فهرست مطالب

Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Research - Volume:6 Issue: 1, 2020
  • Volume:6 Issue: 1, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/04/07
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
|
  • Elham Gharirvand Eskandari, Mahbubeh Setorki, Monir Doudi* Pages 1-16
    Background

    Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by various species of the Leishmania parasites. An effective vaccine or drug to prevent the infestation or a suitable medication to cure the disease without side effects has not been provided yet. 

    Objectives

    The use of medicinal herbs in the treatment of many diseases, especially parasitic ones, dates back to prehistoric times. This article is a review study on these herbs used for the treatment of leishmaniasis. 

    Methods

    In this regard, we searched PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar databases. We prepared this review on the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis with medicinal plants because of the prevalence of this disease, chemical drugs’ failure to fully control it, increase in the number of reports on drug resistance, and contradictory research on the side effects of synthetic drugs. 

    Results

    In general, the use of medicinal herbs for the treatment of various diseases has a long history. Because of Iran’s diverse climate and flora, we have the potential to identify the active herbal ingredients in different indigenous plants of the country and extract them to produce them on an industrial scale. 

    Conclusion

    In this article, several herbs used to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis from the past to today in Iran and other countries are studied and evaluated.

    Keywords: Cutaneous leishmaniasis, Medicinal plants, Antileishmanial activities
  • Khandaker Nujhat Tasnim, Sumiya Haque Adrita, Shahadat Hossain, Shahrukh Zaman Akash, Shazid Sharker* Pages 17-26
    Background

    The news regarding the successful treatment of uncured diseases is extremely exciting. Recently, the study of stem cells has been widely considered.

    Objectives

    The stem cells have the potential to be converted to all specialized functional cells.

    Methods

    Advances in cell engineering and genetic reprogramming of the stem cells have contributed to novel approaches that may bring hope to HIV and cancer patients.

    Results

    In this regard, HIV patients recently received a stem-cell transplant that replaced their white blood cells with HIV-resistant versions (obtained from stem cells). However, only a few clinically successful approaches are available on new stem cells.

    Conclusion

    This review includes two parts; in the first section, the reader can obtain a basic idea about stem cells, whereas the second part emphasizes new opportunities and directions in translating stem cells basic research to the clinical applications.

    Keywords: Stem Cells, Reprogramming, HIV, Cancer
  • Asita Elengoe*, Nishalani Devi Sundramoorthy Pages 27-36
    Background

    Breast cancer is known as the most widely recognized dangerous tumors; therefore, the most common reason for mortality among all instances of harmful neoplastic illness in females. This is because the lack of specific signs and symptoms at the early stage and at the aggressive nature. Currently, breast cancer treatment such as chemotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy has not been effective.

    Objectives

    In this study, three-dimensional (3D) structures of caspase 3, mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 (MADCAM1) and nuclear factor NF-kappa-B-p105 subunit (breast cancer cell line proteins) were created; and their binding interaction between proteins and curcumin through molecular docking approach were studied.

    Methods

    The proteins were created using Swiss model and viewed by PyMol software. The physical and chemical characters of the proteins were analysed by Expasy’s ProtParam Proteomics server. Besides that, the secondary structures of the proteins were analysed by SOPMA (Self Optimized Prediction Method from Alignment) server. After that, they were evaluated by PROCHECK, ProQ, ERRAT, and Verify3D analysis. Lastly, the breast cancer cell line proteins were docked with curcumin using BSP-Slim server.

    Results

    All the protein structures were good quality and within the acceptable range. The curcumin showed the binding energy with caspase 3, mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 and nuclear factor NF-kappa-B-p105 subunit at 4.140, 7.201 and 3.165 kcal/mol respectively. 

    Conclusion

    The nuclear factor NF-kappa-B-p105 subunit had the strongest bond with curcumin. Curcumin can be potential drug for breast cancer treatment. Therefore, it can further be investigated in laboratory experiments.

    Keywords: Caspase 3_Mucosal Addressin Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (MADCAM 1)_Nuclear factor NF-kappa-B-p105 subunit_Curcumin_Docking
  • Akram Ranjbar, Negar Mehri, Hassan Ghasemi, Dara Dastan, Farzaneh Kazemi Najafabadi, Narges Dehkhodaei, Nejat Kheiripour* Pages 37-44
    Background

    Studies have shown that organophosphorus pesticides such as malathion induces oxidative stress injury and tissue damage. 

    Objectives

    This research aimed to determine the effects of the hydroalcoholic extracts of Satureja avromanica (SA) on the liver function of malathion-poisoned animals.

    Methods

    Twenty-eight rats were divided into four groups of the control, SA (20 mg/kg), malathion+SA, and malathion. Animals received malathion 150 mg/kg and SA 20 mg/kg for one week through intraperitoneal injection. Then, their liver and blood samples were extracted, and alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase concentrations in serum as well as biomarkers of oxidative stress such as Lipid Peroxidation (LPO), Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) and Total Thiol Groups (TTG) in the liver tissue were measured. 

    Results

    The results showed that the SA administration reduced the level of liver LPO compared with that in the malathion group. Also, receiving SA increased liver TAC and TTG levels in rats, which this difference was significant compared with the malathion group. Besides, the SA group showed a significant decrease in liver enzyme levels, compared with the malathion-treated group.

    Conclusion

    According to the results, SA exerted protective effects against malathion poisoning, through reduction of oxidative stress. Therefore, SA may be an antioxidant to counteract the harmful effects of malathion poising in liver tissue.

    Keywords: Satureja avromanica, Organophosphorus, Malathion, Liver, Oxidative stress
  • Maryam Rezaie*, MohammadAli Azarbayjani, Maghsoud Peeri, Seyed Ali Hosseini Pages 45-52
    Background

    Studies have reported the beneficial effects of exercise, ozone therapy, and stem cell therapy for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. 

    Objectives

    To reduce the duration of the treatment, we decided to investigate the synergistic effects of Endurance Training (ET), ozone therapy, and mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) therapy separately or in combination on the cannabinoid receptors 1 (CB-1) and Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) gene expression, as anti-nociceptive pathways in the cartilage tissue of rats with osteoarthritis. 

    Methods

    In this experimental study, 40 rats with knee osteoarthritis were divided into eight groups of 5 rats each: 1. Osteoarthritis; 2. MSCs; 3. Ozone therapy; 4. ET; 5. ozone therapy+MSCs, 6. ET+ozone therapy; 7. ET+MSCs, and 8. ET+MSCs+ozone therapy. Knee osteoarthritis was induced through the partial cutting of internal meniscus. The endurance training program was initiated with a 30-min run on a 0-degree slope treadmill at a speed of 16 m/min in the first week that gradually reached to 50 minutes after the 8 weeks. Rats in the MSCs groups received an intra-articular injection of 1×106 cells/kg into the right knee joints. Also, ozone therapy groups were injected at a concentration of 20 μg/mL once a week for three weeks. Rats were then anesthetized 48 h after their last treatment. The Independent t test and 3-way ANOVA were used to analyze the findings (P≤0.05). 

    Results

    ET, ozone therapy, and MSCs alone increased CB-1 and GABA gene expression in the cartilage tissue of rats with knee osteoarthritis (P≤0.05 for all). A combination of ozone therapy and ET (P≤0.05) and combination of ozone therapy and MSCs (P≤0.05) were significant in increasing CB-1 and GABA gene expression. However, the combination of ET and MSCs (P≥0.05) and combination of ET, MSCs, and ozone therapy (P≤0.05) significantly increased CB-1 gene expression. 

    Conclusion

    It seems that ET, ozone therapy, and MSCs alone can have favorable effects on CB-1 and GABA variables. Also, the combination of ET and ozone therapy and also ozone therapy and MSCs have favorable effects on the anti-nociceptive pathway in the animal model of osteoarthritis. But further studies are needed on the combination of ET and MSCs and also the combination of ET, ozone therapy, and MSCs.

    Keywords: Osteoarthritis, Mesenchymal stem cells, Ozone, Training, Anti-nociceptive
  • Seyedeh Azam Hosseini, Ahmad Ahmadipour, Motahareh Soltani, Mohammad Mehdipour, Ali Mandegary, Somayyeh Karami Mohajeri* Pages 53-60
    Background

    Malathion (MT), an organophosphorus pesticide, induces hepatotoxicity and is associated with hyperglycemia and the development of diabetes mellitus. 

    Objectives

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of sub-acute exposure to sub-lethal dose of MT in the liver of diabetic rats. 

    Methods

    Non-diabetic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats received MT at a dose of 150 mg/kg/day orally. After 28 days, fasting blood glucose, Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT), serum aminotransferases, and liver histopathology and antioxidant status were examined. 

    Results

    MT impaired GTT, caused alteration in histopathology of histopathology and antioxidant status of liver in non-diabetic rats. Impairment in GTT did not observe in diabetic rats exposed to MT, but histopathology changes and antioxidant status alteration was more severe.

    Conclusion

    Repeated sub-lethal dose of MT exacerbated hepatotoxicity in diabetes condition through further impairment in the antioxidant defense system.

    Keywords: Organophosphorus, Diabetes, Liver, Oxidative stress
  • Shejuti Rahman Brishty, Nurul Islam Setu, Md. Rafi Anwar, Raunak Jahan, M.M.K. Mia, Mohammad Fahim Kadir, Md. Rabiul Islam* Pages 61-90
    Background

    Dermatological disorders affect people in all age groups and prevail all around the globe. In this regard, medicinal plants play a significant role as they are usually the first line of treatment in dermatological disorders. Because traditional healers in Bangladesh know little about the use of plants to treat different skin diseases, we carried out an ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) to explore the traditional uses for healing wounds and skin problems. 

    Objectives

    This study aimed to list the plants employed as remedies against various dermatological disorders in CHT. 

    Methods

    The survey was performed from January 2016 to December 2017 with fieldwork undertaken in CHT of Rangamati, Bandarban, and Khagrachari. Open-ended and semi-structured questionnaires were used for interviewing a total of 387 people comprising traditional healers, Ayurvedic/Unani drug manufacturers, and local inhabitants. A total of 56 plant species of 32 families were documented. The most frequently used plant parts were leaves. The majority of the species were shrub in nature, while paste represented their main mode of drug preparation. Most plants grew wild in forests, with some cultivated in homestead and gardens. 

    Results

    There was remarkable diversity in the doses of different plant preparations for various treatments. The presence of identified active compounds can rationalize the conventional use of many plants to treat dermatological disorders in Bangladesh. 

    Conclusion

    This documentation accounts for the preliminary information necessary to perform future phytochemical investigations and is vital for the conservation of these plants.

    Keywords: Bangladesh, Ethnobotanical survey, Dermatological disorders, Medicinal plants, Traditional healers
  • Rashid Mehmood, Maria John, Newton Amaldoss * Pages 91-104
    Background

     Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) of sumatriptan succinate (SS) were prepared by using lavender oil.  In ancient days, lavender oil was used for the treatment of a migraine. The natural anti-migraine agent, lavender oil, combined with an anti-migraine drug such as SS in a nano-formulation, will be a practical alternative approach in migraine therapy. 

    Objective

    NLCs of sumatriptan succinate were fabricated by using a natural anti-migraine oil (lavender oil), LECIVA-S70, which is a specialized grade for liposomal dermatological preparation and designed for emulsion, fat infusions, nutraceutical formulations, and parenteral use. It contains 70% phosphatidylcholine, which is not generally present in the regular soy lecithin.

    Methods

    The central composite design technique was used to examine the relationship between independent variables and responses such as lavender oil and LECIVA-S70. The dependent variables were Z-average (R1), polydispersity index (R2), and % entrapment efficiency (R3).  The NLCs were prepared with the double emulsification technique.  The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry analyzed the drug excipient compatibility profile. The developed NLCs were characterized for particle size by using Mastersizer, Zetasizer, and transmission electron microscopy.  The membrane diffusion technique studied the in vitro drug release profile.

    Results

    The mean±SD size of the NLCs ranged from 411.4±311.1 d.nm to 398.8±242.6 d.nm. The best formulation (SNE9) demonstrated an average diameter of 398.8±242.6 d.nm, with the PDI of 0.216, and zeta potential of 17.18 mV.

    Conclusion

    The optimized formula demonstrated the narrow size range, a satisfactory zeta potential, high drug loading, and reproducible drug release profile. The NLCs successfully retained the aroma of the lavender oil. According to ANOVA, the polydispersity index (R2) is significant with the central composite design.

    Keywords: Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs), Zetasizer, Zeta potential, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)