فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:7 Issue: 3, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/04/06
  • تعداد عناوین: 24
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  • Zehra Kurdoglu* Pages 297-298
  • Mahshid Chaichi-Raghimi, Morteza Mojahedi, Ebrahim Khadem, Seiedamirhossein Latifi, Abbas Alipour, Reza Ilkhani* Pages 299-306
    Objectives

    Excessive belching is a common complaint that may be observed alone or with other diseases such as indigestion and reflux. In addition, it has adverse effects on patients" social life. Due to the insufficient evidence regarding the successful treatment of this disorder, the present study reviewed the medical views of Avicenna in order to find a better solution in this regard.

    Methods

    This literature review was done by searching for "belching" and its MeSH heading term, namely, "eructation" in databases such as Google scholar and Pub Med and their synonyms in Iranian traditional medicine "Josha" in Avicenna"s "Canon of Medicine".

    Results

    The definition of belching in modern medicine was the same as "Josha" but its classifications and treatments were different. Modern scientists have divided excessive belching into gastric and supragastric based on its source although Avicenna classified it into three kinds based on its smell. In recent studies, specialists have come to a link between the brain and the stomach due to the inadequacy of their therapies while Avicenna has along pointed out the relationship between belching and certain organs. He further recommended three main approaches for its treatment, including lifestyle modification, herbal medicines, and physical manipulations.

    Conclusions

    In general, considering the lack of effective treatment for excessive belching, it is important to present a better classification and management. This might be possible with regard to Avicenna"s "Canon of Medicine". Thus, clinical trials are suggested to assess the efficacy of Avicenna"s recommendations as a complementary method

    Keywords: Belching, Eructation, Iranian traditional medicine, Persian medicine, Avicenna
  • Abubakir M. Saleh*, Nazar P. Shabila, Hero I. Kareem, Ali A. Aldabbagh Pages 307-313
    Objectives

    The aim of this study was to assess the perception of medical students in the College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University about the integrated medical and the traditional medical programs and to compare the two programs from the students" perspectives.

    Materials and Methods

    The study samples were selected from the students in the academic year of 2016-2017, which included the second- and third-year students that had signed up for the integrated program and additionally fourth- and fifth-year students who had participated in the traditional programs. They were asked to fill out the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) forms and take part in the research.

    Results

    The mean DREEM total score was significantly higher among the students who enrolled in the integrated program compared to those in the traditional program (104.06 vs. 98.69, P = 0.006). The subscales of the students" perceptions of teachers (P < 0.001) and the environment (P = 0.039) were statistically significant when compared to the data from traditional programs.

    Conclusions

    In general, students who enrolled in the integrated program had an overall higher DREEM score compared with those who entered in the traditional program. Nevertheless, the students still had a poor perception of the learning environment and subsequently the curriculum

    Keywords: Medical education, Integrated program, Traditional teaching, Learning environment
  • Mahmoud Vahidi, Mojgan Bandehpour*, Bahram Kazemi, Mahmood Bozorgmehr Pages 314-321
    Objectives

    Recombinant products play an important role in improving health conditions. In addition, human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) is considered a cytokine which stimulates many differentiated myeloid cells in order to produce granulocytes, macrophages, and monocytes. Considering the clinical application of the human GM-CSF, the current study aimed to produce the recombinant human GM-CSF (rhGM-CSF) in the prokaryotic system and then evaluated its biological activity.

    Materials and Methods

    In this experimental study, the hGM-CSF was synthesized under a specific promoter. Then, it was cloned in HindIII restriction enzyme sites of the pcDNA3.1 (+). The hGM-CSF gene cloning was assessed by polymerase chain reaction, restriction enzyme digestion, and sequencing. Subsequently, recombinant plasmids were transformed in Escherichia coli and the expression of recombinant hGM-CSF was analyzed by electrophoresis and immunoblotting. Then, the rhGM-CSF was purified using S-tag affinity chromatography and the concentration of the purified rhGM-CSF was determined by ELISA. Finally, the biological function of the rhGM-CSF on TF-1 cells was performed by MTT proliferation assay.

    Results

    The cloned fragment on gel agarose was detected. Further, the restriction enzyme digestion and recombinant plasmid sequencing results confirmed pcDNA3.1 (+)/hGM-CSF cloning. Furthermore, the results of the expression analysis of rhGM-CSF by SDS-PAGE and western blot showed a specific protein band. The concentration of the purified protein was 0.54 μg/mL. Moreover, the proliferation index demonstrated that the treated cells were proliferated (P < 0.05). The mean values of the proliferation index were 7.8.

    Conclusions

    In general, the production of recombinant hGM-CSF protein in the prokaryotic system was simple, rapid, and inexpensive. Therefore, the functional rhGM-CSF can be expressed under gene-specific promoter without any need for the chemical inducer.

    Keywords: Promoter, Escherichia coli, Recombinant human GM-CSF
  • Mohsen Eshraghi, Seyed Jafar Adnani Sadati*, Ali Farahank, Hakimeh Zali, Babak Aghili Pages 322-330
    Objectives

    The larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus in the internal organs of a human causes cystic hydatidosis. Thus, the identification of excretory/secretory (E/S) proteins from E. granulosus protoscoleces may help to discover new candidates for drug targets, along with immunodiagnostic and vaccine products. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of albendazole and mebendazole on protein spots of E/S products of hydatid cyst protoscolices which can be helpful for detecting some target proteins for therapeutic purposes.

    Materials and Methods

    In this experimental study, protoscoleces were divided into three groups in order to assess the effects of the drug. The first and the second groups were treated with albendazole/mebendazole, respectively, and the third group was considered as control. To determine the proteome spots, E/S proteins were precipitated with trichloroacetic acid/acetone and loaded on the isoelectric focusing gel, resulting in gel differentiation on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with the 20 mA constant current. In addition, the gels were stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue. Finally, the protein spots resulted from 2-DE gels were analyzed using the Progenesis SameSpots software.

    Results

    The comparison between the proteome gels of the treated groups and the control group showed that 35 protein spots are paired among which, 11 spots had significant differences in their expressions (P < 0.05).

    Conclusions

    In general, the comparison between the expression levels of protein gel spots indicated the increasing expression of some protein spots while the suppression of the others. This suppression can be considered as a specific effect of the drugs on the E/S product of the protoscoleces of hydatid cyst.

    Keywords: Protoscoleces, Albendazole, Mebendazole, Proteome, Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis
  • Hossein Khoramdel, Parviz Farzadinia*, Mehrdad Shariati, Mokhtar Mokhtari, Afshar Bargahi Pages 331-335
    Objectives

    Mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) are metals found in the environment from natural and anthropogenic sources. They are highly toxic to humans and other living beings. Most human exposures come from the consumption of contaminated seafood or occupational exposure. It has been accepted that exposure to heavy metals leads to damage the male reproduction. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the role of Hg and Cd in infertile men.

    Materials and Methods

    In general, 62 men were included in this study among whom, 31 cases were infertile and within the age range of 23-38. The blood samples were collected to measure the concentrations of Cd and Hg in the serum using atomic adsorption spectrophotometry. In addition, semen analyses were performed according to the World Health Organization criteria, followed by sperm characteristics such as motility, head morphology, validity, and total count for at least 200 spermatozoa of each sample. Statistical analysis was done with SPSS software, version 17. Finally, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used for parametric distribution.

    Results

    A considerable level of Hg and Cd was detected in the serum of infertile men compared with the control and there was a statistical difference between them and the control group (P ≤ 0.05) Based on the results, there was a correlation between the high level of heavy metals and impairments in seminal quality. Further, the DNA damage was evaluated using chromatin condensation staining assay and the results showed a high percentage of DNA damage for infertile men in accordance with the levels of Hg and Cd (P ≤ 0.05).

    Conclusions

    According to our results, Cd and Hg cooperate in affecting the sperm and leading to the DNA damage of the sperm

    Keywords: Mercury, Cadmium, Male infertility, Chromatin condensation, Protamine, Seminal quality
  • Farideh Malekshahi, Jafar Rezaian*, Mohammad Almasian Pages 336-341
    Objectives

    Apart from the functional problems that disability creates for the disabled, it has negative effects on parents as well. Thus, identifying these problems plays a decisive role in the health of the family. In this regard, the present study aimed to determine the psychosocial problems of the parents of intellectually disabled children (IDC) receiving services from the Iranian State Welfare Organization in Khorramabad.

    Materials and Methods

    Participants consisted of the parents of IDC receiving services from the State Welfare Organization of Iran, in Khorramabad during 2015. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire including demographic items and items related to psychological and social problems. The parents of 144 IDC participated in the study and completed the questionnaire via interviews at home.

    Results

    All parents suffered from psychosocial difficulties although, on average, mothers had more problems due to their different roles in families. Finally, a significant relationship was found between parents" education and the gender of the IDC (P < 0.05).

    Conclusions

    The impact of disability on parents depends on the severity of the disability and parents" coping skills, abilities, and capabilities

    Keywords: Intellectually disabled children, Parent problems, Preliminary evaluation, Effective strategies
  • Zohreh Sohrabi, Mahdieh Arian, Ali Mohammadi, Hamid Bouraghi, Ali Valinejadi* Pages 342-347
    Objectives

    The present study aimed to adapt the strategic plans of medical science universities to the components of the third millennium universities.

    Materials and Methods

    This cross-sectional study included all the faculty members of 5 top universities of Tehran Province in Iran. To collect data, a reliable and valid researcher-made questionnaire was developed based on the characteristics of higher education institutions in the third millennium (content validity index >0.79, content validity ratio > 0.62, α = 0.88). Statistical analysis was conducted by SPSS.

    Results

    The highest mean score of the population"s attitude was related to the visions of the universities (mean =3.44). Moreover, the highest mean score (the components of university headquarters) of the attitude belonged to environmental indicators (3.53) while the lowest mean score was related to administrative and financial indicators (3.4). Based on the results, there was a significant difference between the attitudes of faculty members (P < 0.01).

    Conclusions

    Concerning the accordance between mission and headquarter activities, medical sciences universities were somewhat far from the third millennium universities and should be accountable for the quality of their actions. Finally, they need to show their merits and should work to promote themselves by acquiring necessary certificates and quality assurance

    Keywords: Universities, Medicine, Faculty, Attitude, Iran
  • Gholamreza Goudarzi, Pegah Shakib, Khatereh Anbari, Shahram Shokri* Pages 348-354
    Objectives

    Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-Kp) is created by various mechanisms mainly including the production of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) and other class A, B, and D beta-lactamases (e.g., OXA-48). The present study was undertaken to assess the occurrence of blaKPC and blaOXA-48 genes among K. pneumoniae isolates.

    Materials and Methods

    In this cross-sectional study, 110 K. pneumoniae strains were collected from clinical samples from 2 teaching hospitals in Khorramabad, Iran. Susceptibility testing and modified-Hodge test (MHT) for K. pneumoniae isolates were performed according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute procedures, followed by carrying out the detection of blaKPC and blaOXA-48 genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Finally, genetic similarity among the tested strains tested was determined by the repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) method.

    Results

    Up to 110 K. pneumoniae, the highest resistance and susceptibility rates pertained to ampicillin and ertapenem, respectively. In addition, 10 (9%) isolates were considered as carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae by the MHT. Although 13 (11.8%) isolates were blaOXA-48-positive, none of them were harboring blaKPC. Eventually, 13 and 44 clusters were distinguished in hospitals A and B by rep-PCR, respectively.

    Conclusions

    The results of this study indicated that resistance to carbapenems among K. pneumoniae isolates were relatively common in our region. Moreover, the disseminated clones in our hospitals had mainly diverse origins

    Keywords: Carbapenemase, Klebsiella pneumoniae, blaOXA-48, blaKPC
  • Seyed Ali Sajjadi, Jalal Mardaneh, Alireza Mohammadzadeh*, Roghye Hojjatpanah, Hossein Nezami, Mostafa Amiri, Mehdi Ghasemi Pages 355-361
    Objectives

    Methicillin-resistant staphylococci are important causes of nosocomial infections. Due to the presence of these bacteria in hospitals as a significant challenge in hospital infection control, the identification of effective disinfectants against methicillin-resistant staphylococci is necessary. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of common hospital disinfectants against methicillin-resistant staphylococci.

    Materials and Methods

    In this cross-sectional study, the effectiveness of 4 surface disinfectant cleaners (Deconex 50 AF, Microzed GP-H, Peranacid M1 and Surfocept quick) against methicillin-resistant staphylococci (10 Staphylococcus aureus, 10 Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and 55 Staphylococcus epidermidis) was evaluated using broth dilution method, disc diffusion assay, and cell viability assay.

    Results

    The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of Peranacid and Surfocept against the isolates were higher than those of Deconex and Microzed. The results of disk diffusion assay showed that staphylococcus strains exhibited greater inhibition zone diameter than other disinfectants at different concentrations of Deconex and Microzed. According to the results of cell viability assay, S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and S. saprophyticus isolates did not grow at three concentrations (0.5%, 1% and 2%) of Deconex, Microzed, and Peranacid, respectively.

    Conclusions

    Deconex and Microzed had more antimicrobial properties than the 2 other agents and methicillin-resistant staphylococcus isolates had a higher resistance to both Peranacid and Surfosept

    Keywords: MRAS, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Disinfectants, Nosocomial infections
  • Vahideh Toopchizadeh, Shima Karimnia, Bina Eftekhar Sadat, Fatemeh Jahanjoo*, Mohammad Zakaria Pezeshki Pages 362-367
    Objectives

    To evaluate the effects of dry needling (DN) on pain and function in patients with concurrent carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and forearm muscles myofascial trigger point (MTrP).

    Materials and Methods

    This randomized controlled trial evaluated fifty affected hands with the clinical and electrodiagnostic diagnosis of mild and moderate CTS with the presence of MTrP in their forearm muscles. Patients were randomized to intervention and control groups. In the intervention group, one session forearm MTrP DN was performed in addition to wrist splint. Then, pain and function were assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ) at the baseline, one week, and six weeks after the intervention in both groups. The outcomes in this study were pain reduction (VAS) and improvement in hand function (BCTQ).

    Results

    The co-occurrence of mild and moderate CTS with forearm muscle MTrP was observed in 61% of cases. In addition, improvement in pain severity, VAS, a mean difference of 1.44 (with a 95% CI of 0.96, 1.92, P < 0.001), the BCTQ total score, and a mean difference of 0.21 (with a 95% CI of 0.10, 0.32, P < 0.001) were observed in the DN group compared with the control group at one-week follow-up.

    Conclusions

    In general, forearm MTrP should be considered when examining patients with CTS since MTrP therapy in patients with CTS can enhance the effectiveness of physical therapy on symptom improvement in short terms

    Keywords: Carpal tunnel syndrome, Forearm muscles, Dry needling, Trigger point
  • Lida Saboktakin* Pages 368-372
    Objectives

    Diabetes mellitus (DM), as a metabolic disorder, affects life quality through insulin insufficiency. Leptin and resistin are two adipokines that are mainly produced as internal secretory proteins by the adipose tissue. Considering that adipokines are strongly associated with insulin sensitivity and inflammatory markers, any modification in their serum levels is probably assumed to contribute to the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) as well.

    Materials and Methods

    The study was conducted on a population of diabetic children who were followed up during 2015 at the Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism Unit of Tabriz University, Faculty of Medicine. In general, 50 children with T1DM and 50 healthy control were selected in this regard. The exclusion criteria included hypertension, hyperlipidemia, anemia, or infection. Resistin and leptin levels were measured in the serums of children over a one-year period. Then the serum levels of leptin and resistin were measured and matched for gender, age, and body mass index (BMI), followed by measuring the correlations (adjusted for age and gender) between the serum levels of adipokines and either BMI or glycemic control (hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c).

    Results

    The distribution of age, sex, pubertal status, or BMI showed no significance between diabetic and control groups. On the other hand, resistin increased significantly in diabetic children compared to the control ones (24.75±10.56 ng/mL vs. 3.48±1.47 ng/mL, P<0.001). Although resistin demonstrated no significant correlation with age, sex, and BMI, it indicated a significant relationship with the level of HbA1c. The increased level of leptin did not represent a significant criterion between the 2 groups of children.

    Conclusions

    In general, resistin could associate with the pathophysiology of T1DM through the inflammatory pathway at the molecular level

    Keywords: Leptin, Resistin, Diabetes mellitus
  • Hossein Kalarestaghy, Hajar Shafaei*, Raheleh Farahzadi, Parviz Vahedi, Mohamad Amin Dolathkhah, Abbas Del Azar, Nahid Karimian Fathi Pages 373-381
    Objectives

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) have osteogenic potential. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an alternative natural replacement for osteogenic growth factors. The present study evaluated the combinatory effect of human PRP (hPRP) and collagen I (Col I) gels on the osteogenic potential of ASCs.

    Materials and Methods

    In current experimental research, the extracted ASCs from the pararenal fat pad, at passage 3 were used for the experiments. The osteoinductive potential of ASCs was examined by culturing the cells in cell culture media supplemented with 10% hPRP, 10% Col I, and 10% hPRP/Col I. Finally, metabolic activity, osteoblast differentiation, and mineralization were assessed through the MTT method, alkaline phosphatase assay, Von Kossa method, and staining of osteocalcin (OCN) immunocytochemistry, respectively.

    Results

    Based on the results, 10% hPRP gel, 10% Col I gel, and 10% hPRP/Col I gel increased the metabolic activity and proliferation of ASCs (P < 0.05). In addition, the activity of alkaline phosphatase in ASCs, supplemented with 10% hPRP/Col I gel was extremely higher compared to the other groups on days 7 and 14 (P < 0.05). Further, calcified nodules were evident on day 14 after the osteogenic stimulation of ASCs which were cultured in 10% hPRP/Col I gel. Eventually, positive OCN expression was detected in 10% hPRP/Col I gel on days 7 and 14.

    Conclusions

    These findings indicated that the combination of hPRP and Col I gels provides a natural biomaterial for increasing the proliferation and osteoblast differentiation of ASCs

    Keywords: Osteogenesis_Adipose-derived stem cells_Platelet-rich plasma_Collagen I gel
  • Soheila Bani, Iraj Lotfinia, Parviz Shahabi, Abolfazl Barzegari, Jalal Abdolalizadeh*, Amir Vahedi, Meysam Ghorbani Pages 382-388
    Objectives

    Cation Channel Spermia (CatSper) 1-4 are considered as a unique family of "sperm cation channels" and play an important role in the motility of the sperm and male fertility. The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the effects of selenium (Se) and electrical stimulation (Es) on the expression of CatSper 1 and 2 genes in the spinal cord injury (SCI) rat model.

    Materials and Methods

    The present experimental study was performed on 50 male Wistar rats. The animals were randomly divided into 5 groups of 10 which experienced SCI using an SCI impactor device. Forty-eight hours after injury, the Se group received Se for 6 consecutive days for 6 weeks, and Es was performed for 1 hour per day for 6 consecutive days during 6 weeks in the Es group. Finally, the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed for the expression of CatSper 1 and 2 genes, followed by using one-way ANOVA for the analysis of gene expression data. The results were considered statistically significant when P < 0.05.

    Results

    Se treatment showed an increase in the relative expression of CatSper 1 and 2 genes compared to the control group, but this increase was higher for CatSper 2. Eventually, Es did not affect the relative intensity of CatSper 1 and 2 gene expression after SCI.

    Conclusions

    Se, more than Es, could increase the relative intensity of CatSper1 and 2 expressions, and this increase was higher in CatSper2

    Keywords: Selenium, Electrical stimulation, CatSper 1, 2 genes
  • Kamyar Aeinfar, Ali Sadighi*, Hossein Aslani Pages 389-392
    Objectives

    Acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) dislocation is one of the most common shoulder injuries, especially in young and athletes, which has a significant effect on a patient"s function. Therapeutic strategies include non-surgical and a variety of surgical methods. Each of the 2 therapies has some advantages and disadvantages and careful decision making regarding the appropriate therapeutic approach in these patients has not been achieved due to controversial results. Standard surgical treatment is not specified as well. In this regard, the present study was conducted to compare both row screw and hook plate.

    Materials and Methods

    In this retrospective cohort study, 68 patients were enrolled after referring to the Shohada Medical Education Center of Tabriz during 2014-2017 with the dislocation of the 4th, 5th, and 6th grade ACJ dislocation. In this study, 44 and 24 patients underwent open reduction and internal fixation with a screw and a hook plate, respectively. The retest workers, and the shoulder range of motion (ROM), as well as pain and device failure were compared between the 2 groups.

    Results

    According to the results, there were no significant differences between 68 patients with acute dislocation of ACJ type 4, 5, and 6 in terms of work time and pain intensity in the 2 groups (P = 0.78 and P = 0.29), but in the examination of ROM, abduction, forward flexion, and external rotation had significantly higher limitations in hook plate compared to the screw (P = 0.03, P = 0.001, and P = 0.02). The maximum motion limitation was observed in shoulder abduction, but the internal rotation between the 2 groups was not significantly different. Eventually, the device failure rate for the screw was significantly higher and approximately 18.4% whereas there was no device failure in hook plate fixation.

    Conclusions

    Based on the present results regarding acromioclavicular dislocation, surgical treatment using a screw showed better functional improvement in comparison to the hook plate although the probability of devise failure was higher

    Keywords: Acromioclavicular dislocation, Hook plate, Screw, Device failure, Range of motion
  • Malihe Najafpour, Majid Farshdousti Hagh, Ako Azimi*, Milad Zadi Heydarabad, Peyman Balekdari, Aylin Jahanban Esfahlan, Amin Ghasemi*, Saiedeh Ganbarjeddi Pages 393-397
    Objectives

    Several studies have shown that major beta-thalassemia patients suffer from renal dysfunction. Genetic is one of the crucial factors in this phenomenon. Accordingly, this study aimed to evaluate the correlation between renal dysfunction and Fok-I polymorphism in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene of major beta-thalassemia patients.

    Materials and Methods

    Sixty thalassemic patients and sixty healthy individuals were involved in this case-control study. Robust renal and urine analyzes were done in terms of performance evaluation. Finally, genotype assessment for Fok-I polymorphism was performed via the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method.

    Results

    In general, renal dysfunction embracing proteinuria and hyperfilteration were observed in the thalassemic group. As regards patients" genotype frequencies, 51.6%, 36.6%, and 11.6% were homozygous for F allele (FF), heterozygous (Ff), and homozygous for f allele (ff), respectively. Eventually, the frequencies of FF and Ff alleles were 49.1% and 50.8%, respectively, in normal group l.

    Conclusions

    Our data suggested that there is no correlation between renal dysfunction and Fok-I polymorphism in major beta-thalassemic patients. Thus, further studies are needed about plausible pathways involved in renal dysfunction, to demonstrate the motives of renal dysfunction in major beta-thalassemia patients

    Keywords: Vitamin D receptor_Fok-I polymorphism_Thalassemia_Renal insufficiency
  • Monireh Halimi, Taraneh Ghorbani*, Ali Dastranj Tabrizi, Zhila Khamnian, Sajjad Pourasghary Pages 398-403
    Objectives

    Lung cancer is the most prevalent cancer in the world and one of the five most common cancers in Iran. The level of Ki67 biomarker is related to any of the factors affecting the grading of neuroendocrine lung tumors, which is used as one of the grading criteria and a criterion for assessing and predicting survival and prognostic factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between Ki67 antigen incidence and mitotic count, necrosis, tumor size in the neuroendocrine tumors of the lung.

    Materials and Methods

    The samples of this analytical descriptive study, including the neuroendocrine tumors of the lung in paraffin blocks were chosen from the pathology archive of Imam Reza hospital collected during the last 10 years. Ki67 antigen immunohistochemical procedures, along with mitotic count and necrosis were performed by a collaborator pathologist. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software and P-value less than 0.05 was considered a statistically significant level.

    Results

    The mean incidence of Ki67 antigen in the neuroendocrine tumors of the lung was 57.7± 6.5 and the lowest and highest incidence was 1% and 90%, respectively. In addition, the relationship between Ki67 antigen incidence and mitotic count and necrosis were significant while no significant relationship was observed between Ki67 antigen incidence and tumor size in typical carcinoid tumors.

    Conclusions

    Overall, the Ki67 antigen is regarded as a useful and essential tool for grading neuroendocrine lung tumors

    Keywords: Ki67, Neuroendocrine Lung Tumor, Metastasis, Tumor Grading
  • Zivar Akbari, Esmat Mehrabi*, Mojgan Mirghafourvand, Roghayeh Nourizadeh Pages 404-408
    Objectives

    The present study aimed to assess the effect of the decision-aid-based intervention on breast cancer screening behaviors in women based on the theory of change.

    Materials and Methods

    This interventional study was conducted among 40-69-year-old women who were randomly selected from the healthcare centers of Tabriz. The intervention group received a decision-aid booklet and an individual counseling session. In addition, the data were gathered before and eight weeks after the intervention using demographic and obstetric questionnaires and a checklist of behavior change stages. Finally, data were analyzed using SPSS24.

    Results

    According to the sequential logistic regression test, women who received the decision-aid-based consultation underwent breast control, breast clinical examination, and mammography significantly more than the control group (P < 0.001).

    Conclusions

    In general, intervention programs with presenting decision-aid-based counseling could change women"s screening behaviors because such programs increase their knowledge about the benefit and harms of a decision in relation to a choice such as doing mammography

    Keywords: Decision aid, Counseling, Breast cancer screening, Breast control, Mammography
  • Seyyedeh Mahdiye Hatami, Sina Parsay, Maryam Hassan Famian, Masoumeh Kazemi, Azadeh Montaseri* Pages 409-413
    Objectives

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common multifactorial disease that deteriorates articular cartilage in the elderly. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells have been introduced as candidates for OA treatment but some researchers showed that implantation of stem cells into the lesion site of patients can lead to some side effects. Accordingly, many scientists switch their field of research to the application of stem cells supernatant. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether supernatant of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can result in the expression of cartilage-specific genes in chondrocytes.

    Materials and Methods

    Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from adipose tissue and their supernatant was collected and added to chondrocytes. After 3 days, chondrocytes were prepared for expression of collagen type II, sox9, COMP and aggrecan genes using real-time RT-PCR.

    Results

    Data analysis showed that in the presence of ASCs conditioned medium (CM), the gene expression level of collagen II, sox9, and aggrecan did not change but that of the COMP significantly increased after 3 days.

    Conclusions

    The obtained results may be related to the unknown factors secreted by stem cells and more investigations are necessary for understanding the exact mechanisms underlying these findings

    Keywords: Stem cells, Adipose tissue, Osteoarthritis, Supernatant
  • Atefeh Allahbakhshian, Rasoul Nazif Gharamaleki*, Azad Rahmani, Faranak Jabbarzadeh Tabrizi, Maryam Allahbakhshian, Leila Gholizadeh, Samad Ghaffari, Parvin Sarbakhsh Pages 414-420
    Objectives

    There are some side effects such as the restenosis of the coronary artery resulted from the failure to follow the medication regimen. Considering that patients" beliefs have a great role in their lifestyle, this study aimed at investigating the relationship between beliefs in medication and self-reported medication adherence in patients with coronary angioplasty (CA).

    Materials and Methods

    This was a descriptive cross-sectional correlational study. Based on the inclusion criteria, qualified participants were chosen from among the patients who referred to heart specialty hospital using a convenience sampling method. The applied questionnaire in this study included three sections encompassing the demographic information, a 5-item Medication Adherence Questionnaire (MARS), and BMQ-S questionnaire containing two aspects of "necessity" and "concerns about taking medications".

    Results

    The mean of participants" age was 56.99 (SD=12.80) and the majority of the participants were males (78.7%), married (89.3%), and mostly illiterate (30.7%). The study results showed that 70% (n=105) of the participants had a weak medication adherence. The results of the Pearson correlation demonstrated a statistically significant relationship between the beliefs in medication and adherence to it.

    Conclusions

    After CA, nurses and family members can pave the way for the patients to adhere to medication by influencing their beliefs

    Keywords: Belief in medication, Medication adherence, Coronary angioplasty
  • Mohammad Hasan Sahebihagh, Asghar Mohammadpoorasl, Raziyeh Parizad*, Elnaz Javanshir, Mina Hosseinzadeh Pages 421-428
    Objectives

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), especially ischemic heart diseases (IHDs) are one of the most important health-related issues in the world. Lifestyle plays a remarkable role in preventing or developing such diseases. Therefore, given the importance of lifestyle as an influential factor in the incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and the rise of these diseases in younger ages, the aim of the current research was to investigate and compare various aspects of patients" lifestyles on developing CAD and subsequently to contrast them with non-affected patients.

    Materials and Methods

    This study included 368 people who were equally divided into four groups of under 45-years-old coronary and non-coronary disease, as well as 45-years and older coronary and non-coronary disease. The participants were selected by means of the convenience sampling method from Madani heart center and Shohada hospital of Tabriz from March to June 2018. Non-coronary and coronary patients were matched in terms of gender and age (±3 years) and data were collected using a 65-item lifestyle questionnaire through interviews.

    Results

    The mean lifestyle scores were obtained as 103.02 ± 12.11, 123.83 ± 10.35, 99.25 ± 0.27, and 129.02 ± 10.65 for under 45-years-old coronary patients and their counterpart control group, as well as 45-years-old and older patients and their counterpart control group, respectively. Based on the results, there was a significant difference between coronary patients and non-coronary groups in both age categories (P < 0.001). Finally, the comparison of the mean lifestyle scores between the under 45-year-old and the 45-year-old and older groups showed that the two groups only had a significant difference in the subscale physical activity and exercise (P < 0.001) and dietary habits (P = 0.009).

    Conclusions

    In general, the risk factors for CAD in both age categories were similar except for lower physical activity and nutrition poorer in 45-year- old individuals. Accordingly, primary and secondary prevention, risk factor control, and promotion of a healthy lifestyle at family and society levels should start from childhood and adolescence

    Keywords: Coronary heart diseases, Lifestyle, Age groups
  • Gholamreza Goudarzi, Pegah Shakib, Mozhgan Azadpour, Mohamad Reza Nazer* Pages 429-433
    Objectives

    The principal mechanism of resistance in many clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus involves the inactivation of aminoglycoside antibiotics by aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AMEs). The present study identified the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and the prevalence of AMEs among S. aureus strains.

    Materials and Methods

    To carry out this cross-sectional research, a total of 100 S. aureus were gathered from the university hospitals in Khorramabad, Iran, from January to November 2017. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the isolates was determined using the disk diffusion method according to the guidelines suggested by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. The samples were assayed to detect the presence of three AME genes by the use of a triplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method.

    Results

    The prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage was 14.7% (50/340). In addition, 15%, 10%, 15%, and 8% of the total isolates were found to be resistant to gentamicin, amikacin, kanamycin, and netilmicin, respectively. Further, aac(6′)/aph(2′′), aph(3′)-IIIa, and ant(4′)-Ia genes were present in 17%, 12%, and 0% of the isolates, respectively. Based on the results, the double combination of aac(6′)/aph(2′′) and aph(3′)-IIIa genes were only observed among clinical-isolated strains (12/50, 24%), which predominantly were resistant to oxacillin (10/12, 83.3%). Eventually, the aac(6′)/aph(2′′) gene was found in all isolates that were phenotypically resistant to gentamicin and kanamycin.

    Conclusions

    These findings indicated that resistance to aminoglycosides is significantly related to methicillin-resistance (P < 0.001). Due to the relatively high occurrence of the main genes modifying aminoglycosides in our region, it is recommended that clinicians combine aminoglycosides synergistically with other antibiotics such as beta-lactams in cases of empirical treatments

    Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, Aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes, Multiplex-PCR
  • Parisa Kazemi, Fateme Esfandiarpour*, Saeed Talebian, Gholam Reza Olyaei, Reza Salehi, Seyedeh Maryam Hejazi Pages 434-438
    Objectives

    The stability and mobility function of dominant and non-dominant limbs are different. Considering the lack of any previous investigation in this regard, this study aimed to investigate the effect of limb dominancy on anticipatory postural adjustments and reaction time (RT) during gait initiation in healthy people.

    Materials and Methods

    Twenty healthy people with the right limb dominant participated in the study. The two stimuli of warning and response were used within a 2-second interstimulus interval. In addition, the participants were instructed to get ready to initiate walking as soon as they hear the warning stimulus and initiate gait immediately after hearing the response stimulus, followed by measuring the RT and duration of the anticipatory postural adjustment phase.

    Results

    The RT was slower when a person initiated gait with the dominant limb as compared with the non-dominant limb and no significant differences were observed in anticipatory postural adjustment phase duration between the two limbs.

    Conclusions

    In general, our findings demonstrated that information processing capacity for perception, motor planning, and selection of proper motor responses for movement initiation is affected by limb dominance

    Keywords: Limb, Dominance, Reaction time, Postural balance, Gait initiation
  • Ramin Ghasemi, Jafar Rahmani Kahnamooi* Pages 439-442
    Objectives

    Sucralose is an artificial sweetener of sucrose, which is 600 times sweeter than sugar and produces low calories. Cipla is a commercial sweetener, which has sucralose and other various constituents. The present study evaluated the effects of Cipla on some biochemical factors of rats.

    Materials and Methods

    The study was done on 24 male rats, which was randomly distributed to 4 groups of healthy control, diabetics control, treatment healthy, and diabetics treatment. Healthy and diabetic control groups were fed with a base diet. Healthy and diabetics treatment groups received sucralose through gavage 15 mg/kg daily for a month. Then, streptozotocin was administered intra-peritoneally (65 mg/kg one dose) to induce diabetes. At the end of the study, albumin, bilirubin, total protein, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) of the serum were evaluated and the results were analyzed by SPSS 22.

    Results

    The results indicated that the total proteins of the serum, albumin, and bilirubin, ALT, AST, and ALP were not different statistically in different groups (P>0.05).

    Conclusions

    In general, it was found that Cipla as a sweetener has not any side effects and has no negative effects on the liver function of the rat

    Keywords: Cipla, Sucralose, Serum biochemical parameters, Rat, Liver function