فهرست مطالب

فنون ادبی - سال یازدهم شماره 4 (پیاپی 29، زمستان 1398)
  • سال یازدهم شماره 4 (پیاپی 29، زمستان 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/04/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • سید احمد پارسا*، شهلا محمودی صفحات 1-14

    مبحث جمله معترضه از مباحث مشترک بین دستور زبان و علم معانی است. منحصرکردن آن به دعا و نفرین، اطلاق حشو به آن و مواردی ازاین دست موجب شده است تاکنون به گونه ای بایسته به آن پرداخته نشود؛ درحالی که جمله معترضه ضمن افزودن بار عاطفی کلام، حضور راوی و نظرات و جبهه گیری های مشخص او یا به تعبیر دیگر گفتمان او را در متن روایت نمایان و اهداف متعدد دیگری را نیز دنبال می کند. پژوهش حاضر به بررسی کارکردهای معنایی - منظوری جملات معترضه در تاریخ بیهقی می پردازد و می کوشد با تبیین این کارکردها ضمن کمک به تغییر نگرش مخاطبان از این جملات، به درک بهتر رخدادهای تاریخی و درک بهتر گفتمان ابوالفضل بیهقی نیز کمک کند. روش پژوهش، توصیفی تحلیلی است و داده ها به شیوه کتابخانه ای گردآوری شده و به روش تحلیل محتوا تجزیه و تحلیل شده اند. نتیجه نشان می دهد این جملات در تاریخ بیهقی، خلاف تصور معمول تنها به جملات دعایی و بدلی محدود نمی شوند، بلکه کارکردهای مهمی چون، توضیح بیشتر، تاکید و برجسته سازی، توصیف و بیان حالت، ستایش و بزرگداشت، بیان علت ، مذمت، استعطاف، اقناع مخاطب، استوارکردن کلام، اظهار تعجب و شگفتی، اغراق و بزرگ نمایی و موارد متعدد دیگری را دربرمی گیرد که به تفصیل بررسی می شوند.

    کلیدواژگان: تاریخ بیهقی، دستور، معانی، حشو، جمله معترضه، نقش های معنایی - منظوری
  • غلامرضا حیدری* صفحات 15-34

    حرف جیم (ج، جا)، حرف ششم از حروف الفبای پارسی، حرف پنجم از حروف الفبای عربی، حرف سوم از حروف ابجد و نماینده عدد سه در حساب جمل است. حرف جیم، بعد از حرفالف که به واسطه شکل و جایگاه خاص ادبی، دینی، عرفانی و برخی ویژگی های منحصربه فرد، یکی از پرکاربردترین حروف در ساخت مضامین، فضاهای شاعرانه، ترکیبات و تعبیرات نغز و ظریف ادب پارسی به شمار  می رود، یکی از چند حرف مهم مضمون آفرین و تصویرسازی در ادب پارسی است. این مقاله که به بررسی جایگاه ادبی و بلاغی حرف جیم در آثار ادبی شاعران و نویسندگان متعدد ادب پارسی در آفرینش مضامین، فضاهای شاعرانه، ترکیبات و تعبیرات پرداخته، دستاوردهای ارزشمندی داشته است. بررسی شواهد ادبی به دست آمده، نشان می دهد اکثر شاعران و نویسندگان، از حرف جیم و ویژگی های خاص آن در آفرینش مضامین ادبی و در برخی موارد، مضامین دینی و عرفانی بهره برده اند؛ اگرچه دامنه مضامین، تعبیرات و ترکیبات برساخته از حالت، شکل و ویژگی های حرف جیم بسیار اندک است، بیشتر شاعران و نویسندگان، حتی با ارایه یک مضمون، نقش مضمون سازی حرف جیم در ادب پارسی را تایید کرده اند. بیشتر آنها، از ویژگی های حروفی چون الف، م، د، ن، ص و... به منظور نقش مکمل مضمون سازی حرف جیم استفاده کرده اند. مضامین ادبی و هنری برساخته از حرف جیم، از ظرافت ادبی و در برخی موارد، به واسطه خلق فضاهای شاعرانه و مضامین بکر، از پیچیدگی هنری خاصی برخوردار است. مولوی، عطار، فرخی سیستانی، اسعد گرگانی، سنایی و... به ترتیب، ازجمله شاعرانی هستند که بیشترین مضامین ادبی و هنری را به کمک ویژگی های حرف جیم آفریده اند.

    کلیدواژگان: حروف الفبا، جیم، شعر، مضمون
  • سید ناصر جابری اردکانی*، ناصر زارع صفحات 35-49

    آموزش صرف ونحو در مدارس سنتی و در میان علما و شعرا، عمری طولانی دارد و همین امر موجب بازتاب واژگان و اصطلاحات آن به شکلی هنری، در شعر فارسی شده است. بر این مبنا در این تحقیق سوال این بوده که خلاقیت شاعرانه در کدام صورخیال محقق شده و چه روابطی میان صور خیال و قواعد نحوی برقرار شده است و کدام شاعران از این ظرفیت بهره برده اند. روش تحقیق تحلیلی-توصیفی و مبتنی بر مطالعه دیوان های شاعران بوده و از نرم افزار درج نیز بهره گرفته شده است. این تحقیق نشان می دهد که دامنه کاربرد واژگان صرف ونحو در اشعار فارسی وسیع بوده است. دامنه نام های شاعرانی که با واژگان این دانش حشر و نشر داشته اند، نیز گسترده است و پهنه تاریخی وسیعی از قرن پنجم تا دوره معاصر را در برگرفته است. هم آیندی تصاویر ملهم از صرف ونحو یکی از نکات تامل انگیز در اشعار بررسی شده است؛ اغلب سه تصویر ایهام، حسن تعلیل و مراعات نظیر با هم تلفیق می شود. دایره بلاغی ازلحاظ گوناگونی و تنوع نیز نسبتا گسترده بوده، عناصری مانند تشبیه، استعاره، کنایه، ایهام، حسن تعلیل، تمثیل، تمثیل رمزی، ارسال المثل و چیستان را در برمی گیرد. قاعده مندی دانش نحو برای اثبات موضوعات و مضامین مدنظر شاعران زمینه مناسبی برای تصاویر تمثیلی و تعلیلی بوده است. شکل حروف و کلمات، معانی مختلف آنها و قابلیت تصریف و اشتقاق زمینه تشبیه، استعاره، کنایه و ایهام را به وجود آورده است.

    کلیدواژگان: شعر فارسی، اصطلاحات صرف ونحو، بلاغت
  • محبوبه همتیان*، افسانه غفوری صفحات 51-64
    ایجاد تحول در کلام غیرادبی و تبدیل آن به سخن مخیل فرایندی است که با کمک ابزارهای بلاغی چون تشبیه، استعاره و... شکل می گیرد. تصویر که انعکاس اندیشه ها، عواطف، احساسات، باورها، اعتقادات، ویژگی های شخصیتی و درونیات شاعر است، دست مایه انتقال مضامین گوناگون به خواننده است. فاضل نظری، شاعر خوش قریحه معاصر، به کمک دو آرایه بلاغی تشبیه و استعاره که تاثیرگذارترین عناصر بیانی در آفرینش تصاویر شعری به شمار می آید و با بهره گیری از عناصر موجود در طبیعت پیرامون خویش در راستای انتقال مضامین مورد نظر خود به خواننده شعرش، تصاویر شگرفی را خلق کرده است. در پژوهش حاضر تلاش شده است تا تصاویر شعری فاضل نظری و عناصری که شاعر برای ساختن این تصاویر به کار گرفته است، بررسی و حوزه ها و مضامین مختلف شعر او از لحاظ بلاغی تحلیل شود. یافته های پژوهش بیانگر این امر است که نظری در تصویرپردازی های خود که آنها را با کمک دو ابزار بلاغی تشبیه و استعاره پیش روی خواننده ترسیم کرده است، از عناصر طبیعی متعددی بهره گرفته است. این عناصر را که در قالب مشبه به ها یا مستعارمنه ها مطرح شده اند، می توان در حوزه های مختلف دسته بندی و میزان و نقش هریک از آنها را در آفرینش تصاویر شعری نظری تبیین کرد. فاضل تشبیه و استعاره را به صورت یکسان در تصویرسازی های خود به کار گرفته است.
    کلیدواژگان: تصویرسازی، حوزه های تصویری، غزل معاصر، فاضل نظری
  • فرشته السادات حسینی* صفحات 65-78

    وسعت اندیشه مولانا اقیانوس بی کرانی است که روندگان بحر حقیقت را قادر می سازد تا به هر کرانه آن لنگر اندازند و فراخور اندیشه و توان خویش مروارید معانی عرفانی را صید کنند. اندیشه ای که برانگیزاننده حسی از سقوط بشریت است. سقوطی که مقدمه صعودی آگاهانه و هشیارانه به تعالی و خودشناسی است. او با طنزی زیرکانه و کاربرد تضاد و تناقض، اغراق، آمیختگی عناصر انسانی و حیوانی، بیان واقع گرایانه عناصر خیالی، ادبیات پورنو و رکیک و احضار ابعاد شیطانی، داستان سقوط انسان و ناتوانی او در شناخت حقیقت را بیان می کند و با برافکندن نقاب گنهکاری چهره حقیقی خداپرستی را نشان می دهد. این شیوه بیان به گروتسک شهرت دارد؛ شیوه ای که ماهیتی غمبار و مشمیزکننده دارد، در عین حال خنده را در مخاطب برمی انگیزد، خنده ای خالی از شوق و شادی که ابزاری برای نشان دادن ضعف ها، کمبودها، دردها و بی عدالتی هاست و با برانگیختن احساساتی متضاد، پاسخ مغشوش و دوگانه مخاطب را موجب می گردد و او را به تعمق و تفکر وامی دارد. در این مقاله نویسنده پس از تعریف گروتسک و ویژگی های آن، به روش توصیفی- تحلیلی، به بررسی مصداق هایی از این گونه در اندیشه و افکار مولانا پرداخته و به این نتیجه رسیده است که حضور عناصر گروتسک در حکایت های مولانا انکارناپذیر است. او بامحور قرار دادن شخصیت و موقعیتو تقابل آنها و بهره گیری از کارکردهای متعدد گروتسکی، مفاهیم عرفانی ژرف و عمیقی را بیان می کند که به عشق حقیقی و تکامل انسان منتهی می شود.

    کلیدواژگان: گروتسک، مولانا، مثنوی، حکایت، تقابل، طنز
  • فاطمه الهامی* صفحات 79-95

    تشبیهات و استعاره ها بر اثر گذر زمان ابتکار و نوآوری خود را از دست می دهند و از فهرست صور خیال مطلوب بیرون رفته به تشبیهات و استعاره های مرده بدل می شوند. به همین سبب، شاعران برجسته برای جلب نظر مخاطبان با ابتکاراتی در شیوه بیان و تصرفاتی در تصاویر تکراری، آن را با شگردی متفاوت نوسازی می کنند. حافظ از شاعرانی است که به مدد شگردهای هنری خاص خود، بهترین تصویرهای خیال انگیز را با تصرفاتی در تشبیهات و استعاره های پرکاربرد در اشعار خود ثبت کرده است. نگارنده در این پژوهش، به روش تحلیل محتوا، شیوه های بلاغی حافظ در نوسازی تشبیهات و استعاره های تکراری شعر او را بررسی می کند. نتایج نشان می دهد حافظ با توجهی هدفمند به طرح و تبیین انواع وجه شبه مانند وجه شبه ناآشنا، متعدد، تفضیلی و دوگانه در تشبیهات تکراری پرداخته است. همچنین با به کارگیری انواع تشبیه مضمر، تعلیل، جمع، مقید و موقوف المعانی، تشبیه تفضیل در ساخت های ختلف و متنوع آن، به خلق فضاسازی های تازه و تصاویر بدیع شاعرانه در تشبیهات متعارف روی آورده است. نبوغ شاعر در نوآوری استعاره های پرتکرار، از طریق ترکیب های وصفی بدیع و آشنازدا، گاه با ساختار بدل بلاغی و نیز تاویل صفت در قالب جمله کاملا مشهود است. تجمیع و پیوند آرایه ها شگرد دیگر شاعر در ماندگاری و پویایی شعر او در این زمینه است.

    کلیدواژگان: حافظ، تشبیهات تکراری، استعاره های پرکاربرد، نوسازی تشبیه
  • بررسی و تحلیل سروده های زن ستیزانه و زن ستایانه شاهنامه فردوسی
    محمدرضا صالحی مازندرانی*، نصرالله امامی، نعیم مراونه صفحات 97-114

    ادبیات هر ملتی متاثر از فرهنگ و باورهای اجتماعی است و تاثیر اجتماع بر ادبیات، امری مسلم است. زن که نیمی از پیکره اجتماع بشری است، در شکل های مختلفی ازقبیل: زن در شکل نوعی خود، مادر، دختر، معشوق، و ممدوح در ادبیات بازتاب یافته است و سخنوران بسیاری به این مقوله پرداخته اند؛ ازاین رو یکی از عرصه های پژوهش، تحقیق درباره دیدگاه های شاعران و نویسندگان درباره زن و بررسی نوع نگاه آنان در این مقوله است؛ این مقاله بر آن است تا شاهنامه فردوسی را از این منظر مطالعه و بررسی کند؛ بدین منظور با بررسی ابیاتی که در آنها درباره زن سخن گفته شده ، به این نتیجه رسیده است که در شاهنامه ابیات فراوانی هست که نگاه مثبتی به زن ندارند و در مقابل ابیاتی که برخی از پژوهشگران آنها را زن ستایانه دانسته اند، درواقع این گونه نیستند و فردوسی باتوجه به فضای حماسی- که یکی از اساسی ترین لوازم آن اغراق است - می بایست به نوعی درباره برخی از زنان سخن می گفت که آنان را غیرعادی و به اصطلاح ابرزن نشان دهد. بخش دیگری از ابیاتی که گمان زن ستایانه بودن از آنها می رفت نیز درواقع توصیف زیبایی معشوقه هاست؛ ذکر این نکته که در ادبیات ما، معشوق در بیان زیبایی توصیف می شود نه ستایش، زن ستایانه بودن این ابیات را نیز تردیدآمیز ساخته است. آسیب دیگر ابیات زن ستایانه نگاه گزینشی و غفلت از کلیت روایت است. در پژوهش حاضر برخلاف دیدگاه برخی از پژوهشگران، این نتیجه به دست آمده که نگاه به زن در شاهنامه نگاهی منفی است.

    کلیدواژگان: زن ستیزی، زن ستایی، فردوسی، شاهنامه
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  • Sayyed Ahmad Parsa *, Shahla Mahmoudi Pages 1-14

    Sentences are classified into four main categories in terms of message and content by most grammarians: statement(declarative), interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences ; but these sentences are often used for other functions based on their contextual positions which are rhetorically considered and examined as secondary meanings of sentences in the semantics and in a branch of linguistics known as pragmatics. These types of sentences seem to be structurally extra elements in the context of the main sentences so their omissions do not interfere with the syntactic structure of the sentences and phrases in which they are used. This is considered the reason why their importance and functions have been neglected and have not been dealt with appropriately in the literature. Such sentences are important in terms of discourse analysis, transliteration and narration since they are considered as the position of the narrator's discourse in retelling the narrations. Parenthetical sentences can transform the narrator's position from an impartial and indifferent narrator to an interpreter and even in some cases to an interferer. Dealing with the role and significance of such sentences, analyzing Bayhaghi’s discourse in the historical narrations of these sentences, better understanding the history of Bayhaghi, better understanding the functions of the parenthetical sentences, improving and correcting the mostly inaccurate view points of the rhetoric and syntax experts and helping to make these sentences be considered more appropriately in their main positions are among the purposes of this survey. The results show that these sentences in Bayhaghi's History are not restricted to the sentences used for the sake of the prayer and appositional purposes, contrary to the common sense and perspectives, but rather these sentences are considered to be transnational explanations that are used by the narrator deliberately to interrupt the mainstream of the narration and to present some explanation about the previous episodes. They also illustrate the view points of the narrator (Bayhaghi) and his discourse in this regard. These sentences consist of about 354 sentences that have been located at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of the other sentences in different structures such as interpretations, clauses, statements, interrogatives, exclamations, commandment, poetic verses, Persian and Arabic phrases, Quranic verses and so on. These sentences serve to introduce and improve 21 kinds of important functions, in addition to setting up more communication channels to communicate properly with the audience.

    Keywords: Bayhaghi’s History, Syntax, Semantics, Redundancy, Parenthetical Sentence, Semantic-Conceptual Functions
  • Gholamreza Heidary Pages 15-34

    In Persian literature, creating contents with Persian alphabets has a special place. Ever since, creating images, contents, interpretations, and syntaxes thanks to shape and state of Persian alphabets attracts many writers and poets. Nearly all poets and writers have dealt with this subject. Letter "Jim" is one of the letters that attracts many writers and poets along with other letters. Among the alphabets, letter "Jim" is one of the most useful letters for creating contents, poetic areas, and fine and delicate syntaxes and interpretations of Persian literature after letter "Alef" which attracts many poets and writers due to its shape, state, and special literary, religious, and theosophical place, and some of its unique properties. Although other Persian letters play the role of creating the pristine and delicate contents, letter "Jim" with some of the unique properties has special importance rather than some of these letters. Letter "Jim" is sixth letter of Persian alphabet, the fifth letter of Arabic alphabet, third letter of Abjad letter, and the representative of number three in "Jommal" calculation due to its appearance and writing form, labyrinth hair, line of face, and also because of having dot by the hair, parotid line, and tight and small mouth, and it plays its role as one of the most important content-creating letters in making poetic and double-entendre images of face and its beauties. The letter "Jim" of hair and "Jim" of ear with letter "Sad" of eye and "Ein" of eye and letter "mim" of mouth and "Ya" of lip, and "Sin" of teeth and "Alef" of ear, altogether show a beautiful image of the letters' role on the face. Due to its ring-like, narrow, and curved shape, letter "Jim" is the symbol of bending, humility, lowliness, disability, shame, and frustration, and it is the origin of creating many contents in this context. Regarding this attention of the writers and poets to the letter "Jim" in creating literary contents and important place of this letter in creating poetic areas, it is very important to address the role of literary and rhetorical language of letter "Jim" in Persian literature and analyze the poetic and prosaic evidence in this context, so it paves the way for understanding the artistic and literary beauties of images and contents made from the Persian letters, specially letter "Jim". Studying the obtained literary evidence shows that most writers and poets have benefited letter "Jim" and its special properties in creating literary contents, and in some cases religious and theosophical contents. Although the range of contents, interpretations, and syntaxes made from state, form, and properties of letter "Jim" is very limited, most poets and writers have confirmed the content-creating role of letter "Jim" in Persian literature, even by presenting one content. Most of them have used the properties of letters such as alef, be, te, the, jim, he, khe, dal, zal, re, ze, sin, shin, sad, ta, za, ein, fe, ghaf, lam, mim, nun, vav, he, and ye as the content-making complementary role of letter "Jim", but they haven't used the letters zhe, pe, che, zad, ghein, kaf, ghaf in this way. Artistic and literary contents made from letter "Jim" have literary elegance, and in some cases, they have special artistic complexities due to the creation of poetic areas and pristine contents. The writers and poets have benefited the various literary arrays and artistic beauties, specially metaphor, allusion, assimilation, and amphibology for creating contents, syntaxes, and interpretations of letter "Jim". Molavi and Attar are the most active poets in the arena of creating delicate and pristine contents of letter "Jim". Literary contents, phrases, and syntaxes made from letter "Jim" in Molavi's and Attar's poems which are one of the most artistic structures of Persian literature rather than other poets have special novelty and elegance. "Farrokhi Sistani", "Fakhroddin Asad Gorgani", "Sanaie", …, are the poets who have created the most literary and artistic contents thanks to the properties of letter "Jim" after Molavi and attar, respectively.

    Keywords: alphabetical letters, letter J, Poem, content
  • Seyed Naser Jaberi Ardakani *, Naser Zare Pages 35-49

     For a long time, syntax and morphology have been taught in many traditional schools by the scholars and poets. This method has led to the reflection of the related terminology, in an artistic and literary form, in Persian poetry. So, in this research, it was assumed that Persian poets have also shown their innovation in the use of those terms. Therefore, the questions in this study are the following: What kinds of literary arts, these terms have been reflected in? What are the relationships between imaginary and syntactax terms? Which poets have enjoyed this advantage? The research method is analytical-descriptive based on the study of poetry books inserted in the Dorj software. This research shows that the syntactical terms has been widely used in Persian poetry. The range of the names of the poets who used these terms was also broad and consists of a wide historical range from the fifth century to the contemporary period. Looking at these names, the subject is better understood: Amir Moazzi (12th and 5th centuries), Sayyed Hassan Ghaznavi (12th century), Massoud Saad (12th and 6th centuries), Abulfaraj Rooney (12th and 6th centuries), Saadi (7th century). Seif Fergani (7th and 8th centuries), Rumi (14th century), Khajavi Kermani (14th and 8th centuries), Jami (16th century), Orfi Shirazi (17th century), Fuzuli (17th century), Faiz Kashani (18th century) , Hazin Lahiji (19th century), Qaani (20th century), Farahani (20th century), Iraj Mirza (20th and 14th century), etc. Concurrence of the inspired images of Syntax is one of the most contemplative points in the studied poems; often three images including equivoque, fantastic etiology, and congeries are combined. The circle of rhetorical vocabulary is also relatively wide in terms of diversity. That circle consists of technical terms such as simile, metaphor, kenning, equivoque, fantastic etiology, allegory, symbolic allegory, exemplum, and riddle. Thanks to the syntax regularity feature, poets have achieved what they need, such as showing the impossible things as possible, linking the unrelated things, proving the impossible, and so on. The shape of letters and words, their different meanings and the assertive and derivative features have provided a context for simile, metaphor, irony, and ambiguity.

    Keywords: Poetry, Persian poets, Rhetoric, syntax, inflection
  • Mahboobe Hemmatian *, Afsane Ghafuri Pages 51-64
    In order to transfer the themes to his poetry reader, Fazil Nazari has created great images by means of two rhetorical arts, that is, simile and metaphor, utilizing elements of nature around. The authors in this study have tried to examine the poetic images of Nazari and the elements used to make these images, and analyze the various areas and themes of his poetry in rhetorical terms. Fazil has used many natural elements in imagery creation. These elements can be categorized into different domains. To this purpose, he has used metaphor and simile in a same range in his illustrations.Elements of nature, which he used to depict his inner thoughts and emotions, have transformed his poetry into an articulation and manifestation of phenomena that have helped him express the poet's insights, such as living beings and possessors of spirit and emotion. The most important poetic and artistic images that Nazari created by means of metaphor and simile are the following: Elements of nature, which he used to depict his thoughts and emotions, have transformed his poetry into an articulation and manifestation of phenomena that have helped him express his insights, such as living beings and possessors of spirit and emotion. The most important poetic and artistic images that Fazil Nazari visualized and depicted by means of metaphor and simile are the following: sea, wave, rain, fountain, marsh, sky, moon, moonlight, night, mountain, fire, mirror, window and so on. Sometimes he has used a few elements in a bit and blended multiple images together to express themes. Fazil Nazari's poetic images can be classified into several groups. Each group includes several illustrating elements as follows: Elements associated with water and its essentials, such as sea, rain, wave, river, pond, marsh, bubble, drop, fountain, vortex, beach, mussel, etc. Elements related to light, such as flame, fire, volcano, candle, ash, etc. Elements associated with the sky, such as clouds, moon, moonlight, sun, night, etc. Elements associated with soil, such as mountains, stone, pebbles, rocks, terrain, deserts, etc. Elements related to plants, such as seedlings, trees, gardens, etc. Elements that fall within the range of fruits, such as apples, pomegranates, wheat, etc. Elements of the group of animals and birds such as fish, butterfly, yak, pigeon, etc. Elements that are objects and inorganic matters, such as mirrors, cages, walls, windows, trains, straws, etc. A statistic survey shows the quantity of poet's use of imagery in those fields as follows: water domain %28, sky and objects jointly %17, plant domain %13, light field %8, soil domain %7, animal domain %5 and fruits %3. These statistic results suggest that the contemporary innovator poet has used elements existing in the field of water, sky, objects and material more than other natural elements in making and processing his own poetic images. Among these elements, the contribution of animals and the fruits were less than other areas. That’s totally obvious that the poet's skill in using illustrative elements and conveying mental and intrinsic concepts in the form of various metaphors and similes is one of the factors of the popularity of the poet among the readers. So his poetry in this term is both metaphor- and simile-bound.
    Keywords: Imagery, imaginal areas, contemporary sonnet, Fazil Nazari
  • Fereshte Sadat Hosseini * Pages 65-78

    Grotesque is a kind of literary-artistic genre with a variety of intricate meanings. However, most scholars and researchers have consensually acknowledged its most conspicuous components as follows: transformative, ridiculous, disgusting, and horrifying. Grotesque is a compromise between paradoxes -laughter and what is not aligned with laughter which ultimately results in a comedy-tragedy situation that provokes the audiences’ paradoxical response. Research on grotesque in Western art and literature is very extensive and has been addressed by many theorists and artists. Kaiser and Bakhtin are two great theorists with two different views in this regard. In art and literature of Iran - both classical and modern - many instances including prominent components of grotesque can be mentioned though they are not recognized as the grotesque genre as research studies on this subject is very limited in Iran and are restricted to recent years. The present study aimed at addressing grotesque in the words of one of the greatest poets of classical Persian literature, Mawlana Jalaluddin, whose speech is a brilliant idea with a depth that has not yet been reached. Rumi's Mathnavi-ye-Ma'navi is a raging and boundless sea of ‌‌transcendent meanings that opens the gates of truth to the thirsty seekers of knowledge and sweetens the wishers of truth with the nectar of knowledge. In Mathnavi, Rumi chooses the form of storytelling to express his thoughts and beliefs and uses a variety of techniques to express his purpose to not only sweeten the bitter advice but also intensify the charm and appeal of his speech. One of these techniques is the use of satire in the narratives, which is a bitter and black humor and has a meaning far beyond the ordinary humor. Rumi is an illustrator of a truth that not only lies in the surface layers of the upside-down, contradictory, deceptive, and wandering world but also has been forgotten for the sake of the cyclical repetition of everyday life. These two aspects of the world - a deceptive appearance and a full-of-truth reality- create a contradiction, whose purpose cannot be described by humor. In this regard, the mysterious world of grotesque is the only means helping us unravel its mystery. Humor is present in most of Masnavi's anecdotes. In some of these anecdotes, the humor is accompanied by the structure, concept, and elements that assimilate it to the concept of grotesque, are no longer intended to make the audience laugh, and are a bittersweet in case of occurrence. Rumi deals with the inner world in humorous anecdotes, confronts these evil forces and powers by depicting the contradictions and dissonances in the inner and outer world, and teaches human the way of self-control and emancipation to attain his true nature and humanity. The present descriptive-analytical study examined the function of this genre in Rumi's thought and beliefs and concluded that the presence of grotesque in Rumi’s anecdotes is indisputable. By contrasting and centralizing personality and situation, using obscene words and erotic literature, realistically expressing the imaginary elements, linking the human and animal elements, and using the elements and themes of grotesque, Rumi illustrates the story of the fall of man into this mortal world and regards it as an initiation toward conscious ascending. Moreover, Rumi contradictory not only expresses the limits of human understanding and his inability to deeply discern the reality but also considers human as a creature of the creator that shares in the good of His essence, can achieve the truth that lies under the guise of sinfulness and has created a rust on the face of godliness with the awareness and disguise of evil, and can ascend to its original position with a wise and wicked love. The use of numerous functions of grotesque in Rumi’s words expresses the profound and insightful mystical notions that lead to true love and human evolution. Among these individual and social contradictions, inconsistencies, and anomalies, Rumi strives to attain salvation and save the human soul from pollution and uncleanness and informs his audience regarding the lack of insight that leads to misunderstanding of the truth.

    Keywords: Grotesque, Molana, Mathnavi, fable, Contrast
  • Fateme Elhami * Pages 79-95

    Simile and metaphor as fundamental tools in rhetoric are the two most beautiful and highly used imagination forms that sometimes lose their novelty through time. As a result, they are removed from the list of imaginative forms and become dead similes and metaphors.  So distinguished poets rewrite the similes in new forms by innovations in wording techniques and by making changes in repeated images to attract the reader's attention. By using his artistic techniques, Hafiz is one of the poets who used the best sentimental images in his poems by making some changes in common and repeated similes and metaphors. This research uses the content-analysis method to examine the different aspects of the rhetorical techniques that Hafez used to renew the similes and metaphors in his poems. This research also tries to find answers to these questions: 1. what resources does Hafez use to renew the repeated similes and metaphors?  2. Why don’t repeated similes and metaphors in poetical works of Hafiz cause boredom to the reader? 1. Rhetorical techniques of Hafiz Hafiz has used a lot of similes and metaphors so that imagination in his poems is in a high frequency. Most of these artistic images, not only in past works but also in poetical works of the poet, are repeated and have been used a lot. These images have been used too much that Shamisa calls them dead similes and apparent metaphors, and Homaei refers to them as rejected similes but with his active insight, and keen sensitive sight, Hafiz used his great imagination power to create new pictures from among repeated and common similes and metaphors. He also impressively combines literary terms to create special artistic textures that make his poems illustrative and dramatic; In a way that repeated images in his poems are not only by no means cliché and vulgar but rather present a new style and form that touch the readers’ heart.  He uses all the resources of language and art in his depictions and has different unique methods in using these images and depictions. The following are nine rhetoric methods that Hafez used to renew the similes and metaphors: 2.1 Renewing simile by point of similarity 2.2. Renewing by implicit simile 2.3. Simile with saying the reason. 2.4. Plural simile. 2.5. Comparative simile 2.6. Enjambment simile 2.7. Bound simile 2.8. Renewing useful metaphors. 2.9. Gathering of literary terms. 2. Results The results show that with purposeful attention, Hafez designed different types of points of similarity in repeated similes from points of similarity like comparative and dual to discover new relations among vulgar and repeated similes. In this way, he renewed the images which affected the reader. He also makes the readers' mind to search for the meaning by using types of implicit similes in the form of bound and limitation, and by using rhetorical appositive which causes ambiguity in the poem; In this way, the images of the poem are not repeated, and by searching for the hidden semantic meaning between the words, the reader enjoys reading the poem more. Using justifying, plural, enjambment, and bound similes are other rhetorical devices of Hafez in renewing and reviving his similes by which any of them created new atmospheres and poetic images.  By using a lot of comparative similes in different structures and also using implicit, negative, rich, bound and justifying similes and also personification, etc., Hafiz not only renews repeated similes and changes the point of view but also creates new atmospheres so that the reader revels in reading the poem. Poet's genius is completely obvious in renewing common and repeated metaphors by using innovative and familiarized attributive compounds and sometimes by using rhetorical appositions and also explaining adjectives in the form of a sentence in a way that the metaphors are not vulgar and repeated but eloquent. It seems it is the first time they appear in his poem. Moreover, by combining several literary terms, the poet makes a strong relation and a deep link in the artistic texture of the poem. This issue shows the profundity, creativity, and unique art of the poet. By doing this, common similes and metaphors from among all those images seem innovative, new, and beautiful.

    Keywords: Hafiz, repeated similes, useful metaphors, rhetorical techniques
  • Analysis of misogynic and philogynic verses in Shahname by Ferdowsi
    Mohammadreza Salehi Mazandarani *, Nasrollah Emami, Naim Maravene Pages 97-114

    The literature of any nation is influenced by its culture and social beliefs, and the impact of society on literature is certain. Women as half of the body of human society in various forms such as a woman in her own kind, mother, daughter, beloved, and praising of GOD, reflected in the literature, and many speakers for this the article have paid. Hence, one of researcher areas is the views of poets and writers about woman and examining the way they look in this category. From this perspective the article aims to examine the verses that spoken about woman. It has been concluded that there are many verses in the Shahname that do not have a positive view about woman, and in contrast to the verses that some scholars have considered to be philogynic, indeed it’s not the fact and Firdawsi has considered the epic atmosphere. One of the most basic accessories is an exaggeration. Some women had to be talked about in a way that made them look unusual and so-called super-female. Another part of the verses from which the women were thought to be praiseworthy is, in fact, a description of the beauty of her mistress. Mentioning this point in our literature, a lover is described in the expression of beauty, not philogyny; the praiseworthy women were in verses called as suspicious. Another pathetic feature of the verses about the philogynic verses is the selective view and not paying attention to the totality of the woman. In the present study, contrary to the opinion of some researchers, it has been concluded that looking at a woman in the Shahname is a negative view. In the book of The double study of praise and condemnation of language in Shahname by Hussain Sajjadi, he has chosen adventures in which language plays an active role and verses have been written about them. Sajjadi has more described the verses or it is batter to say that solved the versification. In the book of The origins of misogyny in Classical Persian Literature by Maryam Hosseini, she examines the poems of several poets, Firdawsi, and at the end, despite the existence of many verses that do not have a positive view of a woman, she has concluded that Firdawsi is in favor of philogyny, not misoginy. The article of misogynic verses in Shahname by Abolfazl Khatibi: A useful 8-pages article that adds 8 misogynic episodes and confirms 10 more with authenticity and originality, they consider them misogynic. Article of ”Personality analysis and language role in Shahname stories” by Ali Naqi Hussain in which the author states that the purpose of the article is to analyze the personality of the women and their role in advancing the story.   Discussion and Research The misogynic sections of the Shahname can be divided into several categories: -Verses that refer to women as type: in other words, women in ensemble and general desired; in this group wife, daughter is located. -Bad traits verses for women counted. -Verses in which women are weak and in children row and old considered. -Verses that have been used as tools by women. In this study verses that are considered praiseworthy also reviewed and concluded that some of those verses are necessary for one epic poem and not in the direction of women praise; another part is the symmetry of selective tastes that have not been considered in the whole narrative; as a sample of surrounded narration speaks of her bravery and brilliance but her betrayal with husband and his murder not mentioned in words, or they talk about it, but they silence the released child in the water for fear of seizing the throne. Other praiseworthy female sections in Shahname include the following: -Praiseworthy created special women like shahs relative and like national hero’s. -Stories of praiseworthy women taken by the literature another nation. Both groups in this study example of praiseworthy women not considered, but in Shahname praiseworthy women verses existed; for example, a Gazer woman pulls her baby out of the water; Description that about Sindokht spouse water has come; and even about Soodabeh which is one of the worst faces of Shahname, the existence of anti-feminist verses and Soodabeh before the story of Siawash, in faithful with her husband praised. But if we want to put both anti-feminist and praiseworthy women verses on the pan scale, the praiseworthy women are lighter and third lyrics anti-feminism will be higher. In Short words, we should say Shahnameh's work had a negative view of women.

    Keywords: Misogyny, philogyny, Ferdowsi, Shahname