فهرست مطالب

Human, Health and halal Metrics - Volume:1 Issue: 1, 2020
  • Volume:1 Issue: 1, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/02/12
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
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  • Anita Chalipour, Fatemeh Zamani Mazdeh, MohammadReza Fazeli Farsani, Fatemeh Salami, Mohsen Amini, Yalda H. Ardakani, Mannan Hajimahmoodi * Pages 1-7
    Background and objective

    Various types of alcohol for severalapplications are available worldwide, of which, disinfection is one of the most important. In Muslim nations, consumption of alcoholic beverages is prohibited even at low quantities in accordance to halal status. Therefore, denatonium benzoate (commercially known as Bitrex) that has sharp bitterness is added to alcohol to avoid its edible usage. In this regard, at least 10 mg l-1 of denatonium benzoate is added to industrial alcohol according to Iranian Ministry of Health regulation. In our study, we examined the concentration of denatonium benzoate and also purity of alcohol samples collected from capital city of Iran (Tehran).

    Materials and methods

    In total, 62 samples of alcohol were collected and analyzed by HPLC for Bitrex and alcoholmeter for purity. For HPLC, C18 column (150×4.6 mm, 5 µm) as stationary phase and phosphate buffer/acetonitrile solution containing sodium lauryl sulfate (50:50 v v-1) as mobile phase with flow rate of 1.2 ml min-1 were used.

    Results and conclusion

    The results revealed that some companies (41 samples out of 62) did not use denatonium benzoate in their products and used fruit essences instead to improve the taste and smell of alcohol. These results were against the force of Ministry of Health in mandatory addition of denatonium benzoate to prevent the samples’ further abuse. In addition, purity of most alcohols was not compatible to the information provided by the labels. We concluded that more restriction and supervision is required to prevent adulteration.

    Keywords: alcohol, Bitrex, Denatonium benzoate, HPLC
  • Samaneh Farrokhzadeh *, Habib Razmi, Naficeh Sadeghi, Elnaz Marzi Khosrowshahi Pages 8-20
    Background and objective

    Dye molecules as an important type of organic pollutants are potentially toxic and have carcinogenic and mutagenic impact on living systems. Today, uncontrolled discharge of organic pollutants is environmental problem. Dissolution of synthetic dyes in aqueous media causes decreased light penetration into water and interferes photosynthesis reactions. This research introduces a new and eco-friendly adsorbent based on chicken feet yellow membrane(CFYM) for removal of cationic dye.

    Materials and methods

    Untreated CFYM was collected from slaughterhouse and prepared for analysis after washing by deionized water, drying at 90°C for 12-24 h and grinding to fine powders. The adsorbent was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Scanning electron microscopy and Emmett and Teller techniques. Functional groups of C=O, O–H, N–H, C–N, C–C and H–C–H could confirm that the pre-treated CFYM has mainly organic nature. Removal applicability and efficiency of bio-adsorbent were studied using cationic methylene blue (MB) as s model. To reach the best results, main parameters including pH, adsorbent mass, contact time and temperature were optimized by one-factor-at-a-time method through adsorption experiments in a batch system. The equilibrium adsorption experiments were evaluated by Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin and Dubinin-Raduskovich isotherm models. The adsorption kinetic models of pseudo-first order, second first order, Elovich and intra-particle diffusion were also studied.

    Results and conclusion

    Results were in accordance to Langmuir isotherm model. Obtained kinetic and thermodynamic parameters confirmed that pseudo-first order model was the best kinetic model and adsorption process of MB on CFYM was exothermic and spontaneous. Based on the results, CFYM, as a novel natural adsorbent, was efficient for removal of cationic organic pollutant from aqueous solutions.

    Keywords: Chicken feet yellow membrane, Isotherm, Kinetic, Methylene blue, Removal
  • Fatemeh Zarei, Leila Nateghi *, Maryam Zarei Pages 21-28
    Background and objective

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play a critical role in food fermentation. Gamma Amino Butyric Acid (GABA) is one of bioactive metabolites produced by LAB that pose significant impact on human health. The objective of this research was isolation and identification of probiotic bacteria from traditional daires in Iran and evaluation of their potential in GABA production.

    Materials and methods

    In this research, 30 isolates of bacteria from traditional dairies (yogurt, dough, cheese and butter) were studied. To diagnose probiotic species, initial tests including gram staining, oxidase and catalase were performed. Additional verification studies on the approved isolated bacteria in the last step were included to acid, bile and pepsin and trypsin resistance, hemolysis inactivity and L-arginine hydrolysis. Probiotic bacteria were charcterized by 16SrDNA PCR approach. In addition, GABA concentration was detected by HPLC equipped with C18 column (150 mm× 4.6 mm × 0.5 µm) at 25°C and UV-VIS detector (λ = 338 nm). The mobile phases of sodium dihydroxy phosphate and acetonitrile/ methanol/water were used in gradient mode.

    Results and conclusion

    Among all isolated bacteria, six strains were gram-positive, catalase-negative and oxidase-negative that initially known as LAB. Two out of six LAB isolates with acceptable probiotic characteristics were selecetd based on supplemantary tests. Accordingly, Lactobacillus lactis ssp. Lactis and Lactobacillusdelbrueckii ssp. Bulgaricus isolated from cheese and butter, respectively, showed the most significant probiotic properties. However, Lactobacillusdelbrueckii ssp. Bulgaricus produced higher GABA than another (377.54 vs. 301.09 mg l-1). As conclusion, traditional dairies in Iran are good reservoir of indigenious healthy microorganisms that can be used as starter or adjuvant culture with several helpful impacts on consumers.

    Keywords: Gamma Amino Butyric Acid, HPLC, L. delbrueckii ssp. Bulgaricus, L. lactis ssp. Lactis, PCR, Probiotic
  • Javad Feizy *, Sima Ahmadi Pages 29-34
    Background and objective

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are toxic metabolites that produced predominantly by three species of Aspergillus. Current study was conducted to determine quantity of AFs in barley feed.

    Materials and methods

    A total of 97 samples were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The method was based on extraction of finely ground samples by methanol as solvent. An aliquot of 20 µl of extract was injected to HPLC after filtration. Aflatoxins were detected by ZORBAX Eclipse XDB C18 column (150×4.6×5 µm). Mobile phase of water:methanol:acetonitrile (60:20:20 v/v/v) at linear gradient mode and flow rate of 1 ml min-1 was used. Experiments were done at excitation and emission wavelengths of 365 and 445 nm, respectively, after post-column UV derivatisation.

    Results and conclusion

    The obtained results showed that AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 were detected in 19, 9, 4 and 1 samples, respectively. Relatively low LOD and LOQ were achieved in our analytical approach that approved a desirable goodness of fit for the analysis. Trueness was examined by determination of the relative recoveries of AFs that were quite good. This survey provides valuable information on aflatoxin contamination in barely feed products marketed in Mashhad city.

    Keywords: Aflatoxin, Barley feed, High performance liquid chromatography, Mashhad
  • Aliyeh Ghamkhari * Pages 35-41
    Background and objective

    Antibacterial compounds are considerably interested because of their importance in control of microbial outbreak. Various approaches are being developed for explore of novel and powerful antimicrobial agents. The aim of present work was to develop a durable cationic antibacterial based on triblock copolymer.

    Materials and methods

    Novel poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-b-poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide)-b-poly (N-4-vinylbenzyl), N,N-diethylamine hydrochloride (briefly named PHEMA-b-PNIPAM-b-PVEAH or ABC) cationic triblock copolymer was synthesized via reversible addition fragmentation transfer (RAFT) polymerization to investigate its antibacterial behavior. Structure of ABC triblock copolymer was explored by means of Fourier Transform Infrared and 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopies. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity of cationic triblock copolymer was examined on four microorganisms including Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans.

    Results and conclusion

    Molecular weight of blocks in the copolymer including PHEMA, PHEMA-b-PNIPAM and PHEMA-b-PNIPAM-b-PVEAH was 10950, 17103 and 26165 g mol-1, respectively. Results showed remarkable antibacterial activity so that inhibition diameter of B. cereus and S. aureus were 25, 29, 34 mm and 32, 37, 41 mm, respectively. Low antibacterial activity was detected against E. coli (14, 17 and 21 mm) and the highest antibacterial activity was detected for C. albicans (48, 81 and 98 mm). Acceptable antibacterial and high anti-yeast activity was observed for ABC. Therefore, it could be used in therapeutic purposes and microbial suppression.

    Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Bacillus cereus, candida albicans, cationic triblock copolymer, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus
  • Samaneh Farrokhzadeh *, Habib Razmi, Behrooz Jannat Pages 42-56
    Background and objective

    Recently, use of inexpensive and available adsorbents have been studied for removal purposes. One of main sources of environmental pollutions is uncontrolled discharge of wastewater containing synthetic dyes that may result in adverse effect on human health. At this study, removal efficiency of marble powder (MP) and calcined marble powder (CMP) as potential and low cost natural adsorbents for removal of Reactive Red 195 as anionic dye was investigated.

    Materials and methods

    The adsorbents were characterized by X-Ray diffraction, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and zeta potential measurements. Anionic dye of Reactive Red 195 was used as adsorbate. Raw MP was collected from marble processing plant and its calcination was done at 750°Cfor 3 h in furnace.

    Results and conclusion

    Effect of variables including pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, dye concentration and temperature were studied by a batch system. Adsorption reactions at equilibrium followed Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetic models. Maximum adsorption capacity of 103.092 mg g-1 was observed for CMP that was more than MP (1.218 mg g-1). Results showed that calcination process can significantly reduce negative charges on surface of marble powder and promote its efficiency for anionic dye removal. Thermodynamic study revealed that adsorption of Reactive Red 195 on CMP was exothermic and spontaneously. In conclusion, abundance of MP as inorganic waste and its transformation to CMP by simple calcination process makes it an efficient, available and economic candidate for water purification.

    Keywords: Adsorption Isotherm, Calcined Marble Powder, Kinetic, Reactive Red 195, Removal