فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:21 Issue: 2, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/03/12
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • Janan Ghapanchi, Abdollah Bazargani, Hooman Khorshidi, Maryam Erfani, Fahimeh Rezazadeh *, Azita Azad, Reza Derafshi, Ahmad Hassan Kalantari Pages 81-86
    Statement of the Problem

    Liver cirrhosis is the end stage of liver failure. It is mentioned as one of the main etiologies of morbidity and mortality in the world. The human salivary bacteria may induce oral disorders and interact with other body microbiota.

    Purpose

    The aim of the present study is to identify the pathogenic bacteria of non-oral origin from the saliva samples of patients with end stage liver failure.

    Materials and Method

    In this cross-sectional study, the saliva samples of 88 end stage liver disease cases and 84 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were collected. The samples were cultured using gram staining and API20E Kit.

    Results

    According to the statistical analysis, the total amount of the non-commensal bacteria was significantly higher in chronic liver failure (CLF) group than controls (p= 0.001). There was no significant difference between both groups for the presence of other bacteria (p= 0.001) except for Escherichia coli (E. coli). E. coli was isolated from the saliva of 15 cases and only 2 controls.

    Conclusion

    Oral cavity may act as a reservoir for enteric bacteria such as E. coli in liver failure patients. Adequate oral and general hygiene might reduce the risk of systemic infection especially in immunocompromised cases.

    Keywords: Gram negative bacteria, Saliva, Hepatic disorder
  • Razieh Hoseinifar *, Maryam Mofidi, Nima Malekhoseini Pages 87-94
    Statement of the Problem

    Bulk fill composites have been introduced over the recent years in order to accelerate the process of tooth restoration by inserting composite in bulk up to 4mm thickness.

    Purpose

    This in vitro study aims to evaluate the effect of occlusal loading on the gingival microleakage of bulk fill composites compared with a conventional composite.

    Materials and Method

    In this experimental study, box only class II cavities with gingival margins placed 1mm below the cemento-enamel junction were prepared on the mesial and distal surfaces of 36 maxillary premolars (72 cavities). The samples were divided into three groups and restored as follows: Group 1 (Tetric N-Ceram, incremental filling), Group 2 (X-tra fill, bulk filling), Group 3 (Tetric N-Ceram Bulk Fill, bulk filling). All restorations were thermocycled for 2000 cycles (5-50̊C), and then half of the samples were subjected to 200,000 cycles of loading. All the specimens were immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsin for 48 hours, and then, sectioned and evaluated for microleakage with a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney U-tests. P

    Results

    There were no significant differences among the gingival microleakage of three composites in both unloaded and loaded groups. Also, no statistically significant difference was found between the microleakage of unloaded and loaded groups in all materials.

    Conclusion

    Occlusal loading did not affect the gingival microleakage of bulk fill composites, and the microleakage of class II cavities restored with the bulk filling technique was similar to that of restored with the incremental technique.

    Keywords: Composite Resin, Dental Leakage, Polymerization
  • Nasim Taghavi, Farzad Yazdani, Alireza Akbarzadeh Baghban, Soudabeh Sargolzaei, Parisa Kardouni Khozestani * Pages 95-101
    Statement of the Problem

     The tumor suppressor role of myoepithelial cells and related mechanisms in breast tumors are well understood. However, the role of these cells in salivary glands tumors is debatable.

    Purpose

    The present study was designed to determine the expression of p63, Maspin and Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) in mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (ADCC) of salivary glands due to various cellular differentiation and structure. The association between the expression of these markers and clinicopathologic features and myoepithelial differentiation were also evaluated.

    Materials and Method

    P63, Maspin and MMP-2 expression were immunohistochemically studied in 67 cases including35 cases of MEC and 32 cases of ADCC. The smooth muscle actin (SMA) staining was also applied to confirm the presence of myoepithelial differentiation. Data was analyzed using Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test and t-test.

    Results

    The expression of p63 (p= 0.009) and Maspin (p= 0.012) significantly differed between the study groups.P63 positive cells in MEC were negative for SMA staining in contrast to ADCC. Furthermore, the expression of P63 (p= 0.045) and Maspin (p= 0.019) significantly and inversely correlated with histologic grade in ADCC. Likewise, positive significant correlation was detected between histologic grade and expression of P63 (p= 0.018) and MMP-2 (p= 0.003) in MEC samples.

    Conclusion

    Ourfindings showed thatMEC is devoid of myoepithelial cells. The difference in expression of P63 and Maspin in ADCC and MEC highlighted the role and presence of myoepithelial cells in ADCC. Indeed, the high expression of P63 and Maspin in well differentiated ADCCs suggests the tumor suppressor effect of myoepithelial cells. Considering the association between the evaluated markers and histological grade, p63 in both tumors, Maspin in ADCC and MMP-2 in MEC may be efficient predictors of clinical behavior.

  • Fahimeh Akhlaghi, Shahabaldin Azizi *, Bahman Malek, Farinaz Mahboubi, Shahin Shams, Mahdieh Karimizadeh Pages 102-105
    Statement of the Problem

    Preoperative anxiety is the subject of major concern for many patients.

    Purpose

    The current study aimed at determining the effect of anesthesia consultation on decreasing anxiety in patients undergoing oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    Materials and Method

    This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 250 patients undergoing different maxillofacial surgeries. The data collection instruments included a questionnaire containing the Spielberger state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) and a researcher-made questionnaire with queries on the demographic characteristics and surgery-related information. Analysis of the data was performed in SPSS, using descriptive and inferential statistics.

    Results

    The findings showed that the majority of patients (38.4%) had moderate anxiety; there was no significant difference between the consultation and control groups in terms of age and gender. Also, the scores of state and trait anxiety were significantly lower in the consultation group, compared with the control group.

    Conclusion

    The present results showed that preoperative anesthetic consultation reduced preoperative anxiety, compared with the control group. Our findings suggest that anesthetic counselling services should be provided for individuals experiencing high levels of stress.

    Keywords: Anxiety, Maxillofacial Surgery, Oral Surgery, Preoperative Consultation
  • Narjes Amrollahi, Andisheh Amini, Mehdi Jafarzadeh * Pages 106-110
    Statement of the Problem

    Oral health care for children with visual impairment is challenging for health service providers. Gaining information about parental awareness in this regard can be a basis for health planning and use of preventive services.

    Purpose

    The aim of this study was to evaluate parental awareness about the importance of preventive care and its relationship with DMFT index in visually impaired children.

    Materials and Method

    This cross-sectional and descriptive- analytical study was carried out on 50 parents of children with visual impairment referring to schools of the blind children aged 8-14 years in Isfahan in 2017 – 2018. Parental awareness was measured by knowledge questionnaire. DMFT index of first permanent molar was recorded by examination. Data were analyzed using Spearman correlation coefficient, Pearson correlation and T-test in SPSS 22 software. The level of significance was considered less than 0.05.

    Results

    The mean score of parental awareness about significance of preventive care was 68.4±15.5. Mean DMFT in the studied children was 2.40±1.32 and highest score was related to decayed tooth, followed by filled tooth. There was no significant relation between parental knowledge and mean DMFT (p= 0.30), while there was revers relation with number of extracted teeth (p= 0.02) and direct relation with number of filled tooth (p= 0.04).

    Conclusion

    Parental awareness generally did not show significant relationship with DMFT, while by increasing their knowledge the number of missed teeth was decreased and the number of filled teeth was increased in visually impaired children.

    Keywords: dental caries, Knowledge, Visually impaired persons, Parents
  • Reza Davalloo, Maryam Tavangar, Heshmatollah Ebrahimi, Farideh Darabi, Shima Mahmoudi * Pages 111-118
    Statement of the Problem

     Etching process on dentin can activate matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) which hydrolyze organic matrix of demineralized dentin. Gluma and chlorhexidine could inhibit the activation of MMP.

    Purpose

     The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a new desensitizing material consisting of Gluma and chlorhexidine together on the shear bond strength and bond durability of composite restorations.

    Materials and Method

    One hundred and twenty caries-free extracted premolars were sectioned horizontally from one third of the coronal crown to expose flat dentin surface and randomly divided into 4 groups. In the control group no surface treatment was used. In the first group chlorhexidine (CHX) 2%, in the second group, new material (NM) and in third group Gluma Desensitizer (GD) was applied after etching and before bonding(total-etch bonding system). After the bonding process, the composite was placed on the surface of the samples using a cylindrical mold. Then, the shear bond strength of half of the specimens was measured after 24 hours and the other half after 6 months of storage in distilled water and thermocycling. The failure type of specimens was evaluated with a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed using one way Anova and Tukey's Post Hoc tests in SPSS software.

    Results

      After 6 months, the bond strength decreased in all groups and differences were statistically significant (p= 0.002).The highest SBS was observed after 6 months in the NM group and the GD group (with no significant difference). Mix failure had the highest rate in all groups. 

    Conclusion

     It can be concluded that the effect of combination of chlorhexidine and gluma on maintaining the integrity and strength of bond over time is similar to Gluma compound alone and they have better effect than chlorhexidine.

    Keywords: Bond Strength, Chlorhexidine, Gluma
  • Sandra Alto Eacute, Alvaro Henrique Borges, Ana Thereza De Saboia Campos Neves, Andreza Maria Fábio Aranha, Alexandre Meireles Borba, Mariano Martinez Espinosa, Luiz Evaristo Ricci Volpato * Pages 119-126
    Statement of the Problem

     Non-syndromic cleft lip and palate are the most frequent craniofacial abnormalities in humans. The genetic, environmental and behavioral factors involved in this malformation must be clarified in different parts of the globe in the view of implementing preventive measures.

    Purpose

    To analyze the influence of parental exposure to risk factors on the occurrence of oral clefts.

    Materials and Method

    A case-control study was conducted with 150 mothers of oral cleft children paired by the children’s gender to 300 mothers of children without congenital anomalies from Mato Grosso, Brazil, for the study of the variables: gender and race/color of the children; parental educational level; age; number of pregnancies; prenatal care; obesity; stress; diabetes; hypertension; use of medications, alcohol and illicit drugs; smoking and exposure to ionizing radiation during the first trimester of pregnancy. The results were analyzed in relation to the chances possibility of each variable for the occurrence of oral cleft through the bivariate and multivariate analysis by applying the model of logistic regression.

    Results

    Passive smoking, obesity, exposure to ionizing radiation and use of antibiotics were associated with the presence of clefts. The use of folic acid and analgesics were identified as preventive factors. The father's low educational level was found as a risk factor, while the black race/color was a preventive factor; nevertheless these variables were not associated in the multivariate analysis.

    Conclusion

    The results reinforce the need to follow the pregnant women, especially in the first trimester of pregnancy, in order to control the identified risk factors. Clinical Relevance: Knowing the factors associated with the occurrence of oral clefts and those associated with its prevention, it is possible to apply specific health promotion measures during pregnancy, which can result in the reduction of oral clefts’ occurrence.

    Keywords: Case-Control Studies, Cleft Lip, Cleft Palate, Risk factors
  • Fahimeh Rashidi Maybodi, Roya Ghafourifard, Mina Mohammad Taheri, Reza Golvardi Yazdi * Pages 127-131
    Statement of the Problem

    Smoking affects not only smokers themselves, but also the people around them. 700 million children are exposed to second hand tobacco worldwide. One of the adverse effects of being a passive smoker is oral pigmentation.

    Purpose

    Evaluating association between being a passive smoker and oral pigmentation.

    Materials and Method

    This is a historical cohort. 140 healthy children aged from 4 to 10 with the mean age of 6.68±1.60 years old (70 with a smoker parent and 70 without smoker parents) were examined for oral pigmentation. Environmental factors were evaluated by asking the parents to fill a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, Logistic regression and Spearman scale.

    Results

    There was a meaningful relationship between having a smoker parent and oral pigmentation (P-value=0.0001). spearman correlation showed parents' duration of cigarette smoking and the number of cigarettes per day meaningfully affect the severity of oral pigmentation (R=0.329). The study did not find a statistical relationship between oral pigmentation in passive smoking and sex or house area.

    Conclusion

    Children exposed to secondhand tobacco are at more risk for oral pigmentation. Its severity depends on duration of cigarette smoking and the number of cigarettes per day.

    Keywords: Mouth, Oral health, Pigmentation, Passive smoking, Tobacco, Child
  • Farahnaz Sharafeddin, AliAsghar Alavi, Saba Siabani *, Mina Safari Pages 132-140
    Statement of the Problem

     The clinical success of glass ionomer cement (GIC) restorations depends on the strength of its bonding to dentin, yet the bond strength of nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp) added GIC to dentin needs to be investigated.

    Purpose

    This study aimed to assess if the type of GIC containing nHAp and dentin depth can affect the shear bond strength (SBS).

    Materials and Method

    In this experimental study, 60 freshly extract intact third molars were randomly divided into two main groups of flat occlusal dentin with different cuts as superficial (S): just below the dentinoenamel junction (DEJ) and deep (D): 2mm below DEJ. After conditioning with 20% polyacrylic acid, each group randomly assigned to the tested GIC (n=10) subgroups as 1: Fuji IX Extra+nHAp, 2: Fuji II LC+nHAp and 3: Zirconomer+nHAp. Plastic tubes were placed on the pre-treated surfaces and filled with one of the GIC, then stored in an incubator at 37oC under 100% humidity for 24hr. The specimens were thermocycled at5/55 oC for 500 cycles and subjected to shear bond strength (SBS) test using a universal testing machine (1 mm/min). The data analyzed by Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis test (p< 0.05).

    Results

    The means of SBS of Fuji II LC+nHAp was significantly higher than Fuji IX+nHAp and Zirconomer+nHAp both in superficial and deep dentin (p< 0.05). The means of SBS of Fuji IX Extra+nHAp and Zirconomer+nHAp subgroups in superficial dentin were higher than deep dentin, this differences was statistically significant (p= 0.0001 and p= 0.009, respectively).

    Conclusion

    It can conclude that SBS was influenced by type of GIC, and depth of dentin.

    Keywords: Glass ionomer cements, Hydroxyapatites, Nanoparticles, Shear strength
  • Azadeh Andisheh Tadbir, AmirSaeed Goharian, MohammadAli Ranjbar * Pages 141-146
    Statement of the Problem

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a malignant neoplasm that affect the structures or tissues of the mouth. Early diagnosis of these tumors is important to improve the outcome of treatment. Therefore, using pathological techniques based on molecular markers may be useful for optimal diagnosis and treatment. Glypican-3(GPC3) is involved in regulation of cell proliferation and morphogenesis and is abundant during embryogenesis and organogenesis but is limited in most of adult tissues. GPC3 overexpression has a role in carcinogenesis.

    Purpose

    The aim of the present study was to investigate GPC3 expression in the non-neoplastic oral epithelium and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Materials and Method

    In this cross-sectional study, 45 patients with OSCC (30 males and 15 females) with a mean age 52.3 of selected from Oral Pathology Department of Shiraz Dental School were enrolled. The control group was consisted of 15 cases of normal oral epithelium. Glypican-3 expression was assessed by using immunohistochemical methods.

    Results

    Non neoplastic tissues were GPC3 negative. Frequency of GPC3 positivity in tumoral tissues was recorded as 73.3% (33 cases) which was significantly higher than non-neoplastic tissues (p< 0.001). The clinicopathologic features of GPC3 expression demonstrated no association with clinicopathologic parameters except tumor size.

    Conclusion

    GPC3 was over expressed at protein level in oral squamous cell carcinoma, but its potential use for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes required further investigation.

    Keywords: Glypican-3, Immunohistochemistry, Squamous cell carcinoma
  • Mala Kamboj, Achla Bharti Yadav *, Anjali Narwal, Neeraj Kumar Pages 147-152

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm which is exclusively epithelial in its tissue of origin. Many cases of CEOTs are associated with impacted tooth and simulate dentigerous cyst, radiographically. The histologic features of CEOT are unique, however, among its various histologic subtypes, the cystic variant is a rare and less well understood entity. Our report elucidates a cystic variant of CEOT in the maxilla of a 16-year-old male that presents clinical and radiologic findings conscientious to dentigerous cyst; but histopathological diagnosis came out to be a gold standard in identifying this rare tumor. Herein, the authors describe the clinicopathologic features of this rare entity, highlighting histomorphologic findings along with reviewing of other reported cases.

    Keywords: Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor, Cystic variant, Maxilla, Odontogenic
  • Nazanin Mahdavi, Neda Kardooni Khoozestani, Mahboube Hasheminasab, Nika Soltani * Pages 153-157

    Calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) is an uncommon odontogenic lesion that represents less than 2% of all odontogenic cysts and tumors. It usually occurs in incisor and canine areas during the second to fourth decades of life. It can be associated with other lesions like odontoma, Ameloblastic Fibroma, Ameloblastoma, Adenomatoid odontogenic tumors, Odontoameloblastoma, and Odontogenic Myxoma. Ameloblastic fibroma is a truly mixed tumor usually diagnosed within the posterior mandible during the first two decades of life. In the present article, a hybrid odontogenic tumor composed of COC and Ameloblastic Fibroma in a 14-year-old white Persian female is described.

    Keywords: Odontogenic tumor, Calcifying odontogenic cyst, Ameloblastic fibroma