فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:7 Issue: 1, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/10/29
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
|
  • Musa Sani Danazumi *, Abdulsalam Mohammed Yakasai, Shehu Usman Ibrahim, Auwal Bello Hassan, Usman Usman Zakari, Usman Tijjani Shehu Page 1
    Context

    The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis into the effects of spinal manipulation or mobilization for lumbar disc herniation with radiculopathy (LDHR).

    Evidence Acquisition

     An electronic database search of titles and abstracts of articles published in English will be conducted in the following databases: PEDro (physiotherapy evidence database), CINAHL (cumulative index to nursing and allied health literature), PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and The Cochrane Library. The specific search strategies will depend on the particular database being searched. Hand searches of the reference lists of the included articles will be performed. Studies would be included if they reported an acceptable comparison group and at least one of the main clinically relevant outcome measures for LDHR. Two independent reviewers will screen the identified records and all disagreements will be resolved. The internal and external validities of the included studies will be assessed using the PEDro scale and the external validity assessment tool (EVAT), respectively. The clinical relevance and risk of bias of the studies will be determined using five criteria developed by the Cochrane Back Review Group and the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool, respectively. Studies will be pooled into the meta-analysis where appropriate using RevMan software and the outcomes will be reported using the PRISMA guidelines.

    Conclusions

    This review will summarize the current evidence about the effects of spinal manipulation or mobilization compared with other interventions in the management of individuals with LDHR. A meta-analysis will also be conducted where appropriate in this review to compare the effects of spinal manipulation or mobilization and other interventions to find out which technique is better in the management of individuals with LDHR.

    Keywords: Meta-Analysis, Systematic Review, Lumbar Disc Herniation, Spinal Manipulation, Spinal Mobilization
  • Mohammad Hassan Aminikhoo, Fateme Pak, Kazem Ahmadi, Mehdi Barati, Mehdi Fasihi, Zahra Rasouli Nejad, Parviz Kokhaei * Page 2
    Background

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation. It mainly affects joints and nearby tissues. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is the main role-player in the pathogenesis of RA. It binds to both TNF receptors namely TNF-RI and TNF-RII. Several studies have indicated a relationship between the TNF-RII 196R/R genotype with increased production of cytokines and susceptibility to inflammatory diseases and autoimmune disorders.

    Objectives

    Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the association between TNF-RII polymorphism and RA. It also aimed to study the predictive value of the TNF-RII 196R allele for patients’ susceptibility to RA.

    Methods

    A total of 100 patients and 100 controls were enrolled in the study and their peripheral blood DNA was extracted. Allelic discrimination was performed between case and control groups to investigate the association between the functional TNF-RII 196R polymorphism and RA. Screening analysis for genotyping of TNF-RII functional polymorphism was performed by the TaqMan allelic discrimination assay using real-time PCR.

    Results

    There was a significant difference between cases and controls in terms of the distribution of TNF-RII genotypes (TT, TG, GG). Correlation analysis showed an association between the G mutant allele and functional 196R polymorphism (CI = 95%, OR = 2.6, P = 0.035).

    Conclusions

    According to our results, there is a significant correlation between TNF-RII polymorphism and the risk of RA.

    Keywords: Rheumatoid Arthritis, Polymorphism, TNFR II
  • Ana Carolina Zanchet Cavalli, Soraia Dornelles Schoeller, Fabiola Hermes Chesani *, Caroline Porcelis Vargas, Cesar Augusto de Meirelles Almeida, Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira Vargas, Mariana Passos Moreira Page 3
    Background

    The intensive care unit (ICU) promotes substantial care for patients in critical care, considering the essence of intensive care and applied therapies where the patient remains for long periods restricted to the bed.

    Objectives

    To analyze the high or death outcomes of persons hospitalized in the ICU, in relation to age, sex, severity score, hospitalization, comorbidities, length of stay in the ICU and hospital.

    Methods

    Quantitative, cross-sectional and descriptive design. Participants included 288 people hospitalized in the ICU of hospitals. Measurements included the permeal scale, Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3 (SAPS3) and a questionnaire to record data related to gender, age, diagnosis, comorbidities, whether using invasive mechanical ventilation or not, using drugs and sedatives that applied to patients admitted to the ICU within 24 hours of ICU admission and at the time of hospital discharge, from February to July 2018. The clinical endpoints of death or death were evaluated by the Perme scale.

    Results

    The initial score of the Perme score was lower in the death outcome (0.57 ± 1.98) when compared to the high score (7.27 ± 8.16). There was no significant difference between the outcomes regarding the length of ICU stay, and the length of hospital stay was significantly higher in the high group.

    Conclusions

    A low score in the Perme score, allied to the high score in the SAPS3 score, use of DVA and sedation was associated with the death outcome. High scores on the Perme score were associated with the high outcome.

    Keywords: Intensive Care Unit, Critical Care, Early Ambulation, Mobility Limitation
  • Reihane Talaei, Zahra Hoseini, Raheb Ghorbani, Nazila Ameli * Page 4

     

    Background

    Dental caries is a preventable infectious disease. White spot lesions (WSLs) are incipient caries with high prevalence during orthodontic treatment. They develop on the enamel surface around the orthodontic brackets due to food impaction and difficult oral hygiene maintenance. Fluoride is renowned for its cariostatic properties.

    Objectives

    This study aimed to assess the mineral content of white spot lesions around orthodontic brackets following the use of different concentrations of nano-hydroxyapatite mouthwash and fluoride gel.

    Methods

    Fifty sound-extracted premolars with artificially induced WSLs were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 10) for the application of 1.23% fluoride gel, 1%, 5%, and 10% nHA mouthwash, and artificial saliva (control group). All groups, except for the control group, were subjected to the application of gel or mouthwashes twice with a one-week interval, each time for 24 hours. The mineral content of all teeth was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX).

    Results

    Maximum calcium uptake was noted in fluoride gel (P < 0.001) and 10% nHA (P < 0.001) groups. Maximum phosphorus uptake was noted in 10% nHA (P < 0.001) followed by fluoride gel (P < 0.001) and 5% nHA (P < 0.001) groups but the difference among the afore-mentioned three groups was not significant (P = 0.437). Maximum fluoride uptake was observed in the fluoride gel group with significant differences compared with other groups (P < 0.001).

    Conclusions

    Fluoride gel and 10% nHA mouthwash can be effectively used for remineralization of WSLs.

    Keywords: Remineralization, White Spot Lesions, Fluoride Gel, Nano-Hydroxyapatite, Scanning Electron Microscope
  • Mohammadreza Rezaeipour *, Gennady Leonidovich Apanasenko Page 5
    Background

    Exercise training appears to have an essential role in maintaining motor responses.

    Objectives

    This study aimed to explore the steady-state postural response to neuromuscular and proprioceptive training (NPT) in active middle-aged women.

    Methods

    Forty-four active women (mean age, 53.2 ± 6.1 years) completed this cross-sectional study. During the 12-week study, the NPT group (n = 20) performed the NPT program, while the control group (n = 24) followed the usual warm-up routines. Postural stability in different visual conditions was measured in the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) planes during quiet standing on a foam mat at baseline and after the intervention using a force platform.

    Results

    The NPT could significantly improve postural balance in the ML plane with Eyes Open (EO) (P = 0.005) and Eyes Closed (EC) (P = 0.004) and in the AP plane with EO (P = 0.006) and EC (P = 0.003). Estimates of mean CoP total velocity with EO (P = 0.005) and EC (P = 0.004) also revealed significant interaction effects on any CoP parameter. However, values of partial eta squared effect size only in the AP direction indicated a large, powerful significance for the EC condition.

    Conclusions

    The NPT is effective in improving postural steadiness in middle-aged women. Therefore, it might have a direct effect on decreasing the falling risk of active middle-aged women.

    Keywords: Anthropometry, Exercise, Women’s Health, Posture, Postural Balance
  • Mehdi Noura, Sajjad Arshadi *, Ardeshir Zafari, Abdolali Banaeyfar Page 6
    Background

    Studies have shown that Alzheimer’s disease (AD) causes neuromuscular dysfunction by damaging different parts of the central nervous system and inflammation that can increase C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Nevertheless, the beneficial effects of endurance training (ET) and royal jelly (RJ) on inflammation and reduction of CRP are not fully elucidated.

    Objectives

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of ET with RJ on gene expression of CRP in muscle tissues of rats with AD.

    Methods

    In this experimental study, 24 rats with AD (8 mg/kg trimethyltin injection) were randomly divided into four groups of 1-ET, 2-ET + [RJ (100 mg/kg)], 3-RJ and 4-control. Also, six healthy rats were placed in the healthy control group to investigate the effects of AD induction on CRP gene expression. Endurance training groups performed endurance training with a speed of 15 - 20 m/min, 5 sessions per week for eight weeks.

    Results

    Our findings showed ET and RJ significantly decreased CRP gene expression in muscle tissues of rats with AD (P = 0.001) as well as the interaction of ET and RJ was significant in reducing CRP gene expression in muscle tissues of rats with AD (P = 0.001).

    Conclusions

    It appears that ET and RJ have interactive effects on the reduction of CRP in muscle tissues of rats with AD.

    Keywords: C-Reactive Protein, Alzheimer’s Disease, Endurance Training, Royal Jelly
  • Mozhgan Saeidi, Saeid Komasi *, Mohammad Mahdi Amiri, Mona Azizi, Mostafa Alikhani Page 7
    Objectives

    The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between enneagram personality traits and the risk of drug addiction.

    Methods

    In this cross-sectional study, 160 participants (94 addicts and 66 non-addicts) answered the Riso-Hudson Enneagram Type Indicator (RHETI) questionnaire. Patients were selected through a multistage cluster sampling method and non-addicts were selected among the family caregivers of the patients. At the baseline, the characteristics of the two groups were analyzed using the chi-square test and independent t-test. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to conduct the main analysis.

    Results

    After adjustment for all demographics, the results showed a significant positive relationship between all personality types, except for type 3, and drug addiction (P < 0.05). The most important types explaining drug addiction included types 5, 4, and 1, in sequence. An increase in the scores of these personality types would increase the likelihood of risk by 22.5 to 41.5 times.

    Conclusions

    Based on the fact that the enneagram system emphasizes the balance among the nine personality patterns as the underlying indicator of health, imbalances in each of the patterns could pave the way for drug addiction. While it seems that the enneagram system is an efficient model for explaining drug addiction, future studies can be useful.

    Keywords: Health, Personality, Drug Addiction, Risky Behaviors, Enneagram, Typology
  • Maryam Ameri, Farshad Ghazalian *, Nader Shakeri, Mohammad Reza Akhoond Page 8
    Background

    Physiological stress due to physical activity associated with mental stress can affect the responses of the sympathoadrenal axis and the hypothalamic-pituitary axis.

    Objectives

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of exercise with mental stress on cortisol and alpha-amylase changes in young men.

    Methods

    In a quasi-experimental study, 20 inactive healthy men were randomly selected and divided into two groups of exercise and exercise with mental stress. The exercise group pedaled on a fixed bike at an intensity of 60% of maximal aerobic power for 37 minutes and the exercise group with mental stress received 20 minutes of mental stress (from 12th minutes to 32nd minutes) during the 37 minutes of pedaling. Salivary samples were collected before and immediately after the end of the exercise.

    Results

    The exercise had a significant effect on increasing salivary cortisol (P = 0.007) and alpha-amylase (P = 0.01). Exercise with mental stress had a significant effect on salivary cortisol (P = 0.004) and alpha-amylase (P = 0.04). The exercise and exercise with mental stress had the same effects on increasing salivary cortisol (P = 0.42) and alpha-amylase (P = 0.83).

    Conclusions

    It seems that exercise and exercise with mental stress have the same effects on increasing salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase levels.

    Keywords: Cortisol, Exercise, Alpha-Amylase, Mental Stress, Men
  • Jalal Bakhtiyari, Mahdi Shadnoush, Hooshang Dadgar, Masoomeh Salmani *, Fatemeh Argha, Masoomeh Khani, Atefe Rahmati Page 9

     

    Background

    Studies have indicated that failure to eat breakfast did not affect children’s performance in general cognitive tests; however, skipping breakfast might have effects on the specific aspects of cognition such as memory. Hypothetically, language as a higher cognitive function may be influenced by breakfast consumption routines.

    Objectives

    This study aimed to compare students’ verbal fluency and working memory according to their breakfast routines.

    Methods

    We selected 60 seven-year-old children from three primary schools in the central regions of Tehran in 2017. Their parents were invited to a structured interview to fill out questionnaires consisting of information related to the child, parent, and breakfast routines. Based on the family's breakfast habits, two groups were identified: Group 1 with a full, regular breakfast routine and Group 2 with no breakfast or incomplete breakfast routine. An experienced speech therapist administered the verbal fluency task (phonemic and semantic fluency) and verbal working memory task (forward and backward digit numbers) for each student.

    Results

    The mean scores of students with a full breakfast routine on verbal fluency tasks were at least three units more than those of students without breakfast. These differences were all significant (P = 0.001). In working memory tasks, students with a full breakfast routine had seven digits and one digit in their responses more than students without breakfast in forward and backward digit tasks, in sequence. These differences were significant (P = 0.001).

    Conclusions

    The findings of the present study provide information on the positive effects of a regular breakfast routine on the specific cognitive functions related to language processing.

    Keywords: Working Memory, Verbal Fluency, Breakfast
  • Azam Hosseini, Shabnam Sohanian* Page 10
    Introduction

    Hypoglossia-hypodactyly is an uncommon genetic abnormality affecting the tongue and limbs. First, it was classified under a multipart group of disorders called oromandibular limb hypogenesis syndromes. The most extensively accepted etiology is intrauterine trauma. Hypoglossia, micrognathia of the mandible, and limb anomalies are the characteristic features of the syndrome.

    Case Presentation

    A 19-year-old female patient was admitted to the Oral Medicine Department of the Dental School, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, for a dental checkup. After obtaining informed consent, the necessary dental prophylaxis was performed. This case was unique because the patient had only aglossia and deformity in her right hand and fingers.

    Conclusions

    Since the disease is rare and presents as the first case in Iran, dentists must have knowledge about its clinical features and proper patient management. They also should explain the significance of systematic dental checkups, perfect oral hygiene, and the use of regular fluoride to patients. Therefore, the awareness of dentists is essential about diagnosis and appropriate referral to specialists

    Keywords: Oromandibular Limb Hypoplasia, Aglossia-Adactylia, Oromandibular Limb Hypogenesis Complex