فهرست مطالب

Medicinal Plants and By-products - Volume:9 Issue: 1, 2020
  • Volume:9 Issue: 1, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/03/25
  • تعداد عناوین: 13
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  • Shiva Roofigari Haghighat *, Ahmad Shirinfekr, Reza Azadi Gonbad, Ali Seraji Pages 1-6
    Tea is a source of natural color. Extraction of colored as a byproduct will make tea more remunerative. This study suggested the optimal conditions for natural color extraction from black tea waste. Tea manufacture waste was used in different concentration of solvent ethanol: water (50:50, 30:70, 10:90, and 0:100), time (30, 60, and 90 min) and temperature (20, 50, and 80°C). Factorial experiment with three factors (solvent, time and temperature) was performed in a completely randomized design with three replications. Extracted color was used in jelly compared to commercial color. According to the results, the total color extracted from 50:50 ethanol: water at 80°C was more than the other conditions (p ≤0.01). In 80°C, time has no significant effect on color extraction in different solvent ratios. Extracted color had antioxidant activity in compared to commercial color. The taste of jelly colored by extracted color was no significant difference in compared with the jelly colored by commercial color (p≤0.05). Although the difference in outward appearance was easily detected by panelists, they preferred tea extracted color jelly in compared to commercial colored.
    Keywords: Black tea waste, Color extraction, Jelly, Sensory evaluation
  • Saeed Mollaei *, Zohre Ghanavi Pages 7-16
    Witches’ broom disease of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle, caused by ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia’, is a big threat to Citrus aurantifolia production in South of Iran. Accumulation of defense-related enzymes is defense reactions against pathogens in infected plant tissues. Herein, the effect of ethyl acetate extract of Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze was investigated on induced resistance against phytoplasma in the leaves of Citrus aurantifolia. The leaves were pretreated with different concentration of the extract, and then study on the defense enzymes and phenolic compounds was done.  The results indicated that the pre-treatment of the leaves with low concentration of Camellia sinensis extract induced resistance through the accumulation of various phenolic compounds and phytoalexins, as well as the activation of peroxidases (POD), catalase (CAT) and key enzymes in phenylpropanoid pathways i.e., phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), chalcone synthase (CHS), and stilbene synthase (STS). Thus, applying low concentration of Camellia sinensis extract induces resistance against disease and can be a novel strategy in plant disease management.
    Keywords: Camellia sinensis, Citrus aurantifolia, Phenolic compounds, Resistance enzymes
  • Khodarahm Mosavinezhad, Amir Shakerian *, Reza Sharafati Chaleshtori, Ebrahim Rahimi Pages 17-27
    Thymus daenensis Celak. And Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze are two important medicinal plants with boost antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. The current research was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial, and antioxidant activity of T. daenensis and C. sinensis extracts on chicken meat during frozen storage. The extraction was isolated from the aerial parts of T. daenensis and C. sinensis. Chicken samples were treated into different concentrations of C. sinensis and T. daenensis. Chemical, microbial and sensory properties of treated chicken samples were analyzed through 60 days storage at -18 °C. Samples treated with C. sinensis (0.5%) and T. daenensis (0.5%) had the lowest pH (6.25 ± 0.19), total volatile nitrogen (33.68 ± 0.64 mg/100 g chicken meat) and thiobarbituric acid (1.01 ± 0.00 mg malonaldehyde/kg oil). Furthermore, chicken samples treated with C. sinensis(0.5%) and T. daenensis (0.5%) had the lowest loads of total bacteria (10.91 ± 0.81 log CFU/g), L. monocytogenes (5.82 ± 0.82 log CFU/g) and psychrophilic bacteria (6.16 ± 0.22 log CFU/g) and the best sensory properties. C. sinensis and T. daenensis extracts are efficient candidate as natural preservatives for chicken meat.
    Keywords: Thymus daenensis, Camellia sinensis, Antimicrobial activity, Antioxidant activity, Chicken meat properties, Listeria monocytogenes
  • Kamkar Jaimand *, MohammadBagher Rezaee, Mehdi Mirza, Mahmood Nadery, Shahrokh Karimi, Sadegh Ashtiany, Farahza Kazemi Saeid, Zahra Behrad Pages 29-34

    Rosmarinus officinalis L. is of the most important species of medicine, which is used in various food, pharmaceutical and sanitary industries and for this reason, it is considered as one of the most important export figures in the world. In order to study the effect of extraction of essential oil by distillation with water, in a laboratory scale and semi-industrial scale, an experimental design was carried out at the headquarters of the Research Institute of Forest and Rangelands for two years (2018 and 2019). The samples were collected from Alborz research station located in Karaj city. Then the plant samples were dried in shade and essential oils were extracted by water distillation method in laboratory and semi-industrial scale. The compounds of essential oils were measured by GC and GC/MS. In this study, according to experimental and pilot studies on rosemary species, different results were obtained. At this time, the necessity of testing in the laboratory was evident in order to determine the method and the appropriate amount of powder of the plant. In this regard, the rosemary leaves were prepared in three

    methods

    full leaf, semi-powder and complete powder. Then samples were extracted by water distillation method (Clevenger apparatus) for 4 hours. The essential oil yield was obtained from full leaf (0.44%), semi-powdered leaf (0.46%) and pure powder (0.70%).Therefore, the most important time for the extraction of essential oils from plant specimens was determined in pilot and laboratory methods for 4 hours of essential oil extraction and the sample of the semi-powdered plant was determined by mesh of 10. Finally, the results of the important combinations identified. The major combinations identified with plant leaf powder on a laboratory scale are: Camphene (27.49%), Octanol acetate (10.39%), Benzyl formate (9.64%), Dihydro- linalool acetate (8.64%), Verbenene (8.30%), Neo-iso-dihydrocarveol (7.46%) and major components in the pilot were :Camphene (31.53%), Verbenene (10.90%), Benzyl formate (8.18%), Octanol acetate (8.14%), and α-phellandrene (7.18%). Considering the importance of the experimental method for extraction of essential oil and the application of the laboratory method to the semi-industrial, it is suggested that in the pilot plant the specimen with the mesh 10 should be used.In this experiment, the essential oil content of the sample extracted in the pilot sample was 0.46%, which is equal to 0.46% in the laboratory sample. It shows the economic value of this method for the application of other species.

    Keywords: Rosmarinus officinalis L, essential oil, chemical composition, extraction, laboratory, Semi- industrial
  • Fatemeh Andacheh, Maryam Moslehishad *, Saeedeh Shojaee Aliabadi, Narges Jannatyha Pages 35-45

    The aim of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial effects of Zataria multiflora Boiss. Satureja khuzistanica Jamzad, Bunium persicum (Boiss.) B. Fedtsch. and Allium sativum L. essential oils and the use of the most effective one in packaging and evaluation of the film properties. The antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, E.coli, B. cereus, S. enteritidis was studied using the disk diffusion method and MIC and MBC was determined. Then CMC films produced with the addition of Zataria multiflora Boiss. And Satureja khuzistanica essential oils (1.6%, 2.4%, and 3.2%). The addition of essential oils caused to reduce the moisture content to 16.25% and 17.91%, solubility to 69.01% and 64.78%, the color difference to 21.50 and 12.86 and tensile strength to 54.12 and 29.26 Mpa, respectively. An increase in concentration of Satureja khuzistanica essential oil made the film more resistant to water diffusion by 1.05×10-13(g/s m Pa) compared to Zataria multiflora. Regarding the possibility of producing the degradable film with antimicrobial essential oils, it is desirable to use these materials to increase food shelf life.

    Keywords: Carboxymethyl cellulose, essential oil, Zataria multiflora, Satureja khuzistanica, Antimicrobial Packaging
  • Elham Fathimoghaddam, Amir Shakerian *, Reza Sharafati Chaleshtori, Ebrahim Rahimi Pages 47-58
    Satureja bachtiarica Bunge and Echinophora platyloba DC. are two important indigenous medicinal plants of Iran with high antimicrobial and antioxidant effects. The existing examination was done to assess the chemical composition and antioxidant and antibacterial properties of S. bachtiarica and E. platyloba essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes. Aerial parts of plants were collected and their essential oil were extracted using the water distillation method (Clevenger apparatus). Chemical components were analyzed using the GC-MS. Total phenolic and flavonoid components and DPPH radical scavenging effects of essential oils were analyzed. Antibacterial effects were assessed using the disk diffusion and MIC and MBC values were assessed by the micro broth dilution. Carvacrol (31.25%), thymol (23.50%) and o-cymene (13.87%) were the most frequently identified chemical components in S. bachtiarica. Ocimene (44.15%), α-phellandrene (16.80%) and γ-terpinene (8.52%) were the most frequently identified chemical components in the E. platyloba. DPPH radical scavenging effects of S. bachtiarica and E. platyloba were 76.72 ± 2.52% and 64.21 ± 2.11%, respectively. TPC of S. bachtiarica and E. platyloba were 88.33 ± 1.69and 30.05 ± 1.14 (mg GAE per 100 g dw), respectively. TFC of S. bachtiarica and E. platyloba were 20.63 ± 1.24 and 17.28 ± 1.07 (mg quercetin per 100 g dw), respectively. Antibacterial effects of S. bachtiarica and E. platyloba essential oils were dose-dependent (P<0.05). S. bachtiarica (40 mg/mL) had the highest diameter of the growth inhibition zone (23.64 ± 0.35 mm). MICs and MBCs of S. bachtiarica and E. platyloba essential oils were 5 and 20 and 10 and 40 mg/mL, respectively. Both plants are suitable candidate as food preservatives.
    Keywords: Satureja bachtiarica, Echinophora platyloba, Chemical compositions, Antimicrobial effects, Antioxidant effects
  • Esfandiar Hassani Moghaddam *, Reza Karamian, Mahdi Shaaban, Ali Mohammadian Pages 59-66
    This study was laid out in Lorestan agricultural farm, Korramabad, Iran during 2016 and 2017. The experiment was designed based on a complete randomized design (CRD) with four replications. In this study, in the spring, fresh leaf samples were randomly collected seven species of Eucalyptus. The composition of essential oils determined using analytical gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS).The results showed that the effect of specie treatment was significant on essential oil yield, α-Pinene, β-Pinene, 1, 8-Cineole, γ-Terpinene, Pinocarvone, Epiglobulol and β-Eudesmol. Based on our results, essential oil of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. was obtained at rate of 3.43%. The measured oil yield was in range of 2.57% for Eucalyptus nitens (H. Deane & Maiden) Maiden, 1.34% for Eucalyptus globulosusbicosata, 5% for E. globulus madidenii17746, 5.38% for E. globulusmadidenii 2130, 3.74% for Eucalyptus viminalisLabill.and 1.12% for Eucalyptus suggrandis L.A.S. Johnson & K.D. Hill. The main compounds of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. oils were 1, 8-cineole (66.72%) followed by α-pinned (17.88) in the samples. The major constituents of Eucalyptus nitens (H. Deane & Maiden) Maidenoils were 1, 8-cineole (46.67%), α-pinene (14.56%) and β-Pinene (4.51%). The main components of E. globulus oils were 1, 8-cineole (70.15%) and α-pinene (3.65%). The main compounds ofE.globulusmadidenii17746 oils were 1,8-cineole (55.82%), α-pinene (3.91%) and Veridiflorol (5.07%). The major constituents of E. globulusmadidenii 12130 were 1,8-cineole (60.29%), α-pinene (15.5%),α–Terpineol (6.11%) and Eudesmol (3.88%). The major constituents of Eucalyptus viminalis Labill. oils were 1, 8-cineole (56.43%), α-pinene (3.91%). The major constituents of Eucalyptus suggrandis L.A.S. Johnson & K.D. Hill oils were 1, 8-cineole (30.94%), α-pinene (18.52%), β-Eudesmol (6.87%) and Pinocarvone (4.96%). The E. globules maidenii 12130 specie had highest rate of essential oil yield. Between all species E. suggrandis had maximum rate of α-Pinene, γ-terpinene, Pinocarvone and β-Eudesmol. Between essential oil compositions 1, 8-Cineole was in higher rate especially in E. globules bicostata specie.
    Keywords: Eucalyptus, 8-cineole, GC-MS, essential oil, Khorramabad
  • Maryam Papari Moghadam Fard, Saghar Ketabchi *, MohammadHossein Farjam Pages 67-71

    Nowadays, medicinal plants are considered as a valuable source of natural compounds used in the development of antimicrobial and antioxidant drugs. The objectives of this study were to evaluate chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Ziziphus spina-christivar. Aucheri (Boiss.) Qaiser & Nazim. essential oil. Essential oil was obtained by hydro-distillation using Clevenger type apparatus during approximately 3 hours and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Eleven components were identified in Z. spina-christivar. Aucheri essential oil that represented 92.14% of the oil. The main components of the oil were Carotol (42.20%), hexadecanoic acid (13.75%), linoleic acid (11.76%), vetivenic acid (9.56%) and (-)(+)valeranone (7.06%). Antioxidant activity of the essential oil was performed using 1,1-diphenyl–2– picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ribosomal degradation assay (HRS). Antimicrobial activity was investigated by micro broth dilution method. The antioxidant activity of Z. aucheri was IC50 = 53.91 ± 2.431 and showed only by DPPH method. The oil had antimicrobial activity in low concentrations against Aspergillusniger, Penicillium digitatum and Klebsiella pneumonia.

    Keywords: Ziziphus aucheri Boiss, GC, MS, DPPH, HRS, Antioxidant, Serial dilution method
  • Zohre Ghanavi, AliAkbar Velayati *, Parissa Farnia, Amir Naji, Sepideh Kalatehjari Pages 73-79

    Thymoquinone (TQ) is a monoterpene ketone which is an important bioactive substance in Nigella sativa L. seed. This important natural compound has many potential medical applications for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, stroke, neurodegenerative diseases and different types of cancer. To date, no studies have focused on development of a reliable industrial method for purification of TQ from this plant as a major challenge. In this study, an efficient extraction and purification method was developed for preparation of TQ from Nigella sativa L. seeds using preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). To this end, a two-step procedure was applied for the first time for extraction of TQ: first, maceration using methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was performed; then, liquid-liquid extraction using methanol successfully removed the majority of the impurities. Next, preparative HPLC was carried out for separation and purification of TQ using a C18 column and the mobile phase of methanol and water containing 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA).The collected peak from preparative HPLC was analyzed by the analytical HPLC as well as GC-MS instrument. Results of HPLC analysis proved the purity of the collected TQ by 97%, while the results of GC-MS identified the main peak appeared at around 15.6 min as TQ by library searching, and determined its purity by 97% based on peak heights. Overall, this method has a potential for industrialization to prepare purified TQ for medicinal applications.

    Keywords: Nigella sativa L, Thymoquinone, PURIFICATION, Preparative HPLC
  • Mohammad Karimian, Reza Najafi, Kamkar Jaimand, Firoozeh Hatami, Naser Abbasi *, Asadollah Jalali Ghalousangh Pages 81-86
    In Iranian traditional medicine Quercus brantii var. Persica (Oak) is considered warm- and dry-natured. It is used for gastric pain, ulcer, anemia, hemorrhoids and rickets, burns, indigestion, diarrhea, and infection. Oak is readily available and has a variety of medicinal and health effects in both traditional and modern remedies. The main objective of this research is Identification in oak compounds, using Headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Oak fruits were collected from Argavan Valley, Ilam, west of Iran, after drying and powdering, chemical compounds were isolated by HS-SPME and identified by using GC-MS method. The results analysis of Quercus brantii revealed the existence of 41 chemical compounds. Major chemicals included β- pinene oxide (8.65%), Tetrahydro- linalyl acetate (8.51%), 2-methoxy –p-cresol (7.65%), 2-methoxy pyrazine (5.08%), 2-acetyl pyridine, 2,3-dimethyl pyrazine (4.42%), Trans- linalool oxide (3.79%), β- pinene(3.66%), Verbenone (3.43%), and Terpin-4-ol (3.27%).
    Keywords: Quercus brantii var. persica, Ilam, chemical compounds, GC-MS
  • Shadi Khayambashi, HosseinAli Asadi Gharneh * Pages 87-96

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) an herbaceous annual plant belonging to the Pedaliaceae family is one of the most ancient and important oilseed crops in the world. It is cultivated for its edible oil for medical and pharmaceutical applications. This study was carried out to evaluate the morphological traits and fatty acids composition of 15 different sesame cultivars at Agricultural Research Farm of Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch in 2018. The morphological traits were measured according to International Descriptor for Sesame. Also, the oil extraction was done by Soxhlet method and fatty acid composition of the sesame oil was determined using gas chromatography (GC). The experiment was laid out on the basis of randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. According to the results, plant height was varied from 70.67 to 130.67 cm. In relation to capsule length, Sabzevar × Pi599457 and Sabzevar cultivars had the highest and lowest value, respectively. The highest total seed yield was measured in Esfahan (3070.20 kg/ha) cultivar, while the lowest one was in Pi599457 (195.64 kg/ha) cultivars. The highest and lowest oil percent was observed in Sabzevar and Borazjan 2 cultivars, respectively. In terms of fatty acids compositions, Palmitic acid (7.08-10.87%) was the main saturated fatty acid (SFA) and the highest value was found in Esfahan cultivar and the lowest in Pi2358371 cultivar. Regarding unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) Pi2358371 cultivar and Esfahan cultivar showed the highest and the lowest values of oleic acid, respectively. Among the evaluated traits, a significant positive correlation was detected between all morphological and biochemical traits, whereas a negative correlation was found between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids contents. According to SFAs, arachidic acid was positively correlated with stearic acid (r=0.8; p < 0.05). In addition, palmitic acid was negatively correlated with oleic acid (r=-0.78; p< 0.05). As stated by the morphological and biochemical clusters, Esfahan cultivar and Pi161385 cultivar had the most distance in both cluster. The morphological characters of Sabzevar cultivar was very close with Pil61385 cultivar originated from South Korea. Morphological characters from Borazjan 2 cultivar were similar to Halil cultivar from Iran and placed in the same sub-cluster, while it had the same biochemical value as same as USA and South Korea origin cultivars. This analysis shows that cultivars with different origin had different relationships in biochemical and morphological traits. Morphological and biochemical characteristics among different sesame cultivars could be useful in breeding programs and will help to increase high quality production.

    Keywords: cluster analysis, fatty acids, Morphological, biochemical traits, Oil Percent, Variability
  • Farzad Motevalli Haghi *, Hamed Fathi, MohammadAli Ebrahimzadeh, Shahram Eslami, Mohsen Karamie, Masoumeh Eslamifar, Omid Dehghan Pages 97-105

    The therapeutic and anti-infectious effects of Sambucus ebulus L. have been well documented in the traditional medicine. The purpose of this study was to identify the domestic herbal plant with insect repellent property. Leaf and fruit of Sambucus ebulus L. was collected from Kordkail Kola Sofla rural district and dried. To assess the repellent property, the concentrations of 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 250 mg/kg) were prepared. Then 0.4 mL of each concentration was applied on an area of 4 × 6 cm on the shaved Albino (Indian pig) skin and exposed to the mosquito bite. After 30 minutes, the number of adult mosquito bites (three replications) was recorded and analyzed by ANOVA test at a probable level of 5%.The highest phenolic content in the leaf and fruit methanol extract was 155.925 mg/g and of 92.777 mg/g, respectively. Based on IC50, the highest level of antioxidant activity in the leaf and fruit methanol extract were 60.09μg/mL and 417.846μg/mL, respectively. The highest repelling property was correlated with the concentration of 250mg/kg of Sambucus ebulus. The repelling effects were 73.4% for the leaf and 78% for fruit extracts. Leaf and fruit extracts of Sambucus ebulus contained phenolic and flavonoid with strong antioxidant effects. The fruit hexane and methanol extracts were better repellent than the leaves, and the methanol extracts effect of these organs was greater.

    Keywords: phytochemical, Phenolic compounds, Antioxidant, Insect repellent, Culex pipiens, Sambucus ebulus
  • Seyed Mohammad Vahdat *, Maryam Khavarpour, Sohrab Kazemi Pages 107-114
    Medicinal plants can be used in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic products due to their biological and nutritional properties. The objective of this research was to examine the chemical composition, antimicrobial and analgesic activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. plant originating Amol, north of Iran for the first time. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry study was used for oil analysis. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans were used to examine the antimicrobial activity of the essential oils using agar disk diffusion assay. GC-MS analysis revealed that the oil was dominated by 1,8-cineole (20.20%), α-Pinene (17.29%) and borneol (7.59%). Antimicrobial assays of different dilutions of essential oil showed significant antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria. Furthermore, the water and ethanolic extracts prevented the pain resulting from hot-plate test. The results suggested Rosmarinus officinalis from Amol as an alternative natural compound which has antimicrobial and analgesic effects to use in pharmaceutical industries.
    Keywords: analgesic, Antimicrobial activity, chemical composition, essential oil, Extract, Rosmarinus officinalis