فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:7 Issue: 2, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/04/07
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • J. Kataria, A. Morey* Pages 52-59

    Poultry meat is one of the most popularly consumed meats worldwide. With the increased consumption, the poultry industry is also facing major challenges in maintaining of safety and shelf life of the poultry meat. Microbial concerns related to poultry meat comprise of meat safety and shelf life as poultry meat is prone to contamination with spoilage as well as pathogenic microorganisms. Poultry may be contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms such as Salmonella spp. at various processing steps, posing significant health risk to the consumers. To reduce the predominance of food-borne pathogens such as Salmonella spp. as well as spoilage microorganisms, poultry processors can employ a multi-hurdle approach wherein antimicrobial interventions are applied at various steps of processing. This article reviewed different poultry processing steps and the antimicrobial interventions used in the poultry processing sector to improve safety, shelf life, and quality of poultry meat. This review provides comprehensive knowledge on safety of poultry meat with special attention to Salmonella spp. for the poultry industry as well as researchers throughout the world.

    Keywords: Poultry Products, Food Handling, Anti-Infective Agents, Salmonella, Food Preservation, Food Safety
  • J. Yammine, L. Karam* Pages 60-66
    Background

    Controlling and reducing the food-borne illnesses remain one of the most challenging problems encountered by food authorities worldwide. This study was conducted to assess the microbiological quality of chicken breast, chicken liver, local and imported offal, and ground beef meat products sold in the Lebanese retail market.

    Methods

    Thirty-five chicken breast and liver samples produced by ISO 22000 certified and non-certified companies were purchased from the market. Chicken samples were tested for Total Aerobic Count (TAC), Total Coliforms (TC), Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes. Twenty offal and ground beef meat samples were collected as sold in bulk from the market and were analyzed for Escherichia coli O157:H7. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS statistical software v. 23.0.

    Results

    The results showed that 20, 100, 20, 80, and 0% of the analyzed chicken breast samples were rejected for TAC, TC, S. aureus, Salmonella spp., and L. monocytogenes, respectively. For chicken liver samples, 100% of the samples were rejected for TC and Salmonella spp., while all the samples were accepted for TAC, S. aureus, and L. monocytogenes. E. coli O157:H7 was absent in all meat samples.

    Conclusion

    Some chicken samples from both certified and non-certified suppliers exceeded the standard upper limits showing hygienic concerns; whereas meat products were safe for consumption regarding the pathogenic E.

    Keywords: Bacterial Load, Colony Count, Microbial, Meat, Food Safety, Lebanon
  • M.A.A. Machado, W.A. Ribeiro, V.S. Toledo, G.L.P.A. Ramos, H.C. Vigoder, J.S. Nascimento* Pages 67-74
    Background

    Milk is a reservoir for several groups of microorganisms, which may pose health risks. The aim of this work was to assess the antibiotic resistance and biofilm production in catalase-positive Gram-positive cocci isolated from Brazilian pasteurized milk.

    Methods

    The bacteria were isolated using Baird-Parker agar and identified by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time-Of-Flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometer. Disk diffusion technique was used to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility. For qualitative evaluation of biofilm production, the growth technique was used on Congo Red Agar.

    Results

    Totally, 33 out of 64 isolates were identified, including Staphylococcus epidermidis (n=3; 4.7%), Macrococcus caseolyticus (n=14; 21.9%), and Kocuria varians (n=16; 25%). Twenty-two isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic. Biofilm production was detected in only 5 isolates of K. varians and 1 isolate of S. epidermidis. All 14 M. caseolyticus isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic; but, multidrug resistant (MDR) isolates were not detected. Among all K. varians isolates, 4 were resistant to at least one antibiotic from three different classes and were considered to be MDR.

    Conclusion

    The presence of antibiotic-resistant M. caseolyticus, S. epidermidis, and K. varians isolates, especially MDRs, in milk samples highlights the possible role of milk as a reservoir of resistance genes.

    Keywords: Gram-Positive Cocci, Drug Resistance, Microbial, Biofilms, Milk, Brazil
  • R. Kumar, B. Bhattacharya, T. Agarwal, S. Chakkaravarthi* Pages 75-83
    Background

    Trans Fatty Acid (TFA) content in oil is an important quality parameter due to its adverse health effect. This study was aimed to examine the TFA content in the frying oil used by street food vendors in India for two traditional snack foods.

    Methods

    Totally, 143 oil samples were collected at different frying times (0, 2, and 4 h) from five different vendors for Samosa and Jalebi. TFA levels of the oil samples were analyzed by Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS software version 23.0.

    Results

    ATR-FTIR spectra exhibited an increase in peak intensity at 966 cm-1 with different frying time in both frying oil samples, indicating the formation of TFA. The TFA content in oils fried at 4 h was significantly higher than the ones at 0 and 2 intervals. It was found that 3 out of 74 (4%) Samosa fried oils and 12 out of 69 (17.4%) Jalebi fried oils were over the maximum allowed regulatory limit of TFA (5%). Jalebi fried oils had significantly higher TFA content than Samosa fried oils.

    Conclusion

    The increase in frying time decreased the peroxide values and increased saturated fatty acids and TFA values of oils used for both food items. The local vendors and consumers should be educated by national authorities regarding health risk of TFA in street fried snacks.

    Keywords: Trans Fatty Acids, Plant Oils, Fourier Analysis, Snacks, India
  • D. Hartanti*, N.A. Septiyaningrum, A. Hamad Pages 84-93
    Background

    Clove and lemon basil are widely used in Indonesian culinary and known for their antimicrobial properties. This study was designed to identify the chemical constituents of single clove and lemon basil Essential Oils (EOs) as well as determine the potential of the combinations of both EO for preserving chicken meats.

    Methods

    The compositions of clove and lemon basil EOs were evaluated with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer. Three different concentration ratios of the combination of clove and lemon basil EOs (2:0.2, 1:1, and 0.1:2% v/v) were prepared along with single clove and lemon basil EOs in a concentration of 1% v/v. Their potential preservation effect was evaluated by observing the reduction of the microbial growth on the meats by evaluating Optical Density (OD) of cultured bacterial suspensions during 15 days of refrigerated storage. Statistical analyses were conducted by SPSS Statistics v. 20.

    Results

    The major constituents of clove EO were eugenol, β-caryophyllene, and α-humulene, while those of lemon basil were estragol, linalool, E-citral, and Z-citral. Both treatment groups and storage time affected significantly on ODs of the samples. Combination of these two EOs, particularly at the optimum ratio of 1:1%, showed the best microbial inhibitory activity, and delayed the sensorial changes of the meats for 12 days. 

    Conclusion

    The combinations of cloves and lemon basil EOs showed a better microbial growth inhibitory activity and preservation potential than those of the single use. This meat preservation effects might be related to the presence of high fractions of oxygenated compounds, mainly eugenol, Z-citral, and E-citral in both clove and lemon basil EOs.

    Keywords: Syzygium, Ocimum, Oils, Volatile, Meat, Food Preservation
  • C. Ercole*, V. Centi, M. Pellegrini, F. Marotta, M. Del Gallo Pages 94-107
    Background

    Hand-made cheeses are usually prepared following dissimilar procedures which influence the quality and the organoleptic properties of the products. Objective of the present study was to evaluate how manufacturing season and ripening time affect hand-made Pecorino Abruzzese cheese.

    Methods

    Microbiological and physicochemical characteristics were investigated on raw milk cheeses produced in spring and autumn sampled at different ripening times (20, 60, 120, 210, and 300 days). Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software version 21.

    Results

    Spring Marzolino cheeses showed better quality than those produced in autumn, with higher contents of protein, moisture, and Water-Soluble Nitrogen/Total Nitrogen (WSN/TN); and lower content of fat and salt. Besides, Marzolino samples exhibited an extensive αS1-casein proteolysis, slight hydrolysis of β-casein, low levels of γ-casein, and the occurrence of heterogeneous mixtures of proteolytic products as well as more complex microbial populations. At 20 days of ripening, all spring-cheese microbial groups presented in a remarkably high number than that presented in autumn, whereas enterococci populations were significantly higher in autumn cheeses than in spring ones (7 and 6 log Colony Forming Unit/g for autumn and spring, respectively). Ripening demonstrated a positive effect, in both productions, by increasing the concentration of the physicochemical parameters and a decrease of microbial populations of 1-3 log units.

    Conclusion

    Marzolino cheeses, manufactured in springtime, had better quality profile than those manufactured in autumn which this finding could be utilized to set up marketing strategies.

    Keywords: Cheese, Fermentation, Biodiversity, Microbiota, Food Safety, Food Analysis
  • M.M. Soltan Dallal*, Z. Salehipour, M.K. Sharifi Yazdi, R. Bakhtiari, M. Abdi Pages 108-114
    Background

    Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) plays an important role in gastrointestinal diseases. The goal of this research was to determine phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of MRSA isolated from dairy and meat products in Iran.

    Methods

    Ninety-three S. aureus isolates were prepared which had been obtained in our previous study. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done using disk diffusion method. The isolates were further analyzed by mecA gene detection. Staphylococcal Enterotoxins (SEs) and Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin 1 (TSST1) were screened. Biotyping and molecular typing were done by short sequence repeats of spa and coa genes.

    Results

    Five out of 93 S. aureus isolates (5.37%) included mecA. All five MRSA isolates were sensitive to at least six tested antibiotics and none were resistant to vancomycin. Furthermore, two isolates were multidrug resistant. Four isolates produced SEs and TSST1. Three out of 5 isolates were related to human biotype and two belonged to non-host-specific biotype.

    Conclusion

    Presence of MRSA in dairy and meat products may be an important hygienic risk for the Iranian consumers, especially for immunocompromised people.

    Keywords: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Food, Iran