فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 12 (زمستان 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/03/26
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
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  • محمود واثق*، احد محمدی صفحات 1-32

    یکی از ویژگی های هر نوع پژوهش علمی در عرصه علوم اجتماعی منجمله جغرافیا و جغرافیای سیاسی به عنوان یکی از زیرشاخه های آن، توجه به اصل عینیت و واقع گرایی در شناخت پدیده است. در این راستا، اساسی ترین مساله ای که از نظر روش شناسی در برابر دانشمندان قرار دارد این است که عینیت چیست و چگونه می توان بدان دست یافت؟ آیا اساسا رسیدن به عینیت و حقیقت امکانپذیر است؟ و اگر هست معیار شناسایی «حقایق» از پندارهای نادرست و مخالف با واقع چیست؟ این مسئله (ارزش شناخت) که محور اصلی مباحث شناخت شناسی را تشکیل می دهد مسیله اصلی مقاله حاضر می باشد که با روش توصیفی- تحلیلی (منطقی) در قالب توصیف و تحلیل های منطقی و معرفت شناختی با رویکرد عقلانیت انتقادی تدوین شده است. در این مقاله عینیت و اعتبار گزاره ها و قضایای جغرافیایی در مکاتب مختلف پوزیتیویسم، هرمنوتیک، پدیدارشناسی، فرانکفورت، پست مدرن و پساساختارگرا مورد بررسی قرار گرفت و نشان داده شد که مکاتب انتقادی در نهایت از آن جا که به «نسبی گرایی» ختم می شوند قایل به عینیت و اعتبار گزاره ها و قضایای جغرافیایی نیستند و از این لحاظ با مشکلات عدیده معرفت شناختی مواجه هستند، چرا که واقعیت های جغرافیایی و دریافت و شناخت آن ها و نیز ارزیابی و تعیین درستی یا نادرستی این فرضیات از طریق پژوهش «واقع گرایانه» و دقیق در چارچوب روش «فرضی- قیاسی» و با رویکرد «عقلانی- تجربی» امکان پذیر است و معنای عینیت و اعتبار در مورد گزاره ها و قضایای جغرافیایی عبارت است از: واقعی و عینی بودن پدیده ها و فرآیندهای جغرافیایی و گزاره ها و قضایای راجع به آن ها، عمومیت و همگانی بودن پژوهش های جغرافیایی، تعیین ارزش و اعتبار فرضیه ها، قضایا و نظریه های جغرافیایی از طریق انطباق آن ها با معیارهای «واقعیت» و «سازگاری منطقی».

    کلیدواژگان: عینیت، اعتبار، جغرافیا
  • محسن جان پرور*، ریحانه صالح آبادی، زکیه نادری چنار صفحات 33-61

    قدرت‎نرم‎ به معنای توانایی جذب دیگران می باشد و این توانایی جذب دیگران، منجر به نفوذ در آنان می‎شود. استفاده از قدرت‎نرم‎ درحال حاضر نزد دولت های جهان رواج زیادی پیدا کرده است. قدرت‎نرم‎ دارای منابع متعددی می‎باشد. یکی از عواملی که مدنظر این مقاله قرار دارد، بهره‎گیری از قدرت‎نرم‎ با استفاده از روابط و همکاری ها‎ی آموزش عالی در جهت نفوذ سیاسی بیشتر است. هدف اصلی این پژوهش، بررسی نقش نفوذ سیاسی با توجه به همکاری های علمی بین الملل دانشگاهی با نگاهی به تجربه دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد با دانشگاه های افغانستان می باشد. برای دستیابی به این هدف از روش پژوهش توصیفی- تحلیلی بهره گرفته شده است. یافته ها‎ی تحقیق نشان می‎دهد که در عصر انفجار اطلاعات دیگر نمی‎توان تنها به عنصر قدرت سخت توجه کرد و علاوه بر عناصر قدرت در حوزه ها‎ی نظامی، اقتصادی و سیاسی، نباید از عناصر نرم افزاری فرهنگ و آموزش عالی در افزایش توان یک کشور غافل ماند. تلاش ایران جهت نفوذ سیاسی بر افغانستان در عرصه ی سیاست داخلی و خارجی اتخاذ گسترش همکاری ها‎ی آموزشی به عنوان یک پادایم بی بدیل قدرت‎نرم‎ در جهت افزایش و ارتقاء جایگاه و پرستیژ ایران در نظام بین الملل و ایفای نقش برتر در منطقه است. نتایج حاصل از تحلیل مصاحبه ها و اسناد مربوط به توافقنامه های بین دانشگاهی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد با دانشگاه های کابل، قندهار، هرات، موسسه عالی اشراق و دانشگاه بلخ حاکی از قابلیت های اساسی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد در عرضه خدمات آموزش عالی فراملی از تبادل استاد و دانشجو گرفته تا راه اندازی دوره کارشناسی ارشد و تاسیس یک شعبه دانشگاهی می باشد. در نهایت، این مقاله نمایانگر این موضوع است که ایران می‎تواند از همکاری ها‎ی آموزشی برای نفوذ سیاسی بیشتر در کشور افغانستان بهره برداری کند.

    کلیدواژگان: همکاری های آموزشی، دانشگاه، قدرت نرم، ایران، افغانستان
  • علی شماعی*، موسی کمانرودی کجوری، سید علی خلیلی اوماسلان سفلی صفحات 63-92

    سیاست بازتقسیم ‎سیاسی فضا، غالبا به‎عنوان یکی از ابزارهای اداری- سیاسی هر کشور برای مدیریت بهینه سرزمین است. این پژوهش، با هدف تحلیل نقش پیشران های بازتقسیم سیاسی فضا در استان اردبیل و آثار آن طی سال های 1375 تا 1395 انجام گرفته است. این پژوهش کاربردی و با روش توصیفی-تحلیلی است، برای گردآوری داده ها و اطلاعات از روش های کتابخانه‎ای-اسنادی بهره گرفته شده است. برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها از نرم افزار SPSS ، و مدل های هلدرن و آنتروپی شانون استفاده و از نرم افزار ENVI برای آشکارسازی توسعه فضایی شهر و تصاویر ماهواره ای استفاده شده است. یافته های این پژوهش نشان دادند که بین شاخص های ارتقاء جایگاه سیاسی با مساحت شهر رابطه مستقیم و مثبت وجود دارد. نتایج مدل هلدرن و آنتروپی شانون مشخص ساختند که توسعه این شهر به صورت پراکنده صورت گرفته و سطح این شهر از 09/1899 هکتار در سال 1375 به‎حدود 8/3286 هکتار در سال 1395 افزایش داشته و منجر به تغییر کاربری زمین های کشاورزی شده است. پس از سیاست بازتقسیم ‎سیاسی فضا، احداث شهرک ها و شکل گیری سکونتگاه های غیررسمی، توسعه دانشگاه، بیمارستان، مرا کز فرهنگی و اجتماعی و بناهای اداری از دیگر پیامدهای ارتقاء جایگاه سیاسی این شهر است. این فرایند موجب غفلت از توسعه شهرستان های دیگر و مهاجرت های بی‎رویه به شهر اردبیل و توسعه فضایی شهر شده است. تمرکز بودجه های عمرانی بیشتر بر توسعه دانشگاه، بیمارستان، مراکز فرهنگی و اجتماعی، بناهای اداری در این شهر بوده است. درنتیجه، نقش تقسیمات سیاسی در نظام های سیاسی و تحت تاثیر مدیریت های مختلف پیامد های متفاوتی دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: ارتقاء جایگاه سیاسی، توسعه فضایی شهر، تقسیمات کشوری، شهر اردبیل
  • احسان لشگری تفرشی صفحات 93-114

    شناخت اثرات سیاست در تولید فضای جغرافیایی یکی از موضوعاتی است که تفسیر آن در مکاتب متمایز شناختی از جمله در نسبیت گرایی معرفتی متفاوت می باشد. نسبیت گرایی معرفتی در چارچوب هستی شناسی ذهنی و بر خلاف نگاه تبیینی الزامی جهت دستیابی به آرمان ها و ارزش های مطلق وجود ندارد. در این دستگاه شناختی این مفروضه وجود دارد که شناخت عملکرد گفتمان های سیاسی - تاریخی در تولید ابعاد مختلف فضای جغرافیایی با اتکا رویکرد پوزیتویستی و کمی امکان پذیر نمی باشد. در این راستا در این پژوهش با روش توصیفی تحلیلی و با مراجعه به مستندات نظری در مرحله نخست در تعریف فضای جغرافیایی عاملیت ویژه ای برای گفتمان های سیاسی - ایدیولوژیک متصور گردیده است. سپس با توجه به ویژگی و ماهیت گفتمان های سیاسی - تاریخی امکانیت افزون تری برای نسبیت گرایی معرفتی در شناخت چگونگی  تولید فضا قایل گردیده است. یافته های تحقیق بیانگر آن است که تحولات پدیده ها و فرایندهای موجود در فضای جغرافیایی تا حد زیادی از گفتمان های سیاسی - تاریخی حاکم متاثر بوده و دارای ویژگی های اختصاصی بوده و قابلیت تعمیم پذیری ندارد. بر این مبنا شناخت فضا الزاما نمی تواند ابعاد فرامکانی و فرازمانی داشته باشد و در جهت شناخت اثرات قدرت سیاسی در تولید و بازساخت فضای جغرافیایی الزاما نمی توان از معرفت شناسی استقرایی و تجربی که یکی از ویژگیهای مهم آن تعمیم پذیری است، استفاده نمود.

    کلیدواژگان: سیاست، فضای جغرافیایی، شناخت، نسبیت، گفتمان
  • نرگس وزین، حسین مختاری هشی*، مهدی ستایش منش صفحات 115-139

    افزایش قدرت ملی یکی از اهداف مهم کشورها است و همواره برای دستیابی به آن تلاش می​شود. قدرت ملی که دارای مولفه های بسیار زیادی است در وزن ژیوپلیتیک کشورها نقش مهمی دارد. امروزه کشورها برای دستیابی به قدرت ملی، گردشگری را مورد توجه قرار می دهند. ایران یکی از ده کشور بزرگ دنیا از لحاظ برخورداری از انواع جاذبه های گردشگری اعم از تاریخی، مذهبی، طبیعی محسوب می شود که می​تواند از این فرصت در جهت تقویت قدرت ملی خود استفاده نماید. لذا مطالعه حاضر با هدف تبیین اهمیت گردشگری در تقویت قدرت ملی ایران، به دنبال پاسخگویی به این سوال است که توسعه گردشگری چگونه موجب تقویت قدرت ملی ایران می​شود؟ روش تحقیق، توصیفی- تحلیلی و به شیوه پیمایشی است. جامعه آماری تحقیق، خبرگان و متخصصان در حوزه گردشگری و قدرت ملی می​باشند که 40 نفر به عنوان نمونه انتخاب شدند. برای گردآوری اطلاعات از ابزار پرسشنامه استفاده شده است. روایی محتوایی پرسشنامه توسط متخصصان بررسی شد، و سطح پایایی پرسشنامه نیز با روش آلفای کرونباج تایید گردید. برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها از نرم افزار SPSS و آزمون‎های آماری تحلیل واریانس اندازه های مکرر (GLMRM) و t تک نمونه​ای استفاده شده است. یافته​های نشان می​دهد که توسعه گردشگری بر تقویت قدرت ملی ایران با میانگین 3.92 بسیار تاثیرگذار است. همچنین تاثیر گردشگری بر ابعاد اقتصادی (4)، سیاسی (3.91) و اجتماعی- فرهنگی (3.86) قدرت ملی ایران معنادار بوده است. همچنین یافته​ها در خصوص تاثیر گردشگری بر مولفه​های قدرت ملی نیز نشان داد که توسعه گردشگری بیشترین تاثیر را بر مولفه های افزایش درآمد ملی (4.39)، تقویت بخش خصوصی (4.13) و تقویت سیاست خارجی (4.07) دارد. در مجموع، نتایج پژوهش نشان می​دهد که توسعه گردشگری با افزایش درآمد، تولید، اشتغال زایی، تقویت بخش خصوصی، توسعه تجارت، افزایش عدالت، تقویت سیاست داخلی و خارجی، افزایش رفاه، آموزش، افزایش انسجام و همبستگی ملی و تبادلات فرهنگی بطورهمزمان، هم باعث تقویت و توسعه اقتصادی کشور در سطح ملی و بین‎المللی خواهد شد، هم در شناساندن چهره واقعی کشور و ملت ایران به جامعه جهانی اثرگذار خواهد بود، و همچنین سیاست داخلی و خارجی کشور را تقویت خواهد کرد و در نهایت با تقویت قدرت ملی موقعیت و منزلت ژیوپلیتیک کشور در سطح منطقه​ای و جهانی افزایش بیشتری خواهد یافت.

    کلیدواژگان: گردشگری، قدرت ملی، ایران
  • ابراهیم رومینا*، قاسم تیموری، زهرا احمدی پور صفحات 141-162

    شهر به مثابه یک اکوسیستم جغرافیایی از عناصر و اجزای مختلف مصنوعی (کالبد) و طبیعی (انسان) تشکیل شده است. پویایی و حیاط چنین اکوسیستمی نتیجه روابط نظام مند میان عناصر واجزای هم پیوند خود است. از دیگر سو، فضای شهری میزبان انسان هایی است که در گستره نیازها و نقش آفرینی های آنها، پیوسته عرصه تصمیم سازی ها و تصمیم گیری های سیاسی، اقتصادی، فرهنگی و اجتماعی قرار گرفته و در چنین چرخه فعالی، دایما تولید و بازتولید می گردد. شایان توجه فراوان است که سهم جنسیتی انسان های شهری در اثرگذاری و اثرپذیری این اکوسیستم جغرافیایی، متفاوت است. این تفاوت و نابرابر بودن نقش آفرینی جنسیتی به عنوان مساله این پژوهش با مطالعه موردی یکی از مناطق شهر تهران قرار گرفته است. این پژوهش به شیوه توصیفی تحلیلی و با استفاده از اطلاعات کتابخانه ای و مشاهده و پرسشنامه، به ارایه تحلیلی از جایگاه جنسیت در ساخت فضای شهری و عوامل موثر بر شکل گیری آن پرداخته است. یافته های تحقق نشان می دهد که در منطقه 6 شهر تهران، میزان (احساس) امنیت، کاربری ها و دسترسی به امکانات شهری برای زنان به طور معناداری نسبت به مردان کمتر است. این عوامل میزان مشارکت شهروندی، میزان رضایت شهروندی و ارتباطات انسانی را برای شهروندان منطقه 6 شهر تهران به ویژه زنان را کاهش داده است. در منطقه مورد مطالعه دیوارنگاری ها، تبلیغات، مجسمه ها، تابلوها و علایم به عنوان شاخص هایی برای سنجش چشم انداز، جلوه هایی از جنسیتی بودن فضا و در واقع عدم عدالت جنسیتی را در خود دارند. میزان اثرگذاری همه عوامل بالا در چشم انداز شهر به ویژه فضاهای عمومی شهری قابل مشاهده است. با توجه به یافته های تحقق، ایدیولوژی و فرهنگ دو عامل مهم در جنسیتی شدن فضا هستند. محدودیت هایی که از سوی نهادهای تاثیر گذار بر مدیریت شهری بر فضای شهری منطقه تحمیل شده اند شامل تفکیک های اجتماعی بر اساس جنسیت و تفکیک های فضایی می شوند. در نتیجه شهر در ارتباط اجتماعی زنان که لازمه تعریف هویت اجتماعی آنان است تهی مانده و این مساله بر کنش اجتماعی آنان تاثیر منفی دارند.

    کلیدواژگان: فضا، عدالت جنسیتی، تهران، منطقه 6
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  • Mahmood Vasegh*, Ahad Mohammadi Pages 1-32
    Introduction

    The final objective of social sciences is to seek objective truth, so scientists are seeking realism in science, and this is a term that one of its meanings implies the "objective" conception of reality. Thus, the most fundamental problem in methodology for scientists is that what is objectivity? How can one integrate objectivity in the process of knowing the facts, realities and coincidence of these matters together? How can one set aside a biased notion? The most important issue of any type of epistemology and science is to create a balance between objectivity and subjectivity in science. If an objective experiment does not lead to subjective and methodical rules and laws, then science and knowledge will not be formed, and if subjective rules and laws cut out from the objective reality, realism will be lost. In the other words, the central axis of the questions of epistemology is the "value of cognition", and this seeks to show that what is the criterion of identifying "facts" from false and contradictory ideas to reality? According to the above, objectivity and validity in various sciences, including geography, are of fundamental positions, and different geographic schools have taken different positions in this regard, which directly relate to the results of the research. In this paper, we are seeking to find out what are positions of methodology schools in geography in relation to objectivity and validity of geographic propositions? What are conclusions given to these positions? Which position can have a scientific position in geography? In this paper, we have tried to emphasize political geography in various propositions.

    Review of Literature

    Objectivity, an attribute of thought at the time that this thought is true. When the objectivity of scientific propositions, spoken, it can be applied in three meanings: 1. correspondence with reality; 2. The possibility of universal evaluate and judge; and 3. Free from personal values, presuppositions and beliefs. The scientific method has three stages of Problem-finding, theorizing, and validation. In between, the criteria for validating propositions and statements are correspondence with reality and logical compatibility. The purpose of logical compatibility is reasonableness, harmony, cohesion and consistency, and ultimately the compatibility of propositions and statements with rational and logical principles, is such that it is acceptable to the minds, clear and self-evident. The validation of theories in the field of empirical sciences (such as geography) is posterior, and theories are inductively endorsed with a degree of probability, rather than deductive proof.Some of the studies that have focused on the problem of "objectivity and validity" include some articles and books such as Biyabanki, M.  “At Interpretation of objectivity; look at the position of objectivity of scientific propositions in various schools of philosophy of science” (2012); Dirbaz, A. “Scientific objectivity and religious attitude” (1998); and Shiroudi, M. “Validation of Hermeneutic Methodology in the Humanities and Islamic Sciences” (2013). The books of Dr. Soroush such as (What is Science? What is Philosophy?, Knowledge and Value, A lecture on Philosophy of Science- Society), and works by Karl Popper, such as Realism and the aim of Science and the Book of The Logic Of Scientific Discovery can also be mentioned.

    Method

    The present research, due to its philosophical and logical nature, is classified under the theoretical and fundamental research. This research is based on a descriptive-analytical (logical) method and the topics and contents of this collection are documentary and library type.

    Findings and discussion

    In this paper, various schools of positivism, hermeneutics, phenomenology, Frankfurt, postmodern, and post-structuralism were examined in terms of objectivity and validity of geographic propositions, and it was shown that since critical schools finally lead to relativism, they do not endorse objectivity and validity of geographic propositions, and in this respect they face the problems of epistemology. Finally, it was shown that geographic realities and their recognition as well as evaluation and determination of accuracy or inaccuracy of these hypotheses will be possible through realistic and precise research within the hypothetical-deductive method and rational-empirical approach.

    Conclusion

    According to the results of this paper, the concept of objectivity in geography can be considered from three perspectives: 1. Although geography is one of the validity sciences and geographic concepts have a valid and abstract position, the above-mentioned phenomena and concepts are objective and realistic out of mind, and phenomena such as vegetation of gardens, roads, bridges and buildings, farms, villages, cities and other geographic phenomena of the same valid nature are objective and real phenomenon. 2. The other meaning of objectivity of geography as an empirical science is that geographic research is a general and universal, and the study of geographic phenomena, hypotheses, and theories is not considered to be monopolistic or individual but is available to all researchers. All geographers are able to examine, for example, the relationship between the Earth's rotation and transition around the sun, with the advent of the night and day, and the various seasons, and / or the possibility of examining the relationship between the geographical location of each area and its climatic conditions, causes of various geographic perspectives, and etc., available to all geographical researchers; and 3. As with other empirical sciences, geographic studies in order to evaluate and judge geographic hypotheses and theories use objective criteria independent of the subjectivity of individuals. These criteria, which are the same criteria for validation in science, are based on a realistic approach that includes the following two principles: a) the principle of correspondence with reality and b) the principle of compatibility with the foundations of reason and logical compatibility. Therefore, briefly, it can be said that the meaning and validity of geographic propositions are as follows: 1. The real and objective nature of geographical phenomena and processes, and propositions about them; 2. Publicity and universality of geographic research; and 3. Determine the value and validity of geographic hypotheses, propositions and theories by adapting them to the criteria of "reality" and "rational compatibility".

    Keywords: Objectivity, validity, geography
  • Mohsen Janparvar*, Reyhaneh Salehabadi, zakiye Naderi Chenar Pages 33-61
    Introduction

    Afghanistan is one of the neighbors that Iran can exert a great deal of influence through the use of culture and higher education. Afghanistan is Iran's cultural backyard. The linguistic, cultural and historical commonalities are so intertwined that no one can fill Iran's cultural vacancy in Afghanistan. Most of Afghanistan's textbooks are in Persian. Many scientific resources used by Afghan students have been published in Iran. There is a curious desire among Afghan students to attend higher education institutions and Iranian universities. Afghan families' tendency to use Iranian radio and television products, despite the emergence of dozens of colorful radio and television broadcasters, mainly broadcasting Western or Indian films, etc. all show the importance of the cultural sphere in the relations between the two countries. Unfortunately, despite this tendency, there are many shortcomings in the field of Iranian cultural activity in Afghanistan. If Iran wants to have security, political, economic and other influence in Afghanistan, then it must pay more attention to culture and education, because Iran's relative advantage is to have a more effective presence in Afghanistan than other competitors.

    Review of Literature

    Education is recognized as a source of soft power that enhances productivity and the quality of the university; separates international students; and most importantly establishes relationships and collaborates between internal and external researchers. Therefore, it can be used as a tool for creating national goodwill .Soft power in higher education consists of three dimensions of values, resources and tools. Thus, soft power through higher education can be used to link the values ​​of the host country with international students to achieve the goals appropriate to a country's policies. Interestingly, the process of internationalization in higher education can be regarded as one of the most important and key tools in soft power. This process has helped to understand the dimensions and application of soft power internationally. It looks at higher education from the four perspectives of activity, competence, ethics and process. The prospects for these activities have a cultural dimension, including the presence of international students and academics exchanges between universities. Holmes and Rumbley (2015) argue that soft power, along with public diplomacy and national security, is politically motivated, while higher education enhances the capacities available in this type of power. Improvement in the quality of higher education, the accreditation and categorization of national higher education institutions and the progress in human resource development can be motivated by social and cultural incentives to resolve global disputes, as well as to create global citizenship in order to create understanding.

    Method

    The present study is a descriptive-analytical one. The information required in this study is gathered (libraries and retrieval) using sources and articles on the Internet and scientific reports.

    Findings and Discussion

    The starting point for the two countries' engagement in 2001 is the establishment of the Afghanistan Reconstruction Partnership. Subsequently, the Afghanistan Educational and Scientific Reconstruction Staff was also formed at the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology in 2002, which was directly affected the visit of Afghan Minister of Higher Education Faegh Sharif of Tehran and the signing the Academic-Educational Memorandum. Also, in 2003 President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's visit to Kabul as the first foreign leader expressed Iran's satisfaction and acceptance with the transitional government, which strengthened relations between the two countries. Following this trip, the first Joint Cooperation Commission of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan was formed in 2004 and its second meeting was held in 2006. In particular, a bilateral cooperation agreement was signed between Herat Province and Khorasan Razavi Province in 2005. In 2007, due to the growing insecurity in southern Afghanistan, a security agreement was signed between Iran and Afghanistan and in 2008 a joint statement was issued at the level of the vice presidents between Afghanistan and Iran. Also in 2010, after the new Afghan presidential election, a trilateral Iran-Pakistan- Afghanistan meeting was held in Islamabad and the third meeting of the Iran-Afghanistan Joint Cooperation Commission. The first meeting of the Commission on Defense Cooperation between Iran and Afghanistan was held in 2011 and the trilateral meeting of Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan was held in Trahan. The fourth joint Iran-Afghanistan Cooperation Summit was recently held in 2012, during the Governor of Balkh traveled to Khorasan Razavi. In view of the above, it can be conclude that the establishment of scientific-educational partnerships between the universities of Iran and Afghanistan within the framework of political relations between the two countries is subject to the mutual agreement of the parties to establish interactions and general relations between the two countries. This agreement is completely dependent on the political situation of the countries and the region. Prior to 2001, due to the severe political conflicts in Afghanistan, no interaction between the two countries was possible. Therefore, from a top-down and linear perspective, the political factor can be considered as an effective factor in determining the relationship between the two countries, especially between academia.

    Conclusion

    Based on the mutual agreements of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad with Afghan universities, the level of cooperation has exceeded the level of teacher-student exchange and has been enhanced to a high level of transboundary higher education, namely the establishment of a postgraduate course and the establishment of a university. However, the political and diplomatic relations of the two countries have been affected many of the provisions of the treaties and the parties' unwillingness to cooperate; these have led to the conclusion of contracts and the interruption or suspension of relations has led to the suspension of inter-university cooperation and the unwillingness of the parties. Despite the high capacities and potentials available for greater and better utilization, and on the other hand, the high demands of the Afghan citizens to exploit, these have not been properly utilized.

    Keywords: Educational Cooperation, University, Soft Power, Iran, Afghanistan
  • Ali Shamaei*, Mousa kamanroodi kajverdi, Seyed Ali Khalili khalili omaslan sofla Pages 63-92
    Introduction

    In the extensive systems of which Iran is also an example, Governments aim to decentralize the political levels of their divisions to increase their powers and decision-making power, increase credits, grant responsibilities and democracy as a platform and mechanism for achieving development. So, the government and the city are highly interdependent in their current performance and position; the existence of the city has strengthened the dignity and performance of the state and the state is important for cities for its portion in the identity of the major cities and the major figurehead of the urban landscape. The process of urbanization in Iran is not a natural process but an abnormal process that exists only by the state and the will of the state. Therefore; Continuing and intensifying this dependency and expansion, today's government is expanding and expanding its administrative and political focus through the promotion of the administrative and political status of some population centers and converting them into the cities. This research has been done with the aim of analyzing the role of open propellants in the political division of space in Ardabil province and its effects during the years 1375 to 1395.

    Review of Literature

    The mechanism of urbanization in Iran over the past years has been described and explained by various researchers on the basis of two theories. Initially, the theory that dominated urban development studies in Iran was the capitalist theory of Hans Bobek's exploitation. With the invalidity of the above theory, in recent decades, Dr. Rahnamaei has proposed a new theory called government and urbanization regarding the mechanism for monitoring the development of urbanization in Iran, which had new boundaries with the previous theory. According to the Constitution and the changing nature of government administration and urbanization revolution from traditional to modern bureaucracy, followed by an increase in oil revenues of this institution from 1300 onwards Especially since the 1980s, the government has regarded cities as the base from which they could rule the country. So, following this general government policy by injecting capital into various forms such as subsidies, Employee pay, Implementation of development plans, Production projects, Providing welfare services and so on, the most important factor in the growth and development of Iran's urbanization network system has emerged in the last century, especially with the rise in oil revenues.The results of Wilk's research on the urban consequences of bureaucratic divisions in 2018 show that the new country divisions have resulted in the redistribution of these companies, with the resulting population shifting and necessitating changes in bureaucratic service levels. In 2016, Ahmadi pour in a study examining the role of national divisions in regional development (a case study of Bavanat and Khorram Bid counties) concluded that although the promotion of the political level and the formation of the city is at a low level and more in the form of de-density and more Administratively and it was financially and politically low, it had positive results and led to the development of the formed cities.

    Method

    This research is applied in terms of macro methodology; it is an analytical exploration in terms of purpose and method, its data type is quantitative and qualitative; and it is cross-sectional and spatially legal in terms of time. In this research, first, correlation method was used to determine the extent and intensity of the relationship between indicators of political promotion and spatial development of the city. Using LANDSAT 5 TM and LANDSAT 8 OLI satellite imagery for 1994- and 2019-time intervals to detect land use changes in Ardabil city using soft Envi software has been launched.

    Findings and Discussion

    One of the effects of the upgrading of the administrative-political status of cities is the increase in the number of government agencies and organizations and consequently the increase in the number of government employees. Accordingly, in 1986, 28.98% of the employed population (9847) of Ardabil city is the staff group. The number of civil servants in the years following the promotion to the provincial capital (2016) increased by 3.8 times to 37309, while the population of the city increased by 1.9 times. The number of employees in other urban areas of the province in the desired years was 3876 and 18952, respectively, indicating a 4.9-fold increase. Also, during this period, the population of other urban areas of the province rose from 169562 to 336460, showing a growth of 1.98 times. After upgrading to the provincial capital, Ardabil has played a more prominent role in medical services and hospitalization, which is evident in hospital bed statistics over the period under review. In terms of educational services, although the number of educational centers and higher education disciplines in Ardabil city increased 1.4 times during the years 1365 to 1395, the growth in other urban areas of the province was more than 3.8 times. According to the statistics of Ardebil province, the number of service workers in Ardebil city was 53.08% in 1365 and 65% in 2016, which represents 8.8% growth. In other parts of the province, the percentage of service workers in the said years was 28% and 45.9%, respectively. Although the growth rate of the service sector in other cities was higher, in 2016, the percentage of employees in Ardabil city was 20% higher than the same figure for other cities, indicating that Ardabil city, despite having a high share in the province before, but with the upgrade to the provincial capital, new capacity has been created to continue the growth of this business sector.

    Conclusion

    For this purpose, Shannon and Holder entropy coefficient models have been used to measure and quantify the spatial development of Ardebil. The results of Holderen's model show that the city enjoyed good growth during the period 1972-1991, while 76% of the growth and expansion of the city was related to the population growth and 24% to the sparse expansion of the city. Shannon entropy models, showed the city of Ardabil city sprawl as well as Holdren Model. Along with the research topic, the following suggestions are presented: A fundamental change in approaches to level divisions Assign more authority to regional-local forces.

    Keywords: Promotion of Political Position, Spatial Development, Country Divisions, Ardabil City
  • Ehsan Lashgari Tafreshi Pages 93-114

    Cognition the political effects on the production of geographic space, is one of the topics that has different interpretation in distinct cognitive schools, including relativism epistemic. In the Epistemic relativism, in the framework of mental ontology, there is no obligation to achieve absolute ideal and value. In this cognitive system, there is assumption that the cognition of the political-historical discourses function in the production of various dimensions of geographical space It is not possible to rely on positivist approach. in this research, with rely on descriptive-analytic method in the first phase, for definition of geographical space has been considered a special place for political-ideological discourses. Then, with paying attention to the features of political-historical discourses, is achieved This recognition that there is greater possibility for relativism epistemic for understanding who production of geographic space. Research findings indicate that the changes in the phenomena and processes in the geographic space are largely due to the political-historical discourses changes. Therefore, Geographic space has dedicated features and is non-extensible. In recognizing who production and rebuild the geographic space cannot be use necessarily from inductive and empirical epistemology.

    Keywords: Politics, Geographic Space, Cognition, Relativity, Discourse
  • Narges Vazin, Hossein Mokhtari Hashi*, Mahdi Setayesh Manesh Pages 115-139
    Introduction

    National power is a set of potential and actual capabilities of a country that is used to achieve national interests. Increasing national power is one of the most important goals of countries and efforts are always made to achieve it. National power plays an important role in the geopolitical weight of countries, which determines their position in the international system. Tourism can strengthen national power by strengthening the soft aspects of national power. This is why countries focus on tourism to achieve this goal. Iran is considered one of the ten largest countries in the world in terms of various historical, religious and natural tourist attractions, and it can use this opportunity to strengthen its national power. The present study aims to explain the importance and impact of tourism on national power components in Iran.

    Review of Literature

    National power has various origins and foundations that produce national power in a collective function. Economic, political, military, social, geographical and scientific factors are some of the main factors shaping the national power of countries. The impact of tourism on the economy is one of the direct and indirect methods of per capita income, as well as government revenues and increasing employment opportunities. Tourism also contributes to a fair distribution of income and directs money from the rich and middle classes to the poor, and can have a significant impact on improving the economies of less developed countries. Politically, tourism often helps increase political stability. With the increase in social interactions resulting from tourism, peace and understanding among nations will increase and in fact tourism is a tool of public diplomacy. Tourism can provide a positive and unmediated mental image of countries. Another effect of tourism is increasing security in the community. Socially and culturally, tourism helps to strengthen local values, traditions and culture, and also renews some customs and traditions. Tourism helps to raise public awareness and learn more about other cultures. Tourism protects historical monuments and buildings.

    Methodology

    A descriptive-analytical and survey research method was used in this study. The study subjects consists of 40 elites and academic specialists. Field research methods (5 pint likert scales questionnaire) were used for data collection purposes. The reliability of questionnaire with score of 0.7 confirmed. The collected data were analysed using SPSS software and GLM repeated measures analysis of variance test and one- sample t-test.

    Findings and Discussion

    Regarding the impact of tourism on national power dimensions, the one-sample T-test with an average value (3) indicated the mean values of 4, 3.85, and 3.91 for the economic, socio-cultural and political dimensions respectively. It was statistically significant at the alpha level of 0.05, indicating the impact of tourism on the national power of Iran. Regarding the impact of tourism on national power factors, the one-sample t-test showed that all factors of three economic, socio-cultural and political dimensions had mean values higher than average, and it was statistically significant at the alpha level of 0.05. Therefore, it can be concluded that tourism can strengthen the national power of Iran in all three economic, socio-cultural and political dimensions.

    Conclusion

    Today, the importance of tourism has attracted the attention of governments and nations, and countries are trying to develop tourism by adapting their national structures to these activities, not only to introduce their culture, country, land, nation, history and national identity to the world, but also they have good economic interests and a special place in the international trade of the tourism industry. Given the numerous and diverse capabilities and opportunities in the field of tourism that Iran has, the present study has explained the importance and the role of tourism in strengthening the national power of the country. The results of this study show that the development of tourism is effective in strengthening the national power of the country in macroeconomic, political and socio-cultural dimensions. Among these dimensions, tourism has the greatest impact on the economic dimension by strengthening the components of "increasing national income" and "strengthening the private sector." The overall results showed that tourism development both strengthens and develops the country's economic by increasing income, production, job creation, strengthening the private sector, trade development, increasing justice, strengthening domestic and foreign policy, increasing welfare, education, increasing national cohesion and solidarity and simultaneous cultural exchanges at the national and international levels, as well as it strengthens the country's domestic and foreign policies, and ultimately, strengthens the national power, the country's geopolitical position at the regional and global levels. Along with the above results, the following suggestions are provided: To increase the awareness of legislators, policymakers and planners of the country with the position of tourism in strengthening national power; To develop an integrated policy and planning system between policy makers and tourism planning agencies; To create expert interactions between the foreign policy apparatus and policy makers and executives of the country's tourism industry; To familiarize diplomats and experts of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs with the capabilities and potentials of tourism; To expand relations with international tourism-related organizations such as the United Nations World Tourism Organization, the World Travel and Tourism Council, and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

    Keywords: Tourism, National power, Iran
  • Ebraham Roumina*, Ghasem Teymori, Zahra Ahmadipour Pages 141-162

    City as a geographic ecosystem is composed of different artificial (framework) and natural (humans) elements and parts. Dynamics and vitality of such ecosystem emanates from relationships between its interconnected elements and components. On the other hand, the urban space is the host of humans, and also is the arena of political, economic, cultural, social decision-making, and in such an active cycle it is constantly produced and represented. It is interesting that the impact of gender effectiveness of urban settlers is different in this geographic ecosystem. Such different and unequal gender role playing is considered as a problem in this research by the case study in one of the Tehran districts. The research methodology is descriptive-analytic and analyzed the gender position in construction of urban space as well as factors affecting on it by using the library information, observation, interview as well as questionnaire. The research findings show that (feel of) security, access to municipal facilities and civic participation of women is significantly less than men. This situation has reduced citizenship satisfaction and communication of citizens. Graffiti, advertising, sculptures, signs and symbols in the 6th district of Tehran as indicators to measure the landscape, represents gender space and lack of gender justice in it. The effectiveness of all the above factors is visible in urban landscape and in urban public spaces, particularly. According to the research finding, Ideology and culture are two important factors in gender space. The former is more representation in public and semipublic spaces than second. So people as space users are faced by limitation. In other world, culture as collective behavior is less visible in such a district areas. Restrictions that have been imposed on such an urban district by institutions of urban administration are including social segregation based on gender and spatial segregation. Finally, city were unoccupied of the people’ social communication (especially women who need to be define their social identity) and have a negative effect on their social interaction.

    Keywords: space, gender justice, Tehran, ideology, culture