فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:23 Issue: 7, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/04/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 17
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  • Mahsa Farjami, Reza Asadi, Fahimeh Afzal Javan, Malihe Alimardani, Saeed Eslami, Sima Mansoori Derakhshan, Atieh Eslahi, Majid Mojarad * Pages 841-848

    MYO15A is the third most crucial gene in hereditary sensorineural hearing loss after GJB2 and SLC26A4. In the present study, we reviewed the prevalence of MYO15A mutations in patients with autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL). In this meta-analysis, we conducted a search of PubMed, Web of Science, Excerpta Medica Database, and Scopus, and identified the articles up to September 2019 without any time limit. Two investigators independently selected the relevant papers and extracted the required information. A total of 44 case-control and case series studies were considered, and 4176 patients and 3706 healthy individuals, as the control group, were included. The pooled frequency of MYO15A mutations between patients suffering from ARNSHL was calculated as 6.2% (95% CI: 4.9-7.8, P-value<0.001). There was heterogeneity between our studies (P-value<0.001, I2=58.1%); therefore, the random-effects model was utilized for analysis. Given the results, in many countries, the MYO15A gene had a significant contribution to hearing loss. Moreover, in several regions, specific dominant mutations in this gene have been reported. Therefore, the ethnic background should be considered to investigate the mutations of the MYO15A gene.

    Keywords: autosomal recessive, Deafness, Meta-analysis, Mutation, MYO15A, Non-syndromic hearing loss, Prevalence
  • Liyana Hazwani Mohd Adnan *, Nor Hidayah Abu Bakar, Nordin Simbak, Nasir Mohamad, Rusli Ismail, Nor Zidah Ahmad, Nor Suliana Mustafa, Nurul Farah Aina Md Fauzi Pages 849-852

    Opioids, amphetamines, and other types of substances have been widely abused around the world. Opioid dependence and tolerance are two distinct phenomena that have been associated with substance abuse issues. The management of its adverse consequences is becoming more challenging. More and more people are treated in Methadone Maintenance Therapy (MMT) program yet the issues are still unresolved. Researchers are continuing to study the best formulation in treating opioid dependent people starting with modern and alternative drug therapies.  Since 2008 , thymoquinone (TQ) has been extensively studied by researchers around the world and has emerged to be a new potential drug candidate in managing substance abuse issues. Thus, the aim of this article is to review the effects that TQ may have on opioid dependent subjects and other abused substances such as amphetamine may have been studied. All of the articles from 2008 until 2019 involving the effects of TQ on substance abuse from Google Scholar®, Scopus®, and Pubmed® databases have been searched and reviewed. The keywords used were thymoquinone, opioid dependence, amphetamine, and Nigella sativa. The research results also have  been discussed in this article. Based on the research conducted, TQ was effective in reducing the adverse health consequences associated with substance abuse such as withdrawal symptoms, tolerance, and cell damages. It is concluded that TQ could be a potential drug that can be complemented with the currently available drugs in substance abuse therapies.

    Keywords: Amphetamine, methadone, Morphine toxicity, Opioid dependence syndromes, Thymoquinone
  • Amir Hossein Jafarian, Nona Zaboli Nejad, Nema Mohamadian Roshan, Sara Hashemi, Masoumeh Gharib * Pages 853-857
    Objective(s)
    To validate certain markers for cancer stem cell populations and their clinical importance in Wilms tumor (WT)
    Materials and Methods
    Immunohistochemical study for CD133 and CD56/NCAM was performed on forty-six cases of WT that were diagnosed between 1999 and 2015, and the association of these markers with survival and prognostic factors was analyzed.
    Results
    Thirty-four (73.9%) of WTs were positive for CD133 and thirty-nine (84.8%) were positive for CD56/NCAM. A significant positive correlation between CD133 and CD56/NCAM expression and the National Wilms Tumor Stage (NWTS) and death was found. Moreover, overall survival time was significantly correlated with CD133 and CD56/NCAM H-score, NWTS stage, and death.
    Conclusion
    It seems that CD133 and CD56/NCAM expressions can be used as strong prognostic parameters for the survival of patients with WT and can be used to predict WT patients’ stage. Moreover, their targeted therapies can abolish cancer stem cells in children with recurrent tumors.
    Keywords: CD133, immunohistochemistry, Neural cell adhesion molecules, Stem cells, Wilms tumor
  • Reza Mohebbati, Mahmoud Hosseini, Majid Khazaei, Abolfazl Khajavirad, Mohammad Naser Shafei * Pages 858-864
    Objective(s)
    The 5-hydroxytryptamine1A (5-HT1A) receptor is one of the serotonin receptors in the brain, which regulates cardiovascular responses, especially in hemorrhage. Presence of this receptor in the cuneiform nucleus (CnF) has been shown. The present study evaluates the cardiovascular effect of this receptor of the CnF in normal and hypotensive hemorrhagic rats.
    Materials and Methods
    Agonist (8-OH-DPAT) and antagonist (WAY-100635) of 5-HT1A microinjected into the CnF in basal and hemorrhagic conditions and cardiovascular responses were evaluated. Hemorrhage induced by blood withdrawal from the femoral artery and 2 min after that drugs microinjected. Time course and peak changes (∆) of the mean arterial pressure (MAP), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (∆HR) were obtained and compared to the control and hemorrhage groups.
    Results
    In basal condition, 8-OH-DPAT significantly decreased ∆SBP, ∆MAP and ∆HR compared to the control (P<0.05-P<0.01), while way-100635 did not have a significant effect. Hypotension and tachycardia induced by hemorrhage ameliorated by agonist (P<0.05-P<0.01), while antagonist deteriorated hypotension (P<0.05) but attenuated tachycardia (P<0.01).
    Conclusion
    This study shows that 5-HT1A receptor of the CnF involves in regulation of the cardiovascular responses. However, this effect in basal and hemorrhage conditions is different.
    Keywords: Hemorrhage, Mean arterial pressure, Medullary nucleus, Serotonin receptor, Systolic blood pressure
  • Jun-Hei Chang, Chen-Chuan Cheng, Yen-Yu Lu, Yao-Chang Chen, Shih-Ann Chen, Yi-Jen Chen * Pages 865-870
    Objective(s)
    Drug-induced atrial fibrillation (AF) is considered an adverse effect of chemotherapeutic drugs. AF is a crucial risk factor for stroke, heart failure, myocardial infarction, and mortality. Pulmonary veins (PVs) are considered triggers inducing AF, and the sinoatrial node (SAN) may modulate PV activity and participate in AF genesis. AF was associated with early discontinuation of trastuzumab in patients with breast cancer. However, whether trastuzumab directly modulates the electrophysiological characteristics of PV and SAN remains unclear.
    Materials and Methods
    ECG and conventional microelectrode system were used to record rabbit heart rhythm in vivo and electrical activities in vitro from isolated SAN, PV, and SAN-PV preparations.
    Results
    Trastuzumab reduced the beating rate in isolated PV and SAN preparations at 1, 10, and 30 μM (particularly in isolated SAN preparations) and induced burst firings in isolated PV preparations at 10 μΜ. In addition, trastuzumab (10 μM) induced SAN-PV conduction block and burst firings, which were blocked by wortmannin (a PI3K inhibitor, 100 nM). Similarly, ECG recordings showed that acute intravenous administration of trastuzumab (10 mg/kg) reduced rabbit heart rates.
    Conclusion
    Trastuzumab increased PV arrhythmogenesis through interfering with PI3K signaling, which may contribute to the genesis of AF.
    Keywords: Atrial fibrillation, Electrophysiology, PI3 Kinase, Pulmonary vein, Trastuzumab
  • Firoozeh Kheiltash, Kazem Parivar *, Nasim Hayati Roodbari, Behnam Sadeghi, Alireza Badiei Pages 871-878
    Objective(s)
    Breast cancer is a devastating disease related to women. The anticancer properties of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ) and the increasing use of graphene oxide (GO), as a drug delivery system with anti-cancerous properties, led us to investigate the toxicity and apoptosis-induction capability of 8HQ-coated GO on breast cancer cells compared with normal breast cells.
    Materials and Methods
    Breast cancer (MCF-7) and normal breast (MCF-10) cell lines were treated with several doses of 8-HQ-coated GO for 12, 24, and 48 hr. The toxicity of the nanocomposite was measured using MTT assay and the effect of the nanocomposite on cell apoptosis was determined by examining the expression of P53, P21, Bax, and BCL2 genes, as well as Annexin-V /PI apoptosis assay.
    Results
    There were significantly increased cell deaths in nanocomposite-treated MCF-7 breast cancer cells, compared with treated normal breast cells. Significantly increased expression of P53, P21, and Bax genes and reduced expression of BCL2 gene were found in the treated breast cancer cell line compared with the normal cell line. Annexin-V/PI assay also illustrated significant induction of apoptosis in MCF-7 following nanocomposite treatment.
    Conclusion
    Overall, 8HQ-coated GO has toxicity for breast cancer cell lines and one of the mechanisms through which this nanocomposite can induce cell death is the induction of apoptosis. With complementary  in vitro and in vivo studies, this nanocomposite can be suggested as a nano-drug with anti-cancer properties.
    Keywords: 8-Hydroxyquinoline, Apoptosis, Breast Cancer, Cytotoxicity, Graphene oxide
  • Behnaz Mokhtari, Nahid Aboutaleb *, Donya Nazarinia, Mahin Nikougoftar, Seyed Mohammad Taghi Razavi Tousi, Mohammad Molazem, Mohammad-Reza Azadi Pages 879-885
    Objective(s)
    Existing studies have demonstrated that intravenous and intramyocardial-administrated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) lead to tissue repair after cardiac disorders. We compared the efficiency of both administration methods.
    Materials and Methods
    A rat model of isoproterenol-induced heart failure (ISO-HF) was established to compare the effects of intravenous and intramyocardial-administrated MSCs on cardiac fibrosis and function. The animals were randomly assigned into six groups: i) control or normal, ii) ISO-HF (HF) iii) ISO-HF rats treated with intramyocardial administration of culture medium (HF+IM/CM), iv) ISO-HF rats treated with intravenous administration of culture medium ( HF+IV/CM), v) ISO-HF rats treated with intravenous administration of MSCs (HF+IV/MSCs), vi) ISO-HF rats treated with intramyocardial administration of MSCs ( HF+IM/MSCs). Cultured MSCs and culture medium were administrated at 4 weeks after final injection of ISO. Heart function, identification of MSCs, osteogenic differentiation, adipogenic differentiation, cardiac fibrosis and tissue damage were evaluated by echocardiography, flow-cytometery, von Kossa, oil red O, Masson’s trichrome and H & E staining, respectively.
    Results
    Both intravenous and intramyocardial MSCs therapy significantly improved heart function and reduced cardiac fibrosis and tissue damage (P<0.05), whereas the cultured medium had no beneficial effects.
    Conclusion
    In sum, our results confirm the validity of both administration methods in recovery of HF, but more future research is required.
    Keywords: Heart function, Intramyocardial injection, Intravenous injection, Isoproterenol-induced heart failure, Mesenchymal stem cells
  • Siamak Alizadeh, Abolghasem Esmaeili *, Yadollah Omidi Pages 886-893
    Objective(s)
    Chemotherapies used to treat colon cancer might often fail due to the emergence of chemoresistance and side effects. Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) is a beneficial probiotic, whose molecular mechanisms in the prevention of colon cancer are yet to be fully understood. The present study assessed the anti-cancer effects of EcN treatments in human colorectal cancer, HT-29 cell line, with the analysis of related mechanisms.
    Materials and Methods
    The co-culture conditioned-media (CM) of EcN with adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells and heat-inactivated bacteria (HIB) were applied for the treatment of the HT-29 cells. To study the inhibition potential of CM and HIB on cancer cells, various cellular/molecular analyses were implemented, including DAPI-staining and DNA ladder assays, flow cytometry and Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), as well as Western blotting analyses.
    Results
    Our results indicated that EcN could elicit apoptotic impacts on the colon cancer HT-29 cells by up-regulating PTEN and Bax and down-regulating AKT1 and Bcl-xL genes.
    Conclusion
    Based on our findings, EcN is proposed as a useful supplemental probiotic treatment against colon cancer.
    Keywords: Akt, Apoptosis, cell signaling, Colon cancer, Escherichia coli Nissle1917
  • Chia-Ming Yen, Ching-Liang Hsieh, Yi-Wen Lin * Pages 894-900
    Objective(s)
    Fibromyalgia pain is a mysterious clinical pain syndrome, characterized by inflammation in the brain, whose molecular mechanisms are still unknown. Females are more commonly affected by fibromyalgia, exhibiting symptoms such as widespread mechanical pain, immune dysfunction, sleep disturbances, and poor quality of life. Electroacupuncture (EA) has been used to relieve several types of pain, including fibromyalgia pain.
    Materials and Methods
    In the present study, we used dual injections of acidic saline into the gastrocnemius muscle to initiate a neural activation that resulted in fibromyalgia pain in mice. We used the Von Frey test to measure mechanical hyperalgesia and Western blot to measure protein levels.
    Results
    Results indicated that mechanical hyperalgesia can be induced in mice for 4 weeks, suggesting the induction of chronic fibromyalgia (CFM). Furthermore, continuous EA treatment reliably attenuated the mechanical hyperalgesia, but not in the sham control group. Results also suggested that the mechanical hyperalgesia can be prevented in mice with TRPV1 gene deletion. Mice with CFM showed increased expressions of TRPV1, Nav1.7, and Nav1.8 in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and the spinal cord (SC). The expression of TRPV1-associated molecules such as pPKA, pERK, and pCREB was also increased in the thalamus and somatosensory cortex (SSC) of the mice. All the aforementioned mechanisms were reversed by EA treatment and TRPV1 gene deletion.
    Conclusion
    Altogether, our results implied significant mechanisms of CFM and EA-analgesia that involve the regulation of the TRPV1 signaling pathway. These findings may be relevant to the evaluation and treatment of CFM.
    Keywords: Dorsal root ganglion, Electroacupuncture, Fibromyalgia pain, pERK, Spinal Cord, TRPV1
  • Vahid Soheili, Seyed Mohammad Taghdisi, Khalil Abnous, Mohsen Ebrahimi * Pages 901-908
    Objective(s)
    Access to safe drinking and irrigation water has always been one of the major human concerns worldwide. Thus, rapid, sensitive, and inexpensive approaches for pathogenic bacteria detection, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC) that can induce important infectious diseases, are highly on demand.
    Materials and Methods
    In this study, a sensitive aptamer-based AuNPs bioassay was developed that demonstrated its potential to detect EHEC. In the presence of the target bacterium, the specific adsorbed aptamer, leaves AuNPs surface and interacts with EHEC. The bare nanoparticles aggregate in the presence of NaCl and the color shifts from red to purple and blue depending on the bacterial concentration.
    Results
    The proposed aptasensor exhibited a good linear response over a wide concentration range of 876 to 107 CFU/ml and was closely correlated with the line equation of “y=0.0094x+0.0006” (R2= 0.9861). It also showed a low detection limit (LOD) of 263 CFU/ml (Signal/Noise=3). No response was recorded in the presence of other tested bacterial strains including Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhi, indicating the high selectivity of the aptasensor.
    Conclusion
    This biosensor may be used as a smart device to screen water reservoirs and prevents the outbreak of EHEC-related life-threatening contagious diseases.
    Keywords: Aptamer, Aptasensor, AuNPs, Escherichia coli O157:H7, water
  • Bagher Moradi, Mojtaba Sankian, Yousef Amini, Aida Gholoobi, Zahra Meshkat * Pages 909-914
    Objective(s)
    Infection with tuberculosis (TB) is regarded as a major health issue. Due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance during TB treatment, prevention via vaccination is one of the most effective ways of controlling the infection. DNA vaccines are developed at a greater pace due to their ability in generating a long-lasting immune response, higher safety compared to the live vaccines, and relatively lower cost of production. In the present study, we evaluated a new DNA vaccine encoding the fusion HspX-PPE44-EsxV antigens, separately, and in combination with Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) administration, in a prime-boost method in mice.
    Materials and Methods
    A novel DNA vaccine encoding HspX-PPE44-EsxV fusion antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was constructed, and RT-PCR and Western blot analysis were performed to verify the expression of the antigen. Female BALB/c mice were divided into five groups (PBS, BCG, pcDNA3.1 (+) vector, pDNA/HspX-PPE44-EsxV vaccine, and the BCG-prime boost groups).  In order to evaluate the immunogenicity of the recombinant vector, BALB/c mice were injected with 100 μg of pDNA at 2-week intervals. Then, cytokine assay was conducted using eBioscience ELISA kits (Ebioscience, AUT) according to manufacturers’ instructions to evaluate the concentrations of IL-4, IL-12, TGF-β, and IFN-γ.
    Results
    The concentrations of INF-γ, IL-12, and TGF-beta were significantly increased compared to the control groups (P<0.001). INF-γ and IL-12 production were increased significantly in pDNA/HspX-PPE44-EsxV+BCG group compared to pDNA/HspX-PPE44-EsxV group (P<0.001).
    Conclusion
    This study showed that the present DNA vaccine could induce a high level of specific cytokines in mice. It was also shown that using this DNA vaccine in a BCG prime-boost protocol can produce significant amounts of IFN-γ, IL-12, and TGF-β.
    Keywords: BCG, DNA, Mycobacterium tuberculosis PCR, Vaccine
  • Haiffa Helalat, Seyedeh Elham Rezatofighi *, Mohammad Roayaei Ardakani, Luis Fernando Dos Santos, Mahdi Askari Badouei Pages 915-921
    Objective(s)
    The enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) has been one of the most intriguing emerging bacterial pathogens in children that occur both in developing countries and the industrial world. Although various phenotypic and genotypic based protocols have been suggested for diagnosis of EAEC, they are not conclusive or practical to be used in most clinical laboratories.
    Materials and Methods
    In this study, we analyzed and compared 36 typical EAEC strains (aggR-positive) by various genotypic and phenotypic methods.
    Results
    Briefly, pCVD432 was detected in all of isolates along with aggR, then it was followed by other virulence genes including app, astA, aggA, and pet genes in 32 (88.8%), 21 (58.3%), 9 (25%), and 2 (5.5%) isolates, respectively. Biofilm was formed by 34 (94.4%) isolates, while only 26 (72.2%) isolates showed an aggregative adherence pattern to HEp-2 cells.
    Conclusion
    The genetic and phenotypic features of EAEC were highly inconsistent, which may have considerable diagnostic implications. The variations in the virulence genes, phenotypic characteristics, and genetic profiles among the EAEC isolates again emphasized the genetic heterogeneity of this emerging pathotype. Biofilm formation may be an important phenotypic virulence property of this pathotype, especially in strains with the aggR-pCVD432-aap-astA profile.
    Keywords: Aggregative adherence, Biofilm, Diagnosis, Diarrhea, Enteroaggregative-Escherichia coli, Virulence genes
  • Xiaomin Ni, Qin Guo, Yiqing Zou, Yang Xuan, Imran Shair Mohammad *, Qing Ding, Haiyan Hu Pages 922-929
    Objective(s)
    In this study, a stable bear bile-loaded pH sensitive in-situ eye drop gel was prepared for sustain delivery and enhanced therapeutic application.
    Materials and Methods
    Bear bile-loaded in-situ ocular gels with different Carbopol/Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)  ratios were prepared and their stability was tested in PBS at a series of pH at 40 °C. The morphology was observed by SEM examination and rheology was observed by Rheometer equipped with a 60-mm cone-plate at apex angle of 1°. Gel erosion and release kinetics of Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) was determined by HPLC. While, the in vivo dwelling time was obtained after administering the fluorescent-loaded gel in ocular disease-free New Zealand rabbits. Finally, biocompatibility and toxicity was observed by irritation test and H&E staining of eye-ball tissues, respectively.
    Results
    The bear bile-loaded in-situ ocular gel showed excellent stability at different pH (pH 5.0, 5.5, 6.0, 6.5, 7.0 and 8.0) up to 5 days, and bear bile extract significantly attenuated the gelling ability of the in-situ gel. The viscosity of in-situ gels formulation was decreased with increase in shear rate (0.01 to 100 s-1), and morphological examination of freeze-dried preparation showed three-dimensional reticular structure at physiological pH. The in-situ ocular gel exhibited promising sustained drug release up to 160 min in vitro, and showed prolonged retention time up to 3-folds in vivo. Finally, the biocompability data confirmed that the formulation did not induce any toxic effects and was completely compatible with eye tissues.
    Conclusion
    pH sensitive in-situ ocular gel provides new research opportunities to efficiently treat eye diseases.
    Keywords: Bear bile, In-situ ocular gel, pH sensitive, Rheology, Sustain-releas
  • Fatemeh Amin, Arghavan Memarzia, Hamid Reza Kazerani, Mohammad Hossein Boskabady * Pages 930-936
    Objective(s)
    The effects of PPAR-γ agonist alone and in combination with carvacrol and Zataria multiflora on inhaled paraquat (PQ) induced-systemic inflammation and oxidative stress were examined.
    Materials and Methods
    Control group exposed to normal saline aerosol, one group exposed to 54 mg/m3 PQ aerosol and four groups exposed to PQ aerosol and treated with 5 mg/kg/day pioglitazone, pioglitazone + 200 mg/kg/day Z. multiflora extract, pioglitazone + 20 mg/kg/day carvacrol, and 0.03 mg /kg/day dexamethasone for 16 days after the end of exposure to PQ were studied. Exposure to normal saline or PQ was performed every other days for 30 min (8 times). Different variables were measured after the end of treatment period.
    Results
    PQ exposure significantly increased serum levels of NO2, MDA and IL-6 but dexreased CAT and IFN-γ levels and IFN-γ/IL-6 ratio compared to control group (P
    Conclusion
    The effects of combination therapy of pioglitazone with Z. multiflora or carvacrol on inhaled paraquat (PQ) induced-oxidative stress and systemic inflammation were higher than the effects of pioglitazone alone. These results suggested that the effects of the extract and carvacrol may mediated through PPAR-γ receptors.
    Keywords: Paraquat, PPAR-γ agonist, Zataria multiflora, Carvacrol, systemic inflammation, Oxidative stress
  • Saeedeh Ebrahimi, Manochehr Makvandi, Samaneh Abbasi, Keyhan Azadmanesh, Ali Teimoori * Pages 937-944
    Objective(s)
    Oncolytic Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has emerged as a promising strategy for cancer therapy. However, development of novel oncolytic mutants has remained a major challenge owing to low efficiency of conventional genome editing methods. Recently, CRISPR-Cas9 has revolutionized genome editing.
    Materials and Methods
    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the capability of CRISPR-Cas9 to manipulate the UL39 gene to create oncolytic HSV-1. Herein, three sgRNAs were designed against the UL39 gene and transfected into HEK-293 cell line followed by infection with HSV-1 KOS.
    Results
    After three rounds of plaque purification, several HSV-1 mutants were identified by PCR analysis and sequencing. One of these mutations in which 55 nucleotides were deleted resulted in a frameshift mutation that in turn produced a truncated protein with only 167 amino acids from 1137 amino acids. Functional analysis in Vero and primary fibroblast cells revealed that viral replication was significantly lower and plaque size was smaller in the HSV-1 mutant compared with HSV-1 KOS. Moreover, the relative amount of viral genome present in the supernatants of infected cells (Vero and primary fibroblast cells) with HSV-1 mutant was significantly decreased compared with those of HSV-1 KOS.
    Conclusion
    Our data revealed that targeting UL39 with CRISPR-Cas9 could develop oncolytic HSV-1.
    Keywords: CRISPR-Cas9, Herpes simplex virus type 1, Oncolytic virus, Ribonucleotide reductase, UL39
  • Mansoureh Mirabdollahi, Hojjat Sadeghi-Aliabadi, Shaghayegh Haghjooy Javanmard * Pages 945-953
    Objective(s)
    Controversial results have been reported regarding the anti-tumor properties of extracellular vesicles derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The present study was conducted to evaluate whether secretome derived from Human Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells (hWJMSCs) may stimulate or inhibit breast cancer growth in vitro and in vivo.
    Materials and Methods
    MTT assays was performed to determine anti-tumor effects of hWJMSCs-secretome on both MCF-7 and 4T1 tumor cells in vitro. Afterward, 4T1 breast tumors were established in different groups of Balb/C mice (12 mice/group). The tumor sizes were monitored in different treatment groups and at day 30 post-tumor inoculation (PTI), blood samples were obtained and 6 mice of each group were sacrificed for hematological and histopathological assays. The rest of the mice in each group (n=6) were left alive up to day 120 PTI to determine survival rate.
    Results
    We found that hWJMSCs-secretome can inhibit growth of MCF-7 and 4T1 tumor cell lines in vitro. Moreover, intratumoral administration of hWJMSCs-secretome resulted in significant tumor growth inhibition and improvement of hematological indices in vivo and prolonged survival rate of tumor bearing mice.
    Conclusion
    According to our findings, hWJMSCs-secretome could be considered a potent anti-tumor agent, however, further investigation should be done on other cancer models.
    Keywords: Breast Cancer, Growth inhibition, HWJMSCs, In vitro, in vivo, Secretome
  • Yixuan Xiong, Bin Zhao, Wenjing Zhang, Linglu Jia, Yunpeng Zhang, Xin Xu * Pages 954-960
    Objective(s)
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of curcumin on the osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) and its underlying potential mechanism.
    Materials and Methods
    The tissue explant adherence method was used to isolate hPDLSCs. Flowcytometry, Alizarin Red staining and Oil Red O staining were applied to confirm the stemness of the stem cells. CCK8 assays were used to evaluate the effect of curcumin at different concentrations on cytotoxicity, and alkaline phosphate (ALP) activity assays, ALP staining and Alizarin Red staining were used to measure the osteogenic differentiation ability. In addition, hPDLSCs were treated with LY294002 (a phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase [PI3K] inhibitor) and erythroid transcription factor NF-E2 siRNA (siNrf2), respectively in the presence of curcumin. Western blotting was applied to evaluate the protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylation levels and the Nrf2 levels. Besides, western blotting, RT-qPCR, ALP activity assays, ALP staining and Alizarin Red staining were used to detect the potential effects of curcumin on osteogenic differentiation.
    Results
    Curcumin at an appropriate concentration had no cytotoxicity and could promote osteogenic differentiation of the hPDLSCs. The results of western blotting and RT-qPCR revealed that the protein and mRNA levels of ALP, COL1 and RUNX2 were increased by curcumin, while the PI3K/AKT/Nrf2 signaling pathway was activated. In addition, LY294002 was added to inhibit the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, or siNrf2 was used to block the Nrf2 pathway; then, the stimulatory effects of curcumin on osteogenic differentiation were reversed.
    Conclusion
    Curcumin could promote the osteogenesis of hPDLSCs, and the effect is related to the PI3K/AKT/Nrf2 signaling pathway.
    Keywords: Akt, Curcumin, Nrf2, Osteogenic differentiation, Periodontal ligament, Stem cells