فهرست مطالب

Report of Health Care
Volume:1 Issue: 3, Spring 2015

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/03/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Hadis Saeedi *, Hossein Mousavi Nasab, Ali Mehdi Zadeh Zareanari, HosseinAli Ebrahimi, Mohsen Gorgani Nezhad, Kouros Divsalar Pages 80-83
    Introduction

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the common chronic diseases of central nervous system which has an impact on the person’s sensory and motor functions. Since definitive and complete treatment of disease symptoms is unavailable in chronic diseases, it is tried to help these patients by psychological supports to accept that they are able to change their view toward disease and enjoy their other abilities as well as invoking the idea that this disease cannot destroy their family life and vitality.

    Methods

    This quasi-experimental type research had a pretest-posttest design with a control group. In this regard, 40 female patients from members of MS society of Kerman were selected as sample by targeted sampling and then they were placed in two groups of 20 people (experiment and control) through random assignment. Positive psychology with Islamic approach was taught only in experiment group during 7 sessions in 120 minutes. Schneider hope questionnaire was used for data collection. SPSS v. 18 was used for data analysis.

    Results

    Results showed a significant difference between experiment group in comparison to control group in terms of hope variable (P < 0.001).

    Conclusion

    Based on the findings, positive psychology interventions with Islamic approach increase hope in females with MS.

    Keywords: Positive psychology, Islamic approach, Hope, Multiple Sclerosis
  • Alireza Agha Yousefi, Majid Saffarniya, Ommolbanin Roodbari *, Hadis Saeedi, Kouros Divsalar, Fatemeh Eslamian Pages 84-87
    Introduction
    Addiction to narcotics is one of disasters that threatens humans’ life especially adolescents. In addition, narcotic abuse is related to many dangerous behaviors such as destroying the private properties, increasing the violence and treacherous sexual behaviors and infectious diseases like AIDS, increasing mental disorders and suicide thoughts. The aim of the current research was to analyze the relationship between neuroticism and life expectancy with addiction potential tendency in male high school students.
    Methods
    Research subjects were 242 male students that were chosen from 13 high school students in Anbarabad city. In order to gather data, NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), Snyder’s life expectancy questionnaire, and Vide and Bucher’s addiction potential tendency questionnaire, were used. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation methods and regression analysis.
    Results
    Findings showed a negative and significant relationship between life expectancy and addiction potential tendency. Also, there was a significant positive relationship between neuroticism and addiction potential tendency (P < 0.001). Life expectancy predicted 31% and neuroticism 42% variance mark of addiction potential tendency.
    Conclusion
    Based on the results, it can be concluded that decreasing neuroticism and increasing life expectancy can be a protecting shield against addiction potential tendency.
    Keywords: Addiction potential tendency, Neuroticism, life expectancy
  • Ommolbanin Roodbari, Hossein Zare, Hadis Saeedi *, Kouros Divsalar, Fatemeh Eslamian Pages 88-91
    Introduction
    Thalassemia disease is a hereditary chronic hemolytic anemia. Since in chronic diseases complete and perfect healing is out of reach, by the support of psychology we can help these patients to accept that they can change their views and enjoy from their abilities. In addition, this disease cannot ruin their cheerfulness and their family lives.
    Methods
    This semi-experimental type of research had a pre-test, post-test design with a control group. The study sample included 20 girls who are inflicted with thalassemia major. Based on available sampling they were randomly assigned into two groups of 10 (experiment and control) respectively. Positive thinking sessions were held twice a week for 10 sessions with a duration of 60 minutes. In order to gather data, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and Oxford happiness questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed using covariance analysis method. SPSS software version 18 was used for data analysis.
    Results
    Findings showed that positive thinking sessions decreased perceived stress but had an increasing effect on happiness for those with thalassemia major.
    Conclusion
    Thus, holding positive thinking workshops for these patients is recommended.
    Keywords: positive thinking, Perceived stress, happiness, Thalassemia major
  • Haniyeh Gholamzadeh, Mohammad Ghaderi Ramazi, Hamidreza Dehghan, Kouros Divsalar * Pages 92-98
    Introduction

    In the field of cognitive development, schemas construct is a pattern which is formed based on reality or experience to help people explain their experiences. Primary maladaptive schemas are some fixed and long-term topics and beliefs that are formed in childhood and to some extent are inefficient. These schemas are assumed as patterns for processing further experiences. Irrational beliefs are also a set of thoughts, beliefs, and notions in which there is compulsion, perfectionism and absolutism. They cause various emotional and behavioral disorders to appear. Addiction, on the whole, and particularly smoking addiction is one of the probable outcomes of cognitive distortions such as maladaptive cognitive schemas and irrational beliefs. Thus, the present study aimed to compare maladaptive cognitive schemas and irrational beliefs among smoker and non-smoker students.

    Methods

    In this casual comparative research, a non-clinical sample of 80 female and male students was chosen by multi-level random sampling (40 smoking and 40 non-smoking students). In order to collect data, Young’s Schemas Questionnaire - short form (YSQ-SF) and Jones irrational belief questionnaire (IBT) were used. For data analysis, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was applied.

    Results

    The findings of the present study indicated that there were some meaningful differences between smoker and non-smoker students in both maladaptive cognitive schemas (emotional deprivation, abandonment/instability, dependence/incompetence, subjugation, entitlement/grandiosity, insufficient self-control/self-discipline) and irrational beliefs (demand for approval, emotional irresponsibility, hopelessness changes and perfectionism).

    Conclusion

    There is no doubt that most of human’s mental problems are due to primary maladaptive schemas and originate from irrational thoughts. Maladaptive cognitive schemas, particularly those which are basically formed as a result of unpleasant childhood experiences, cause the formation of false habits and behaviors. Thus, their treatment in smoking people is really important. Apart from maladaptive cognitive schemas, beliefs that are far from reality can pave the way for problems such as addiction by changing the attitude of people in interpreting events.

    Keywords: Maladaptive cognitive schemas, Irrational beliefs, Smoking cigar, Students
  • Seyyed Zoheir Rabei, Mohsen Salesi * Pages 99-103
    Introduction
    Individuals with diabetes are often diagnosed with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration, hypertriglyceridemia and development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of aerobic training on blood profile and inflammatory marker (CRP) of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) people.
    Methods
    Thirty diabetic males were recruited (age: 50.34 ± 10.28 years) and randomly assigned to 8 weeks aerobic exercise training (n = 15) and control groups (n = 15). Before and after training blood pressure, weight, lipid profile (Total cholesterol [TC], triglyceride [TG], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-C) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured. Exercise training was in mode of walking and consisted of 5 exercise sessions/week at 50%–70% heart rate maximum and began with 25 minutes of walking. Training increased each week by 5 minutes until 60 minutes of walking was reached. Each exercise session included approximately 10 minutes of warm-up and cool-down periods.
    Results
    Resting systolic blood pressure decreased following 8 weeks of aerobic training (pre 139 ± 16 vs post 121 ± 11 mm Hg, P = 0.04). Also, TG significantly decreased (pre 210.19 ± 9.31 vs 191.12 ± 7.25, P = 0.03) and HDL-C significantly increased (pre 42.37 ± 3.15 vs 47.56 ± 2.19, P = 0.01) after exercise training. However, there was no difference between groups in TC, LDL-C, body mass index (BMI) and weight. In addition, a decrease in fasting blood glucose levels showed a significant difference between groups (pre 142.43 ± 7.96 vs 121.17 ± 8.32, P = 0.04).
    Conclusion
    Regular aerobic exercise training can improve the lipid profile and reduce the cardiovascular risk factors in T2DM patients. Exercise, like walking, is inexpensive and has relatively few negative side effects when performed properly.
    Keywords: aerobic exercise_Cardiovascular risk factors_Type 2 diabetes mellitus
  • MohammadReza Aflatoonian, Iraj Sharifi *, Behnaz Aflatoonian, Kouros Divsalar Pages 104-108
    Introduction

    Opium abuse is a serious public health threat of various magnitudes in Iran and neighboring countries. We conducted this study to explore the rate and intensity of opium addiction in Bam before the earthquake in comparison to the data collected after the earthquake.

    Methods

    This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in the city of Bam in 2010. We used cluster random sampling method to collect data. This was done through house-to-house visits by a team of trained indigenous health personnel and informants. The status of addiction was achieved through case informants and confirmed by an experienced physician.

    Results

    Opium addiction was significantly higher in men aged more than 50 (46%), illiterates (29.8%), labors/farmers (51.3%), private (50.7%) and jobless (21.6%) participants. Majority of the addicts (17.1%) were from the suburban areas (17.1%) as compared with those in urban areas (13.6%, P < 0.05). Of the addicts, those with a history of addiction for 3-8 years (P < 0.05), consumed 3-8 g (P < 0.01), two sessions/day (P < 0.05), used opium on a regular basis (P < 0.05) and smoked with Sikh-sang (P < 0.001) showed a significantly higher severity of addiction than the other groups. The mean scores of severity including duration, amount, session, regularity, and consumption device were 2.5, 2.2, 2.4, 1.9 and 2.6, respectively. The overall mean of severity was 2.3 for 226 addicts.

    Conclusion

    It seems that earthquake is a major traumatic risk factor for such an epidemic condition compared to the previous state of opium addiction. The present findings could be used for future prophylactic measures and therapeutic control strategies. These findings can be applied in clinical practice for active detection of opioid cases and subsequent treatment.

    Keywords: Opium, Addiction, Epidemiology, earthquake, Iran
  • Amin Mehrabi, Farhad Daryanoosh, Maryam Amirazodi *, MohammadAli Babaee Baigi, Kouros Divsalar Pages 109-113
    Introduction

    Cardiovascular homeostasis such as tonicity of vessels and blood flow can be affected by activities and hormones. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks low intensity aerobic exercise on plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1), blood pressure and heart rate (HR) in healthy men and women and coronary artery disease (CAD) patients.

    Methods

    In this quasi-experimental study, the experimental group consisted of 30 CAD patients (15 males and 15 females). The control group included 15 healthy males and 15 healthy females. These groups were chosen randomly. Participants did aerobic exercises with the intensity of 30%-40% of maximum HR. Blood samples were taken from participants in three stages (before, immediately and 24 hours after 8 weeks of exercise) and ET-1 plasma level was measured by ELISA method.

    Results

    There was no significant alteration in ET-1 plasma level during the experiment. However, there was a significant difference in the systolic blood pressure (SBP) at the three stages in all groups (P = 0.01). In addition, we could observe a significant difference in the diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at the three stages in CAD men and healthy women (P = 0.03). Conversely, no significant difference was observed in the DBP of other groups. There was a significant difference in the blood pressure of three groups (P = 0.002) except for healthy men.

    Conclusion

    The results demonstrated that, as there is a threshold in terms of time or intensity to stimulate the secretion of hormone; when the intensity and duration of exercise is below the stimulation threshold, no significant change can be observed in the level of ET-1.

    Keywords: aerobic exercise, Endothelin-1, Heart rate, Blood pressure, Coronary Artery Disease
  • Mohammad Ghaderi Rammazi, Ali Mehdizadeh Zare Anari *, Hamidreza Dehghan, Vahid Najafi Pages 114-119
    Introduction
    Improper use of the internet and its subsequent effects has recently started to be considered as an important issue. Students are among the most vulnerable groups regarding this phenomenon. Although internet addiction can be related to different parenting styles, but the use of internet provides an opportunity to seek individual’s identity. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the relationship between parenting styles, identity styles and students’ internet addiction in Kerman University of Medical Sciences.
    Methods
    In this descriptive correlational type of research, the study population included all students who were addicted to the internet at Kerman University of Medical Sciences in 2014. The research sample consisted of 375 subjects selected through multi-stage cluster sampling method. All participants completed the questionnaires on internet addiction, parenting and identity styles.
    Results
    Findings showed that among different identity styles, there was a negative correlation between informational identity style and internet addiction. Moreover, there was a positive significant correlation between diffuse/avoidant identity style and internet addiction. Concerning different parenting styles, we could observe a positive significant correlation between permissive parenting style and internet addiction, while there was a negative significant correlation between authoritative parenting style and internet addiction. Additionally, regression analysis results illustrated that students’ internet addiction level could be predicted regarding their identity styles and their parents’ parenting styles.
    Conclusion
    It seems that applying proper parenting styles and providing the requirements of successful identity achievement can lower the incidence of internet addiction.
    Keywords: parenting styles, Identity Styles, internet addiction