فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:3 Issue: 1, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/03/31
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
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  • Daniel Afrifa *, Kwabena Nsiah, Collins Afriyie Appiah, Omoniyi Monday Moses Page 1
    Background

    It has been well documented that adequate body composition characteristics and good nutrition practices play significant roles in maintaining good health, proper immune functioning, muscle growth and repair, and delaying fatigue in continuously intense athletic performance. It would be incumbent, however, to support imported information with local data to enhance effective implementation.

    Objectives

    To examine dietary intake and body composition characteristics of National Football League Players in the Ashanti region of Ghana.

    Methods

    Cross-sectional study was used. 95 football players from the premier, 1st and 2nd divisions of the Ghana National Football League were recruited. A 24-hour dietary recall was used to assess the dietary intake of the players. Body composition characteristics of body mass index, percentage (%) body fat, visceral fat and percentage (%) muscle mass were measured.

    Results

    There were 8 (9.3%) goalkeepers, 29 (33.7%) defenders, 34 (39.5%) midfielders and 15 (17.4%) strikers. 42 (44.2%) of the players ate twice per day. Players within age group of 20 - 25 (49, 51.6%) had the highest mean total energy intake (2342.96 ± 848.18), carbohydrates (324.18 ± 106.35), proteins (75.54 ± 23.94) and fats (83.00 ± 50.76). Midfield players had the highest mean total energy intake (2216.26 ± 803.87), carbohydrates (315.74 ± 121.02), proteins (74.23 ± 26.35) and fats (71.59 ± 34.32). 82 (86.3%) had normal weight, 79 (83.2%) normal % body fat, 45 (47.4%) had very high % muscle mass.

    Conclusions

    The sample in this study has low total energy intake compared to other studies. Insufficient nutritional diets could suggest the reason for the low energy intake. If low energy intake persists, the players might be at high risk of chronic cardiovascular diseases and diabetes conditions.

    Keywords: Body Composition, Fat, Football, Dietary Intake, Protein, Carbohydrates
  • Deniz Şenol *, Merve Altınoğlu, Ayşegul Kısaoğlu, Şeyma Toy, Serkan Duz, Davut Ozbağ Page 2
    Background

    Body composition, which is affected by body fat ratio is an important factor affecting parameters such as strength, endurance, flexibility and agility required for superiority in sportive performance.

    Objectives

    The aim of this study is to compare visual (VRT) and auditory (ART) reaction times of athletes and sedentary individuals with different somatotypes.

    Methods

    The study included 148 individuals (73 athletes and 75 sedentary) with no symptoms. Somatotype character analysis was performed with Somatotype (1.2.6 trial) program using Heath-Carter formula after the determined anthropometric measurements were taken. Reaction time measurements were performed with Hubbard reaction meter.

    Results

    Six different somatotypes were determined in both sedentary and athlete groups that participated in the study. In the comparison of VRT and ART scores of athletes and sedentary individuals in terms of each somatotype, statistically significant difference was found in VRT score in balanced ectomorph somatotype and in both VRT and ART scores of endomorphic mesomorph somatotype (P < 0.05).

    Conclusions

    We think that regular training and sports shorten VRT and ART. We presume that these characteristics of athletes shorten their reaction times since sports events require more concentration. The results of our study are interesting in terms of being a new subject for scientists working in this field.

    Keywords: Anthropometry, Athlete, Reaction Time, Somatotype, Neuroperformance
  • Chandra Sekara Guru *, Anup Krishnan, Uma Mahajan, Deep Sharma Page 3
    Background

    Heart rate value during different phases of archery shooting has been correlated with performance scores.

    Objectives

    This study was done to ascertain this and with an aim of real-time objective field assessment of training and performance among Elite Indian archers.

    Methods

    The study was conducted in Indoor archery hall as per World Archery Association rules with Cross-sectional study design. Seven volunteered male elite archers (mean age: 23.9 ± 3.00 years, mean experience: 8.5 ± 2.35 years) shot 30 arrows each (n = 210) with simultaneous recording of heart rate, score and shooting action. Release frames were identified by slow motion analysis. Heart rate values during release (0 s), every second for 5 seconds before and after the release of arrow were noted and analyzed. One-way ANOVA test was employed. Level of significance was set at P < 0.05.

    Results

    One-way ANOVA of heart rate values at all 11 time-points between the three scores 8, 9 and 10 showed significant differences from -5 s to -1 s with heart rate values at score 8 being significantly higher (P < 0.05). Heart rate decreased significantly from -5 s to +1 s and increased further.

    Conclusions

    Heart rate deceleration was found in aiming and release phases of shooting. The elicited change in trend of the heart rate values can be used as a field-tool for training archers. Future studies on novice archers would help us understand the change in trend with training and experience in the sports.

    Keywords: Attention, Motor Skill, Athletic Performance, Heart Rate Control
  • Surojit Sarkar, Suvam Dasgupta, Subhra Chatterjee, K Kosana Meitei, Amit Bandyopadhyay, Swapan Kumar Dey * Page 4
    Background

    Anthropometric and physiologic properties have influence on exercise performance in sepak takraw and physiological profiles of athletes differ between sports and playing positions.

    Objectives

    Present study was aimed to determine the effect of playing position on anthropometric, body composition and physical fitness parameters in young male sepak takraw players.

    Methods

    The cross-sectional study was conducted on three positional groups of total 44 male Indian sepak takraw players (spiker/killer, n = 14; tekong, n = 14; and feeder, n = 16) of national level. Anthropometric parameters, body composition profile, physical fitness variables including 30m flying, 6X10m shuttle run, vertical jump, sit up, endurance and anaerobic power were assessed by following standard protocols.

    Results

    Significant differences were observed in height, weight and leg length among the positional groups. Almost all body composition parameters were significantly (P < 0.01) higher among ‘tekong’ position except fat mass. Handgrip strength, back strength, vertical jump, sit up, VO2max, explosive leg power and maximum anaerobic power were found to be significantly differed among the three positional groups of sepak takraw. Regression prediction model identified back strength (P = 0.034), peak explosive power (P < 0.001) and leg length (P < 0.001) as the significant predictor of vertical jump (R2 = 0.930 and P < 0.001).

    Conclusions

    Players of ‘tekong’ position were better in anthropometric and body composition profiles than ‘spiker and feeder’. Whereas, ‘spiker’ position was found to have higher back strength, explosive power, vertical jump and sit up abilities. Regression model identifies back strength, peak explosive power and leg length as the significant predictors of performance in sepak takraw.

    Keywords: Vertical Jump, Sepak Takraw, Spiker, Tekong, Feeder, Explosive Strength
  • Faisal Muhammad Page 5
  • Maryam Najafi, Hoseyn Fatolahi* Page 6
    Background

    Exercise training and vitamin D consumption are separately reported to be effective on improving health. However, the simultaneous effect of resistance training and vitamin D is not clear yet. However, there is no information available on the resistance training and the amount of vitamin D prescription. In addition, it is important to examine this issue in women who are known as an active and effective part of society.

    Methods

    The participants (n = 40) of this study were randomly divided into four groups as follows: (1) placebo, (2) resistance training, (3) vitamin D, and (4) resistance training + vitamin D. In this study, interventions were performed for an 8-week period (3 D/W) consisting of resistance training protocol (60% 1-RM) and daily consumption of vitamin D (1000 IU). Anthropometric and laboratory measurements were collected 48 hours before and after the intervention.

    Results

    Changes in HDL-C (P = 0.001, F = 6.3), total cholesterol (P = 0.001, F = 7.8), and leptin concentration (P = 0.001, F = 11.4) were significant. Accordingly, these changes in the study variables showed a better improvement in the resistance training + vitamin D group compared to the other groups (P = 0.001).

    Conclusions

    Probably themost important factor for the observed changes was the reduction of adipose tissue caused by resistance training, as well as the enhancement of signaling pathways resulting from the consumption of vitamin D. However, maintaining muscle tissue caused by resistance training can be effective. Moreover, HDL change due to resistance training and its effect on reverse cholesterol transport may occur faster than LDL-C changes. Also, the improvement in LDL-C appears in response to longer periods of exercise along with drug therapy.

    Keywords: Obesity, Dyslipidemia, Resistance Training, Vitamin D