and tensor fasciae latae.

    Conclusion

    The results suggest that GPR had a significant effect on the level of pain. Further, it affected the flexibility of hamstring muscles in legs. Using GPR is recommended for pain relief and improving the flexibility of hamstring muscles in patients with NSLBP.

    Keywords: Chronic non-specific low back pain, Motor control, Global postural reeducation, Flexibility
  • Fatemeh Dalayi, Leila Hajiaghababaei*, Alireza Badiei, Elham Boorboor Azimi, MohammadReza Ganjali, Ghodsi Mohammadi Ziarani Pages 155-162
    Introduction

    Ordered nanoporous silica such as SBA-15 has a great potential for application in controlled drug release systems. Chemical modification of the silanol groups of SBA-15 allows better control over drug loading and release. Therefore, tris(2-aminoethyl) amine-functionalized mesoporous silica SBA-15 was evaluated as a potential carrier for the delivery of citalopram.

    Methods

    Tris (2-aminoethyl) amine-functionalized SBA-15 was synthesized and characterized by various methods. Citalopram was loaded on the functionalized SBA-15 and drug release into simulated body fluid (SBF) solution and phosphate buffers was investigated.

    Results

    The optimal condition for loading of the citalopram was obtained at pH = 9 after stirring for 5 minutes. The release profile of citalopram was monitored in phosphate buffers with three different pH values of 5, 7, and 8. A faster release rate at lower pH value was observed, suggesting a weaker interaction because of the protonation of the amino group of the functionalized SBA15. The average release rate of citalopram from each gram of functionalized SBA-15 was 12 µg h-1 in the SBF.

    Conclusion

    The results showed that loading amount and release rate of citalopram depended on pH value and the release process showed a very slow release pattern. Therefore, tris (2-aminoethyl) amine-functionalized SBA-15 is a suitable carrier for controlled release of citalopram and has a great potential for disease therapy.

    Keywords: Tris(2-aminoethyl) amine-functionalized SBA-15, Citalopram, Controlled release, Spectrophotometry