فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:6 Issue: 1, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/01/19
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Mona Banihashem, Ali Majidpour, Mina Boustanshenas*, Samaneh Mazar Atabaki Pages 1-8
    Background

    This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of tet genes and Class I and 2 integrons in Enterobacter cloacae strains isolated from patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs).

    Materials & Method

    A total of 50 E. cloacae isolates were collected. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and tetracycline MIC were determined. The presence of tet genes (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetD) and Class 1 and 2 integrons and the content of Class 1 integron were determined.

    Findings

    Tetracycline MIC pattern classified 36 % of the E. cloacae isolates as resistant. The most common tet gene was tetC (22%), followed by tetD, tetA, and tetB.  Class 1 integron was detected in 64% of the isolates. Class 1 integron content analysis showed two variable gene cassettes (aadA1 and aadA5/dfrA17 genes). The frequency of aadA5/dfrA17 was 18.75%, which was more common than aadA1 gene (6.25%).

    Conclusion

    The most important genetic markers for tetracycline resistance in E. cloacae isolates were tetC and Class 1 integron. Harboring Class 1 integron and resistance to streptomycin and ciprofloxacin were significantly correlated.

    Keywords: Integron, Enterobacter cloacae, Tetracycline resistance genes, Urine, Integron content, Class 1, 2 integrons
  • Ali Sadighi, Hossein Samadi Kafil, Khalil Maleki Chollou, Milad Maleki, Towhid Babazadeh, Zahra Ardeshiri, Ali Bahadori* Pages 11-19
    Aims

    Brucellosis is one of the most common diseases between humans and animals (zoonosis); one of its transmission routs is through the consumption of infected cattle dairy products. Since Sarab city has a large cattle population, and traditional dairy production and processing practices are still prevalent in this region and are known as tourist attractions and souvenirs of the region, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence of infection in employees of traditional dairy products workshops in Sarab in 2018.

    Materials & Methods

    This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 196 employees of traditional dairy production and packaging workshops. Blood samples were obtained from all subjects in order to determine the serological status of the patients. After sera isolation, Rose Bengal, seroagglutination in tube (Wright), 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME), and ELISA tests were used to evaluate them.

    Findings

    In this study, the disease prevalence in the subjects with the mean age of 33±4.2 years was determined as 2, 1, 1, and 1% using Rose Bengal, Wright, 2-mercaptoethanol, and ELISA tests, respectively. The mean knowledge score of the employees in dairy products workshops was 31±5.7, and by increasing age and duration of work, knowledge about brucellosis was also increased

    Conclusion

    In this study, the mean knowledge score showed the average knowledge of the subjects about brucellosis. The disease prevalence in this occupational group was lower than that reported in other studies conducted on other at-risk occupational groups in other parts of Iran and the world. Therefore, health personnel should take the necessary measures against brucellosis.

    Keywords: Brucellosis, Occupational disease, Prevalence, Dairy production workshop, Awareness
  • Maryam Karimi*, Pardis Banimehdi, Mohammad Ghasemi Shamsabadi, Zahra Hasanvand Pages 21-27
    Objectives

    Despite the benefits of antibiotics, their residues in foodstuffs prepared for human consumption could be cancerous and mutagenic and cause allergic reactions with toxic side effects, disorders in intestinal wall, adverse effects on microbial intestinal flora, and the emergence of resistant strains of bacteria. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the residual antibiotics in liver and muscle tissues of poultry samples using the four-plate test (FPT) method in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province.

    Materials & Methods

    A total of 6406 samples were randomly collected from liver and muscle tissues of 3203 poultry samples from June 2016 to March 2017. Antibiotic residues were detected in liver and muscle samples using the four-plate test (FPT) method.

    Findings

    During a two-year study period, from a total of 6406 samples collected, 3203 (50%) samples were collected from liver tissues, and 3203 (50) samples were collected from muscle tissues of poultry samples, respectively. Among the liver and muscle samples, 12 (384/3203) and 6.4% (206/3203) were positive for the presence of antibiotic residues, respectively. According to the seasonal distribution of muscle samples, the highest rate of antibiotic residues was detected in the autumn with 3 % (95/3203), while the lowest rate was observed in the winter with 0.25% (8/3203) for both bacteria under study (Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus). According to the seasonal distribution of liver samples, the highest rate of antibiotic residues was detected in the autumn with 5% (159/3203), while the lowest rate was observed in the spring with 1.1% (35/3203).

    Conclusion

    In conclusion, a large number of liver tissues collected from poultry samples were contaminated with antibiotic residues, especially at pH=6 and in the autumn season. Therefore, it is recommended to implement appropriate strategies for managing and controlling the use of antibacterial agents in the veterinary industry. Also, it is necessary to monitor the withdrawal time of antibiotics and screen the maximum residue limits (MRLs) in poultry products including liver, egg, and meat.

    Keywords: Antibiotic residues, Four plate test, Poultry, Liver, Muscle
  • Hadi Sedigh Ebrahim Saraie, HeydarAli Balou, Tofigh Yaghubi Kalurazi* Pages 29-36
    Aims

    The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of nosocomial infections and their bacterial agents in patients admitted to Poursina Medical and Educational Center of Rasht.

    Materials & Methods

    The present retrospective descriptive study was conducted by referring to the Infection Control Unit of Poursina hospital and investigating the records of patients with culture-positive nosocomial infections from April 2013 until the end of September 2015. Bacterial agents were diagnosed based on the standard microbiological tests.

    Results

    During the research period, urinary tract and blood infections were reported as the highest and lowest nosocomial infections, respectively. The most common strains causing nosocomial infections were Acinetobacter spp. (24.7%) (as the most common strain causing respiratory infection), Escherichia coli (22.9%) (as the most common strain causing urinary tract infection), and Enterobacter spp. (19.9%) (as the most common strain causing postoperative infection). Based on the frequency distribution of bacterial strains in hospital wards, Acinetobacter spp was reported as the most common strain isolated from patients in the intensive care unit.

    Conclusion

    According to the present study results, Acinetobacter spp was the most common strain isolated, and UTIs were the most common type of infection. Due to the prevalence of UTIs and the financial, physical, and social damage they impose to the whole country and the constant change of common pathogens and their susceptibility and antibiotic resistance patterns, it is necessary to conduct studies on this issue in the academic centers of each province at regular intervals.

    Keywords: Nosocomial infection, Bacterial infections, Epidemiology, Intensive care unit
  • Yasin Sarveahrabi*, Ali Souldozi, Nakisa Zarrabi Ahrabi Pages 37-49
    Aims

    The need for new antibacterial drugs is justified because many pathogens are currently resistant to available antibacterial drugs, and this is an alarming threat to the health of future generations. 1, 3, 4‑Oxadiazole has been shown to pose a wide range of antibacterial activity. Some of the marketed drugs also possess this heterocyclic moiety.  

    Materials & Methods

    The new derivatives of 1, 3, 4-oxadiazole were synthesized using a single-stage, high-yield method. Then, to measure the antibacterial activity of prepared derivatives agar well diffusion method was employed, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined at a concentration of 1mg/mL with three replications.

    Findings

    Compounds 4a, 4d, and 4i exhibited a promising antibacterial activity against Acinetobacter baumannii PTCC1855. Among the three compounds mentioned, compound 4i showed the best performance with IZ=22±0.75 m.m , MIC=500µg/mL and MBC=125µg/mL at a concentration of 1mg/mL.

    Conclusion

    The new 1, 3, 4‑Oxadiazole derivative (4i) was shown to be a promising compound for pharmaceutical applications, by adding other functional groups to its structure, it is possible to increase the destructive power of the compound.

    Keywords: Oxadiazole, Acinetobacter baumannii, Drug resistance
  • Mohammad Molaveisi, Mahsa Noktehsanj Avval, Mostafa Shahidi Noghabi*, Morteza Mohammadi Pages 51-62
    Aims

    The aim of this study was to investigate chemical composition, antioxidant potential, and antimicrobial activity of cardamom essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae species.

    Materials & Methods

    The chemical compositions of cardamom essential oil were identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) device. Cardamom essential oil antioxidant activity was measured by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, and its total phenolic compounds (TPC) were measured by Folin–Ciocalteu reagent. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of cardamom essential oil were determined using the serial-dilution method.

    Findings

    According to the GC-MS analysis results, 17 compounds were totally identified in cardamom essential oil, among which the most important compounds were 1, 8-cineole (36.74%) and α-terpinyl acetate (33.07%). MICs obtained for S. aureus, E. coli, and S. cerevisiae were 12.50, 25.00, and 1.56 mg/mL, respectively. Also, MBC obtained for both S. aureus and E. coli was 25 mg/mL, while MBC for S. cerevisiae was 3.36 mg/mL. Antioxidant activity measurement results showed that increasing the amount of cardamom essential oil reduced the amount of color and absorbance of DPPH solution to 517 nm. The results also showed that the amount of TPC in cardamom essential oil was 214.35 mg gallic acid per 100 g of dry material.

    Conclusion

    Cardamom essential oil used in this study showed antibacterial and anti-yeast activities against S. aureus, E. coli, and S. cerevisiae species. Antimicrobial effects of cardamom essential oil were predictable due to the presence of antimicrobial components in this oil.

    Keywords: Cardamom essential oil, Total phenolic compound, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae
  • Mandana Sadat Mirhoseini, Kosar Heydari, Arash Abednezhad, Parisa Naderi, Dibachehr Rahmani, Nastaran Asghari Moghaddam*, Nima Faraji Pages 63-83
    Background

    The current narrative review aims to describe microbial agents causing pneumonia briefly. In addition, the ongoing review tries to introduce the diagnostic methods from biochemical to molecular tests used routinely and the promising molecular methods which will be used in near future.

    Methods

    PubMed was searched for all review and original articles related to the lung infection. Studies providing insights into clinical symptoms, microbiology, risk factors, and diagnosis were included.

    Rasult & Conclusion

    Untreated respiratory infections are one of the most common health care problems worldwide. We tried to provide a collective view of new aspects of bacteriology and diagnosis methodology of lung infection detection.

    Keywords: Respiratory infection, Pneumonia, Molecular diagnosis, Multiplex PCR