فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:7 Issue: 1, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/04/07
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Ali Yalfani, Parvane Bazipoor * Pages 1-7
    Background

    Scoliosis is defined as a three-dimensional deformity of the spine associated with lateral deviation from the normal vertical direction, and mostly with rotation of the vertebras. Although some studies have been performed on the effect of scoliosis on the respiratory system, there are still some ambiguities at issue and some results are contradictory. The aim of the present systematic review study was to help clarify the effect of scoliosis on the respiratory system and the factors affecting respiration.

    Methods

    An electronic search was done in databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Ebsco, and Science Direct. The quality of papers was assessed using Black and Down instrument. The following keywords were used in search engines; adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, respiratory function, respiratory problem, respiratory system, ventilatory function, ventilatory problem, ventilatory system, chest wall motion, respiratory muscle, and exercise capacity. Papers in English language, subjects being over the age of 10 and suffering from adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, and no other abnormalities were among the inclusion criteria, while suffering any underlying disease was an exclusion criterion.

    Results

    Based on the keywords used, 76 papers were found; based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 7 papers were approved. Five papers had dealt with pulmonary and respiratory factors, two investigating respiratory muscles, 2 examined exercise capacity, and 2 tested the chest wall motions. The score of reporting, external validity, internal validity bias, internal validity - confounding (selection bias), and power varied within 5-7, 0-2, 2-4, 0-3, and 2-5, respectively.

    Conclusion

    Based on studies carried out so far, scoliosis affects respiratory function including respiratory volumes, chest wall motions, strength of respiratory muscles, respiratory patterns, and respiratory function during exercise. Although some studies show contradictory results, relying on the results of the majority of studies, it can be stated that these effects had been mentioned as negative effects on the mentioned factors. The reasons stated for the results include mechanical insufficiency and muscular disorders, which arise from developmental and systemic disorders associated with scoliosis itself. The relationships between respiratory volumes, strength of respiratory muscles, and chest wall motions are still unclear. Since only limited studies have been performed in this regard, these results still warrant further investigation.

    Keywords: scoliosis, Respiratory system, chest wall, respiratory muscles
  • Davood Farahmandi Najafabadi, MohammadReza Rezaie, Saeed Forghany * Pages 8-14
    Background

    3D scanners are used to obtain three-dimensional (3D) shapes of body parts, offering an alternative to conventional techniques such as casting and a variety of potential advantages. However, 3D scanners are usually very expensive and not affordable and accessible for most orthotists and prosthetists, especially in developing countries. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the validity and reliability of a low-cost handheld and affordable 3D scanner (3Dsystems, ‘sense’) for use in orthotics and prosthetics.

    Methods

    The validity and reliability of the 3D Sense scanner were assessed through repeated scanning and measurement of the predefined circumferences of the stumps of four transtibial amputees and 8 body cast models. Two assessors performed digital scanning and tape measurement on two different days, each consisting of three trials per condition/day. The reliability of the 3D sense scanner was assessed by investigating between trials, the assessors, and day reliability using Intraclass Correlation Coefficients. The standard error of measurement (SEM) was also calculated to assess measurement error. The validity of the 3D sense scanner was assessed using correlation analysis, mean percentage error (the mean differences between scanner and tape measure), and Bland-Altman statistics.

    Results

    The 3D Sense scanner provides stumps and body cast model measurements with similar reliability to the tape measure. Reliability coefficients for the 3D scanner are relatively high (ICC). The ICCs all are near 1.0 and SEMs all range from 0.06 to 0.10. The 3D Sense scanner demonstrated excellent validity. There was a significant positive correlation between the 3D scanner and tape measure for both stumps and body cast models measurements (r > 0.850; p < 0.0001). The measurement error between the 3D scanner and tape measure is very low as indicated by mean differences close to zero.

    Conclusions

    This study introduces a low-cost handheld and affordable 3D scanner, which has proven to be a valid and reliable clinical tool in orthotics and prosthetics. This 3D scanner would have extensive and powerful clinical applicability resulting in valid and reliable digital information of body segments for computer-aided design (CAD) of orthotics and prosthetics.

    Keywords: Computer-Aided Design, Validity, reliability, Orthotic Devices, Prostheses, Implants
  • Sima Farpour, Hamidreza Farpour *, Naghmeh Golriz, Poorya Neshat, AliReza Salarinezhad Pages 15-19
    Background

    The tongue controls the bolus during mastication, keeps the bolus in the oral cavity and generates pressure to direct the bolus through the hypopharynx. A decrease in tongue movement and strength can increase the oral and pharyngeal food residues. Food residues have the potential to increase the risk of dental caries. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between tongue strength and the prevalence of dental caries in individuals with Down syndrome. 

    Methods

      Sixteen children with Down syndrome participated in this cross sectional study; none of them had dysphagia and they had normal diet. The tongue strength was measured using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI) and dental caries were assessed by Decayed – Missing –Filled Teeth Index (DMFT). A speech therapist measured and investigated tongue strength and a dentist did the dental examination and filled out the DMFT form.

    Results

    The mean age of participants was 11.06 (SD=2.83). Most of the participants were female (n=14, 87.50%). All of the subjects had mixed dentition. The mean of tongue strength was 10.23KPas (SD= 7.08). There was no correlation between tongue strength and the total number of DMF plus dmf, according to Pearson correlation (p=0.96; r= -0.01).

    Conclusion

    Tongue strength was very low in these children compared with reports in the literature. There was no correlation between the tongue strength and number of DMF and dmf; the main reason is that the development of dental problems such as caries are multi factorial. In other word there are additional factors apart from poor tongue strength that can cause caries.

    Keywords: tongue strength, Decayed – Missing –Filled Teeth (DMFT), Down syndrome, Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI)
  • Mohadeseh Balvardi, Saeedeh Pourahmad, Somayeh Kavousipor *, Hadi Raeisi Shahraki Pages 20-24
    Background
    The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of the number of occupational therapy sessions, using the neurodevelopmental technique, (NDT) on gross motor function and other moving outcomes in children with cerebral palsy (CP).
    Methods
    The present cross sectional study evaluated all patients who referred to the occupational therapy service centers in the private sector and welfare organizations in Shiraz, Iran in 2015. The studied patients were children of both genders affected by spastic CP. A total of 59 individuals met the inclusion criteria and were entered in the study. A researcher-made questionnaire including 66 questions of gross motor function measure (GMFM) was used. This questionnaire measured the gross motor function in 5 dimensions including lying down, and rolling, sitting, crawling and kneeling, standing and walking, running and jumping. A negative binomial regression model with logarithmic function was applied in STATA 11 software.
    Results
    59.3% of the patients were boys. According to our results, 38.3%, 33.3% and 38.3% were affected by spastic diplegia, spastic hemiplegia and spastic quadriplegia respectively. Children at level one of gross motor function had 1.3 times higher achievement, compared to the individuals in other levels (P=0.003) and the subjects who participated in more than five sessions per week had 1.04 more achievement than the others (P=0.001).
    Conclusion
    The results of this study showed that the more common occupational therapy sessions the children participated in, the more successful thegross motor function of children affected by level 1 CP of gross motor function classification was. Further investigations are required to assess other motor levels.
    Keywords: cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Function, Therapy intensity, occupational therapy
  • Amir Dana *, Efstathios Christodoulides Pages 25-30
    Background

    the aim of this research was to investigate the effects of a period of selected physical activity on improving the fundamental skills of manipulation and locomotion in children with neuropsychological learning disabilities.

    Methods

    the present research was semi-experimental. A total of 30 students with neuropsychological learning disorders with an average age of 7.76 participated in this research selected by available sampling. The instrument utilized in this research was the test of Gross Motor Skills. After performing the pretest of locomotor and manipulative skills, the participants were classified homogeneously into experimental and control groups. The experimental group, in addition to taking part in their routine classes at school, also participated in twelve 45-min sessions (three sessions per week) in the Spark program. The control group took part in only their own routine classes. By the end of the 12th session, a posttest was performed. The data were analyzed through covariance analysis in SPSS 22. The significance level was considered as p<0.05.

    Results

    the results showed that in the variables of locomotion (running (P<0.001), hopping (p=0.001) and long jump (p=0.001), as well as manipulative variables (kicking (P<0.001), overhead throwing (P<0.001) and catching (p=0.0001) there was a significant difference between the experimental and control groups. Based on the main differences, the experimental group displayed better performance compared to the control group.

    Conclusion

    overall, it can be stated that a 12-session course based on a selected physical activity can result in improved locomotor and manipulative skills in children with neuropsychological learning disorders.

    Keywords: Motor Skills, Locomotor, manipulation, Physical Activity, learning disability
  • Mohammad Ghorbani, Maryam Vahab *, Jamal Ahmadi Pages 31-35
    Background
    The relation between disfluency and aspects of language, including phonology, has been investigated for many years. Whereas past literature reported that the incidence of phonological difficulties is higher in children who stutter when compared to normally fluent children, the suggestion of association between the two disorders also drew several critical evaluation. This study investigated the phonological awareness abilities of four- and five- year old non-fluent preschool children.
    Methods
    This cross-sectional comparative study was done on 50 children. 25 non-fluent preschool children (21 boys and 4 girls) were paired according to age, sex and socioeconomic status to their typically fluent peers. Participants completed multiple measures of phonological awareness abilities, as well as measures of expressive and receptive vocabulary and articulation.
    Results
    Regarding the scores of the phonological awareness test there were significant differences between non-fluent children and their typically fluent peers. The four year old children who were non-fluent performed significantly less well than their typically fluent peers on tasks of syllable awareness, intra syllable awareness and phoneme syllable awareness. The five year old non-fluent preschool children performed significantly less well than their typically fluent peers on tasks of intra syllable awareness and phoneme syllable awareness.
    Conclusion
    Results suggest that non-fluent preschool children have phonological differences in aspects of phonological awareness that may contribute to an unstable language planning system in preschool children who stutter.
    Keywords: Phonological Impairments, Stuttering, Childhood
  • MohammadHamzeh Shalamzari, Hooman Minoonejad *, Foad Seidi Pages 36-42
    Background

    Increased joint stability as well as the ability to maintain balance during typical daily activities and exercise is an important factor in improving performance and preventing injury. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of eight-weeks of Self-Myofascial Release therapy (SMR) on knee joint position sense (KJPS) and dynamic balance (DB) in collegiate male athletes with hamstring shortness (HS).

    Methods

    In this quasi-experimental study (randomized control trial), 24 collegiate male athletes with HS were randomly selected and randomly divided into experimental (n = 12) and control (n = 12) groups. KJPS was measured with an isokinetic dynamometer and DB using the Y balance test before and after 8 weeks of SMR. The results were analyzed by SPSS software version 22 as well as dependent T-tests and covariance analysis. The significance level was considered 95% and alpha equal to or less than 0.05.

    Results

    The outcomes of the dependent t-test showed that dynamic balance test scores (in all three directions of anterior, Posteromedial, Posterolateral and overall Y-score) increased in the SMR group compared to the control group (P = 0.001) but no significant difference was observed in KJPS values between the two groups (P = 0.493).

    Conclusion

    Based on the results, it seems that SMR foam rolling is not suitable for increasing KJPS accurateness of athletes with a short hamstring, but these exercises can be used to improve dynamic balance.

    Keywords: hamstring muscles, Proprioception, Postural Balance
  • Shiva Ebrahimian Dehaghani, Maryam Ebrahimian *, Fateme Mohammadianfar Pages 43-46

    Research shows that 1% of children experience swallowing difficulties, though the incidence is higher in some, such as those with cerebral palsy and brain injury. One of the causes of pharyngeal phase dysphagia is the absent gag reflex. The aim of this case study was to investigate the effects of sensory stimulation combined with Neuro Muscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) on dysphagia and gag reflex. This study was conducted on a 2.5-year-old child with midbrain disorders and absence of oral swallowing and gag reflex. At the beginning of the treatment, sensory-tactile stimulation were provided which induced successful oral swallowing. The treatment was then continued with NMES along with stimulations of the sensory-tactile receptor. Over 26 sessions of NMES, the gag reflex was induced by a 2-second stimulation of the posterior pharyngeal wall, and the time interval between suctions increased to two hours. The present Study showed that NMES activates and strengthens the muscles involved in swallowing.

    Keywords: Dysphagia, Electrical Stimulation, gag reflex