فهرست مطالب

جلوه هنر - سال دوازدهم شماره 1 (بهار 1399)
  • سال دوازدهم شماره 1 (بهار 1399)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/04/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • سمیرا ربیع زاده*، زهره طباطبایی جبلی، مرضیه پیراوی ونک صفحات 7-20

    سوره یوسف(ع) یکی از عالی ترین نمودهای تصویرپردازی در میان داستان های قرآنی است. این سوره دارای چنان جوهری است که باعث شده مفسران و هنرمندان آن را در قاب واژگان و قاب تصاویر به نمایش درآورند و دریچه ای، نو پیش روی مخاطب بگشایند. هدف اصلی این پژوهش، یافتن ساختار تشکیل دهنده دو متن نوشتاری و تصویری این قصه است، که هم دیگر را در ترکیب بندی منسجم، تقویت کرده اند. اما در این جستار با این پرسش ها روبه رو می شویم: 1) چگونه مولفه های تصویری سوره حضرت یوسف(ع) در تفاسیر و نگاره ها بازنمایی شده اند؟ 2) چگونه دلالت های صریح و ضمنی از سوره یوسف(ع) در تفاسیر و نگاره های ایرانی به کار برده شده اند؟ برای این منظور، با بهره گیری از روش توصیفی- تحلیلی در ابتدا، تصاویری را -که منطبق بر آیات بودند- از بین نگاره های موجود در موزه ها انتخاب شد و در گام دوم، مولفه های تصویری سوره یوسف(ع) را در تفاسیر با نگاره ها تطبیق داده شد و بر اساس دلالت های صریح و ضمنی مورد تحلیل قرار گرفت. نگارگر با توجه به رمزگان تجسمی، سعی دارد تا در گام نخست، مخاطب را با داستان آشنا کند؛ و در لایه های پنهان، معناهای عمیق تری از آیات را تصویر نماید. بررسی ها نشانگر این مطلب هستند که نگارگر با انتقال این مولفه ها از متن نوشتاری به متن تصویری و با استفاده از رمزگان تجسمی سعی در انتقال معانی و مفاهیم موجود در آیات و تفاسیر را دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: سوره یوسف(ع)، تفاسیر، نگاره های ایرانی، دلالت معنایی
  • علی رضا شیخی، عالیه تقی خانی* صفحات 21-32

    ترکیب و چینش حروف، با هدف اثربخشی به محتوای متن، از ارکان خوش نویسی شهری است. با تبدیل تایپوگرافی دوبعدی به سه بعدی، شدت اثربخشی نوشتار بیش تر می شود و چنان چه این آثار در فضاهای عمومی نصب شوند، باید علاوه بر رعایت خصوصیات ذاتی تایپوگرافی، معیارهای مبلمان شهری نیز در نظر گرفته شود. هدف پژوهش بررسی ویژگی های بصری و تجسمی آثار نوشتاری سه بعدی اجراشده در شهرستان های تهران و مشهد، در فاصله سال های 1390 تا 1394هجری شمسی است ؛ و در پی پاسخ به این پرسش است: ویژگی بصری و تجسمی آثار مذکور چیست و چطور دسته بندی می شوند؟ رویکرد پژوهش، کمی و کاربردی و روش پژوهش، تحلیلی و تطبیقی است. جمع آوری اطلاعات، کتاب خانه ای و میدانی بوده و جامعه آماری، آثار تایپوگرافی سه بعدی اجراشده در تهران و مشهد است. نمونه گیری برای دست یابی به بیش ترین داده های آماری، هدفمند است. به این معنا که موارد با حداکثر اختلاف انتخاب شده اند. مبنای انتخاب، آمار آثار خوش نویسی شهری در شهرهای تهران و مشهد است که توسط سازمان زیباسازی شهرداری ها اجراشده و در سطح شهر نصب گردیده است. تامل در این آثار، نشان می دهد که به خصوص در مشهد، گرایش سفارش دهندگان و هنرمندان، بیش تر به استفاده از مضامین مذهبی است. نتیجه آن سبب پدیدآمدن آثار تکراری است که کم تر می توان در آن خلاقیتی یافت. یا با محیط خود تناسب ندارند و یا خوانش سریع و ساده آن ها برای مخاطب عام میسر نیست. این نشان می دهد که توجه به ویژگی های بنیادین تایپوگرافی، رعایت معیارهای گرافیک محیطی و مبلمان شهری، دقت در شیوه جانمایی و مکان یابی آثار، خلاقیت در ایده پردازی و استفاده از فونت مناسب، می تواند به تناسب حداکثری اثر با محیط کمک کند.

    کلیدواژگان: خوش نویسی، تایپوگرافی، سه بعدی، مبلمان شهری، تهران، مشهد
  • زهرا فلاح مهترلو، پری ملک زاده باروق* صفحات 33-42

    ساخت مدارس در دوره ی سلجوقیان، مورد توجه حاکمان و مردم آناتولی بوده و در زمان ایلخانان نیز، این سنت به تبعیت از سلاجقه ادامه می یابد. آنچه که مدارس سلجوقی-ایلخانی را از دیگر مدارس تفکیک می کند، سردر ورودی می باشد. یکی از شاخص ترین نمونه های این مدارس، مدرسه یاقوتیه واقع در شهر ارزروم می باشد. مهم ترین نقش مایه ی به کار رفته بر سردر این مدرسه، نقش برجسته درخت زندگی به همراه عقاب دوسر و دو شیر متقارن در طرفین درخت زندگی می باشد. هدف از پژوهش حاضر، بررسی و تحلیل نقش مایه ی درخت زندگی، و همچنین عقاب دوسر و شیر می باشد که به عنوان دو عنصر جدایی ناپذیر در کنار درخت زندگی دیده می شوند. پژوهش پیش رو تلاش دارد، ضمن تبیین اهمیت جایگاه نقش مایه های مذکور، به شناسایی و معرفی یکی از بناهای کمتر شناخته شده دوره ایلخانی و مهمترین تزیینات بکاررفته در آن بپردازد. از آنجا که یکی از مهمترین ویژگی های معماری سلجوقی-ایلخانی در آناتولی، استفاده از عناصر تزیینی در معماری و بویژه تزیینات سردر بوده، بررسی این نقوش می تواند امکان جدیدی را برای شناخت هنر این دوره و ارتباط آن با موضوعات فرهنگی، اجتماعی، اعتقادی و سیاسی را فراهم سازد. سوالات اصلی پژوهش عبارتند از: این نقش مایه ها دارای چه مفاهیمی هستند؟ آیا این نقش مایه ها با کارکرد بنا ارتباطی دارند؟ بکارگیری این عناصر تزیینی متاثر از کدام باورها و آیین ها می تواند باشد؟ نتایج نشانگر آنست که تزیینات به کار رفته در سردر این مدرسه، تحت تاثیر شمنیسم و در ادامه سنتهای هنری سلجوقیان شکل گرفته اند. مقاله ی پیش رو به روش توصیفی-تحلیلی و نیز به روش کتابخانه ای و مشاهدات میدانی صورت گرفته است.

    کلیدواژگان: سلجوقیان، ایلخانان، مدرسه ی یاقوتیه، سردر، نقش مایه، درخت زندگی، شیر، عقاب دوسر
  • سمانه کاکاوند* صفحات 43-52

    پژوهش حاضر باهدف مطالعه فرش به عنوان یک سند تاریخی در ارتباط باشخصیت تقی خان درانی انجام یافته است. منابع بسیاری به بررسی تاریخ کرمان عصر زندیه پرداخته و به سبب اهمیت حکومت تقی خان، به وی نیز توجه شده است. رویکردهای گوناگونی نسبت به شخصیت او در میان این منابع وجود دارد. برخی به سجایا و بعضی دیگر به رذایل اخلاقی او پرداخته اند. این مقاله با دو هدف معرفی کارکرد اسنادی قالی و تحلیل متن-بافته های مندرج بر قالی وقفی عصر زندیه، در راستای شناخت شخصیت تقی خان درانی از یک سو و تطبیق یافته ها با منابع مکتوب و درک واگرایی رویکردها به حاکم کرمان به رشته تحریر درآمده است. لذا، مساله پژوهش، معرفی اهمیت قالی به عنوان سند تاریخی با مصداق شخصیت تقی خان درانی است. درک علت ناهمگونی آرا در شناخت شخص نام برده در قالی وقفی و سایر منابع مدنظر است. ضرورت پرداختن به چنین موضوعی، اهمیت تاریخی داشته و موجب توسعه منابع مکتوب عصر زندیه(1209-1163ه.ق.) می شود که فقدان پژوهش، همواره، بدان زیان رسانیده است. گردآوری اطلاعات به روش کتاب خانه ای انجام شده و با رویکرد توصیفی، تطبیقی و تحلیلی بدان پرداخته شده است؛ در ضمن، پژوهش از نوع مطالعات اسنادی است. به نظر می رسد قالی، علاوه بر کاربرد و اغنای حس زیبایی شناسی، می تواند کارکرد اسنادی هم داشته باشد. فرضیه دیگر این که، شخصیت تقی خان درانی بازتابی متفاوت در میان متون درباری، تاریخ کرمان و کتیبه قالی وقفی عصر زندیه دارد. سروده موجود در کتیبه قالی، دال بر کارکرد تبلیغاتی دست بافته است.

    کلیدواژگان: کتیبه قالی وقفی، زندیه، تقی خان درانی، منابع مکتوب درباری
  • محمد امیر کاکی زاده*، ندا ناصری صفحات 53-64

    امروزه با صنعتی شدن شهرها و بروز معضلات و مشکلات ناشی از آن، لزوم توجه به معماری بومی با بازنگری معماری های گذشته، بیش از پیش، ملموس گردیده است. در این راه، علاوه بر بازشناسی شهرهای سنتی، که ما آن ها را نمونه های موفق شهرسازی می دانیم و همواره، در تلاش برای کسب آموزه های آن ها هستیم؛ مرور و تحلیل نمونه های معاصر نیز بسیار راه گشا است. در بین مجموعه های مسکونی، بررسی شهرک شوشتر نو، از آن جهت که تمرکز و نگرشی ویژه به بوم گرایی و هم چنین، شناخت فرهنگ و زندگی مردم و تاثیر آن بر طراحی داشته است، می تواند در برنامه ریزی و طراحی مجموعه های مسکونی و شهرک های آتی، مفید واقع شود؛ بنابراین، نگارندگان در جهت پاسخ به این پرسش ها که، چه جنبه ها و شاخصه هایی از بوم گرایی در طراحی شهرک شوشتر نو، مدنظر قرار داده شده است و چگونه این شاخصه ها در کالبد این شهرک، نمود پیدا کرده اند؟ و با هدف ارایه یک الگوی معماری مسکونی مطلوب و متناسب با ظرفیت های بومی و باهویت، به بررسی شهرک مسکونی شوشتر نو، پرداخته اند. در این راستا، این پژوهش با استفاده از روش توصیفی تحلیلی، کتاب خانه ای کاربردی و موردپژوهی، صورت پذیرفته است. درنهایت، طبق بررسی های صورت گرفته در این پژوهش، می توان گفت که طراحی بوم گرایانه در این شهرک، از طریق سه شاخصه فرهنگی، اقلیمی و توجه به زمینه طرح، نمود پیدا کرده است. هر یک از این شاخصه ها با به کارگرفتن راه کارهایی منجر به ایجاد بوم گرایی در این شهرک مسکونی گشته اند و مجموعه این سه شاخصه سبب طراحی موفق بوم گرای شهرک شوشتر نو، گردیده است.

    کلیدواژگان: بوم گرایی، کامران دیبا، شوشتر نو، شهرک مسکونی
  • مصطفی گودرزی، یاسمن امامی* صفحات 65-76

    بانددسینه، به آن دسته از کمیک استریپ هایی گفته می شود که در کشورهای فرانسوی زبانی چون سوییس، فرانسه و بلژیک تولید می شوند. یکی از مسیولیت های خطیر این قالب هنری، قهرمان سازی می باشد. روش های متفاوتی برای این امر در فرهنگ های متفاوت در کشورهایی چون آمریکا، ژاپن، فرانسه و بلژیک وجود دارد. سوال اصلی این پژوهش در این راستاست که دو کشور فرانسه و بلژیک که اصلی ترین کشورها در تولید بانددسینه می باشند، از چه روش هایی جهت خلق قهرمانان خود استفاده می کنند و این روش ها چه مزایا و مضراتی در طول تاریخ بانددسینه برای آن ها داشته است؟ همچنین هدف از این تحقیق، دست یافتن به علل موفقیت و شکست های دو کشور نامدار در تولید بانددسینه و خلق قهرمان می باشد و ضرورت این امر در کسب تجربه از متخصصان این هنر و صنعت و نهایتا به-کارگیری یافته ها در نمونه های تولید داخلی و ملی است. بدین جهت تلاش شده تا با بررسی برخی نظریات در رابطه با شیوه های گوناگون قهرمان سازی و سپس مطالعه چند نمونه از موفق ترین قهرمانان بانددسینه فرانسوی و بلژیکی به این مهم دست یافته شود. فرانسوی ها و بلژیکی ها عمدتا از قهرمانانی استفاده می کنند که از نوع زندگی انسان های عادی جامعه چندان فراتر نیستند. نه از نظر قوانین فیزیکی و طبیعی و نه از نظر مسایل ظاهری، اجتماعی، فرهنگی و... بنابراین ارتباط عمیق و نزدیکی میان مخاطبان و این قهرمانان ایجاد می شود و مخاطبان به راحتی می توانند به این شخصیت ها اعتماد کرده و آن ها را الگوی خود قرار دهند.

    کلیدواژگان: بانددسینه، کمیک استریپ، قهرمان سازی، فرانسه، بلژیک
  • مزدک نظری*، افسانه تابع، نصرالله تسلیمی صفحات 77-86

    با توجه به این که بسیاری از پژوهشگران معتقدند، اغلب پویانمایی های آموزشی ایران، دارای سطح کیفی مساعدی نمی باشند، هر ساله از میزان مخاطبانشان کاسته می شود و موجب خسارت های جبران ناپذیری بر گستره پیشرفت جامعه می گردند؛ بدین سبب، مقاله پیش روی از جمله راه کار های توسعه کشور و رسانه ای آن را آموزش هم زمان و مناسب هنری و اجتماعی بزرگ سالان و کوچک ترین عضو جامعه(کودکان) دانسته؛ باور دارد با شناسایی آسیب ها و قابلیت های موجود در این هنر صنعتی(پویانمایی) -که از ارزشمندترین شیوه های تربیتی سرگرم کننده بوده- و بهره مندی از تیوری الماس فرهنگی وندی گریزولد، روش های کتاب خانه ای و میدانی، تجزیه و تحلیل کمی و کیفی داده ها، هم چنین، پاسخ دادن به این پرسش که: چگونه کودکان گروه سنی الف با  تخیلات تصویر شده خویش و پویانمایی های آموزشی بهترین همبستگی را برقرار می کنند؟ قادر خواهد بود در جهت بلوغ به موقع کودکان گروه سنی سه تا شش سال شیرازی گامی ارزشمند بردارد. بر این اساس، در کنار روند یاد شده توانایی های جسمی و ذهنی، کنش ها و واکنش های سالم هنری خردسالان و افراد پیرامونی ایشان برای ارایه سه دسته از نظرات کلی مطالعه حاضر، به شرح 1) فرهنگ سازی و تعلیم مبانی اجتماعی و رفتاری افراد با کودکان، 2) تشویق خردسال به انجام کار هنری و 3) مشارکت گروه سنی یاد شده در تولید محتوا و تصاویرمتحرک ایرانی، نقش اساسی داشته است.

    کلیدواژگان: آسیب شناسی، پویانمایی(انیمیشن)، آموزش، کودک، ایران-شیراز
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  • S. Rabizadeh *, Z. Tabatabai Jebeli, M. Piravi Vanak Pages 7-20

    Surah Yusuf (pbuh) is one of the most wonderful visual representations of the stories in Quran. The very essence of this Surah has made many commentators and artists to represent it in terms and images, hence, open a new window for the audience. The main purpose of this study is to find the constitutive structure of two written and visual texts of the life story of Prophet Yusuf (pbuh) from childhood to middle age in the Holy Quran which has strengthened each other in coherent composition. Accordingly, the main questions are: 1. How are the visual components of Surah Yusuf (pbuh) represented in Persian miniatures and commentaries? 2. How are its explicit and implicit implication represented in Persian miniatures and commentaries? It is worth noting that this research is among the theoretical fundamental researches in terms of purpose, because of its particular dependence on the epistemic field, its knowledge-making aspect is taken into account, but it is descriptive-analytical-comparative in nature. Thus, after describing the subject, the manuscript explores how the problem situation is and its dimensions, and provides a rational basis by adapting the pictorial elements to the Qur'an on a similar subject. Also the data collection is library-based. The tools for gathering the data were notes, computer and scanner. The statistical population consists of twelve paintings collected from the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. The visual language in a text has a subjective and abstract concept that presents this feature in the textual and visual context. In the analysis of the textual and visual text worlds, the use of structuralized instructions to arrive at the mechanism of meaning production in the underlying systems of text is considered to be achieved through such a process as to imply a kind of meaning transfer. The relationship between the signifier and the signified is called the signification. Every text has two levels of implication, explicit and implicit. In works of art, explicit impression in the eyes of the audience gives the same basic meaning, namely the objective signification of the signifier, but in the next layer this implies that one must discover in the work and find the systems in the text. Such coordinated semantic process between text and image can be searched in Surah Yusuf (pbuh), and there are different dimensions of the components of the artistic image, which they come to life very quickly and make it possible to understand the underlying layers of the text. Sometimes commentaries and paintings have been added to the visual component, but have not gone beyond the subject matter and content, and are always linked to their former text in terms of form and content. Therefore, the painter, using visual codes, tries to introduce the audience to the story in the first step and to portray deeper meanings of the verses in the hidden layers. Image components that have been dealt with in both interpretations and paintings, and the painters have depicted the meaning with visual codes. Examples of visual components that have been dealt with in both interpretations and paintings, and painters have implicitly depicted visual codes, include:  Rescue of Prophet Yusuf (pbuh), Prophet Yusuf’s escape from Zulaikha, a child’s witness about the innocence of Prophet Yusuf, the assembly of Zulaikha and Egyptian women, the kingdom of Prophet Joseph in Egypt, Prophet Yusuf and his brothers in Egypt and the visiting of Prophet Jacob with Prophet Yusuf (pbuh) mentioned. These beautifully illustrated images represent the story of Prophet Joseph in the Holy Qur'an. In the meantime, the artist has implicit meaning in the artworks discussed with the artist's creations, which can be visualized as symbolic colors, coherent division of space, coherent composition, the use of line types to express a sense of temptation and excitement, color contrast between complementary colors, contrast between cold and warm colors, symbolic aspects of natural elements such as the tree and the halo around the prophet’s head, space segmentation, geometric shapes, concordance and framing. Since there are 12 paintings studied in this study, in each image, we encounter changes in the visual code, and there are many factors in it, including stylistic features, imagination, and limitations of painting illustration in each time period; however, we can clearly see this feature. The transfer of all the implications from the written text to the visual text is well illustrated by the fact that the painter uses visual codes to illustrate well the hidden and implicit meanings of the verses and interpretations in the drawings.

    Keywords: Surah Yusuf (pbuh), commentaries, persian miniatures, Semantic Signification
  • A. Sheikhi, A. Taghikhani * Pages 21-32

    Combining and sorting alphabets, aiming at the effectiveness of text content, is the pillar key of typography. By converting a two-dimensional typography to three-dimensional, the effectiveness of the text becomes greater .If these works are installed in public spaces, urban furniture criteria should be considered in addition to observing the inherent characteristics of typography. The purpose of the study was to investigate the visual features of three-dimensional typography works performed in the cities of Tehran and Mashhad from 2011 to 2015. The question is: What are the visual characteristics of the works and how are they categorized? Research method is analytical and comparative. Data collection is based on library and field resources. The statistical society is the three-dimensional typography works performed in Tehran and Mashhad; the sampling method is purposeful. Today, calligraphy has been entered in new fields such as packaging, advertising and architecture with the advancement of industry and the digital revolution. In this case, typography is considered as urban furniture. Therefore, due to the multifaceted nature of all the senses of the audience, it is involved with the work of art. In the study of typographic works as urban decorations, several topics are discussed: reading the work, distance from the work, the surrounding space, color and formal proportions of the work, installation environment, technical and material harmony with the content of the calligraphy. The outcome of the typographic works installed in Tehran and Mashhad cities is important because it is the result of a new business of environmental graphics and urban furniture. Ease of reading is the most important factor and form, its composition and relevance to the content are sub factors. These works can be distinguished in two categories: urban volume and volume writing. The works of the first group are the result of deepening the two-dimensional surface. The second group is divided into frontal and multifaceted visual effects. The works of the second group have a better capability for living spaces in urban spaces, which can be considered as urban furniture. The works of Mashhad have been mainly performed with the religious theme of the Quran and the name of the Shiite Imams, but in Tehran, in addition to them, praise and greeting to God, Prophet Mohammad, Salavat, verses of the holy Quran and the names of God have also been worked a lot. The calligraphy used in multi-faceted works is Kufic and in single-angle works it is Nastaliq, Thuluth and decorative Kufic. In Tehran, new traditional calligraphies such as Moalaa and abstract calligraphies have also been used. The type of presentation, composition method, arrangement of letters or words together in Tehran has a significant scope compared to Mashhad. Some works use national visual symbols such as cypress. Most of the materials used in the works are mainly metal. The most important issue in typography is the readability that is relatively observed in the works, although the fragmentation of the composition can be seen in it. Coordination and harmony with the work environment is another factor that is related to the base, point of view and visibility. High contrast colors bring out bold color to the artist. This issue is more evident in Tehran's artworks. Positive and negative space, composite calligraphies and visual active points such as Bismillah have suggested a successful element. Curved shapes, monochrome colors and their harmony with the green background of trees are the strengths of the some works. Some other works are expanded in the form of abstract alphabets with curved forms in depth, although interest in abstract forms has diminished the readability of the work. Some conceptual works have been performed too. For instance, a part of the inscription has been written and the other part has been completed by the audience. A study of the works of Tehran and Mashhad shows they do not follow the form of function most of the times. In other words, the message here is that it doesn't fit the form. So only a few of these works are volumetric combinations of alphabets. Some of the works have become inappropriate, or the distance between the field of view and the reading of the work has turned it into an unbalanced work. It should also be noted that visual disturbances cause the observer's vision to be impaired. However, the similarity of the three-dimensional techniques, as well as the type of material, indicates a common pattern for the construction of volumetric typography. It is believed that this process will lead to non-creative reproduction of the works.

    Keywords: Calligraphy, Typography, 3D, Urban Furniture, Tehran, Mashhad
  • Z. Fallah Mehtarlou, P. Malekzade Barouq * Pages 33-42

    Long after the Mongols ruled the Anatolian region, the influence of the Seljuks and their art remained strong. In fact, the architecture of the Ilkhanids is a continuation of the Seljuk architecture. The construction of schools was attended by the governors and people of Anatolia and the tradition continued at the time of the Ilkhanids to follow the Seljuk period, indicating that school building played a special role in this area as a sacred space for education. Attention to education led to the glorious appearance of schools’ entrances in this period. One of the most significant schools in Anatolia is the Yakutiye School in the city of Erzurum which was built in 1310 AD during the reign of Sultan Al-Jaito. The most important motifs used on the entrance of this school are the relief of the tree of life along with the double-headed eagle and two symmetrical lions on the sides of the tree of life. These decorations are magnificently displayed on the entrances of other schools and some religious buildings in the Anatolian region and show the religious beliefs of the Seljuk period. These concepts vary according to the cultural, social, indigenous structure and beliefs of each region and have a special place in each civilization. The aim of this study is to investigate and analyze the tree of life motif, as well as the double-headed eagle and the lion, which are seen as two inseparable elements next to the tree of life. The present research tries to explain the significant status of the mentioned motifs, to identify and introduce one of the lesser known buildings of the Ilkhanid period and the most important decorations used in it. Since one of the most important features of Seljuk-Ilkhanid architecture in Anatolia is the use of decorative elements in architecture and especially entrance decorations, studying these motifs can provide a new opportunity to know the art of this period and its relation with cultural, social, religious and political issues. The present article has been done by descriptive-analytical method as well as by desk study of library resources, case study and field observation methodology. The main research questions are: What are the implications of these motifs? Are these motifs related to the function of the building? Which beliefs and rituals can be influenced by the use of these decorative elements? Considering that shamanism is known as the former religion of the Anatolian Turks, the existence of the tree of life motifs, the double-headed eagle and two predators in this region has also been influenced by this belief and religion and it has penetrated and influenced the cultures and beliefs of other regions. The beliefs of Shamanism and its effects gained more power and spread with the Mongol invasion. Meanwhile, the effects of Seljuk art on the front of Ilkhanid monuments are also significant. During the Ilkhanid period, the influences of Seljuk art continued with power, so that this building can be studied in the Anatolian Seljuk architectural category. The results indicate that the decorations used in the entrance of this school were ‌formed under the influence of the Shamanism beliefs and, subsequently, the artistic traditions of the Seljuks. According to researches, the tree of life has been considered in the beliefs of Shamanism as the pillar of the sky or the axis of the universe that connects earth and sky and is a means to reach the dome of the sky, meet the gods, and talk to them. In some cases, there are fruits on the branches of the tree of life that have been used as a symbol of blessing and immortality. The eagle, which is one of the common motifs of ancient civilizations, in this relief is located on the highest part of the composition, emphasizing the concept of sovereignty. In the ritual of shamans, the eagle is the leader of all birds and is considered a sacred animal. The double-headed eagle, with these characteristics, is a symbol of sovereignty, power and the royal emblem. The motive of two predatory animals (lions) around the tree of life is also a sign of the source of energy in life, guardian and protector. In general, the roots of the tree of life motive, in the concept of world and blessing, in the art of this period are reflected in the influence of Central Asian beliefs. According to the concepts used in these motifs, it is concluded that these elements are perfectly proportional to the function of the school building and are compatible as a sacred place in the field of education.

    Keywords: Seljuks-Ilkhanids, Yakytiye School, Entrance, Tree of Life, Lion, Eagle
  • S. Kakavand * Pages 43-52

    The aim of this study was to study carpets as a historical document related to the personality of Taghi khan Durrani. Many sources have studied the history of Kerman during the Zandieh Era and due to the importance of the Taghi Khan government; attention has also been paid to it. There are various approaches to his character among these sources. Some have paid to his good behavior and others to his moral vices. In order to conduct this research, the author faced significant contradictions in introducing the character of Taghi Khan Durrani, the ruler of Kerman in the Zandieh Era. Taghi Khan Durrani in the court sources of Zandieh Era is well known, in the history books of Kerman in a different way and the endowment carpet has a clear and different message. Therefore, the issue of research is to introduce the importance of carpets as a historical document with the example of Taghi Khan Durrani's character. Understanding the reason for the heterogeneity of opinions in recognizing the mentioned person in the endowment carpet and other sources is considered. The need to address such an issue is of historical importance and leads to the development of written sources of the Zandieh Era (1163-1209 AH), which have always been neglected. Therefore, the comparative study of resources with the approach of recognizing him as much as possible is the main goal of the research. In addition, this article aims to introduce the documentary function of carpet and text analysis. Woven endowed carpet of Zandieh Era is important to recognize the character of Taghi Khan Durrani and reminding the importance that in addition to paper documents, there is a woven document in the form of carpet and introduction of a new function. It has been written under the title of "Documentary" on one hand and adapting the written sources and understanding the divergence of approaches to the ruler of Kerman on the other hand. The carpet in question is one of the woven fragments of Kerman in the Zandieh Era, which is currently kept in the registration number 20294 in the National Museum of Iran. Data collection is done by the library method and is done with a descriptive, comparative and analytical approach. In addition, research is a type of documentary study. It seems that in addition to using and enriching the sense of aesthetics, carpets can also have a documentary function. Another hypothesis is that the character of Taghi khan Durrani has a different reflection among the court texts, the history of Kerman and the inscription of the endowed carpet of Zandieh Era. The poem in the carpet inscription indicates the propaganda function. The present study seeks to answer the following questions with a comparative, historical and analytical approach: Does the carpet in question have significant documentary information in recognizing the character of Taghi Khan Durrani? Does the weaver have a kind of propaganda function and play a documentary role in introducing the good behavior of donator? What are the reasons for the difference in the approach of court sources and the text of the carpet inscription in recognizing Taghi Khan? The required data were obtained using files and notes based on library studies and the description and analysis of the information was based on the author's assumptions. Recordings and writing obtained from the observations of the mentioned carpet form a major part of the text and are the basis of the conclusion. In general, there is a contradiction in the views and personalities of Taghi Khan Durrani in the court sources of Zandieh's history and the endowment carpet. Most of the books that did not have a free prose and were commissioned by the court have introduced Taghi Khan as a rebellious person. The court clerks in each period did not adhere to a clear historiographical model, but rather focused on praising the king and gaining his approval. While the endowed carpet has a different look as a remained woven document. However, the endowed carpet is woven by the order of Taghi Khan and, like the historical texts of the court, is not empty of the praises of the ordering person. According to the poetic content of the endowment carpet inscription, Taghi Khan is an honorable, noble, brave and donator human being. Since various dimensions cause a deep insight, considering the approach of carpet inscription as a reflection of courtly features as the mirror of the vices of Taghi Khan Durrani, this makes the researcher deny the determinism of history. On the other hand, it seems that handmade fragment has had a promotional function as a mean of acceptance and popularity among people.  In this research, an attempt was made to introduce a different function from the underlayment, wall hangings and other famous uses and arrangement of carpets. Inscribed carpets can be read by having textual information and reserves in the place of the first document. Regardless of the value, judgment, and knowledge of the good and bad traits of historical figures, knowing them and knowing their thoughts, actions, mistakes, and services has been very useful. There is no significant connection between this document and the history books of the Zandieh Era.

    Keywords: Endowed Carpet Inscription, Zandiyeh, Taghi Khan Durrani, Written Court Sources
  • Mohammad Amir Kakizadeh *, N. Naseri Pages 53-64

    Today, because of the industrialization of cities and the problems related to it, it is necessary to pay attention to vernacular architecture by reviewing past architectures, more than before. In this way, in addition to the recognition of the traditional cities that we know them as successful urban planning samples and those which we always try to gain their teachings, reviewing and analyzing contemporary examples is also very helpful. In this research “Shushtar New Town” has been reviewed because of special focus to the vernacular architecture and recognizing the culture of peoples' lives and its impact on design, so it can be useful in planning and designing future residential complex. Therefore, this study was conducted to answer these questions: What aspects and factors of vernacular architecture are considered in the design of Shushtar New Town? The goal is to presenting an optimal residential architecture pattern that tailored to the local and identity potentials of Shushtar. In this regard the authors have investigated the “Shushtar No” residential town with using descriptive-analytic method, library-applied and case studies. The main goal of Shushtar No is the town's efforts to improve the quality of people life. Although, according to some unforeseen social events, the project of Shushtar No, have had no good result as much as it should be, but it is always considered as one of the most important examples and indicators in new towns. In the urban design of Shushtar New town, special attention has been made to the field of design. In this town, all of the factors have created harmony between the design itself and the field of design. The location of project, design and urban structure, form and shape of buildings and composition of interior spaces of houses, have been coordinated in field of design to create harmony in the appearance of the town. So it emphasizes the social life and conservation of vernacular culture of the region in the direction of social life by employing valuable historical patterns of the old Shushtar city. According to being adjacent to old Shushtar, the architectural design of Shushtar No which means new town, was sought to redefine the ideas and patterns of traditional architecture and its historical and cultural heritage; In such a way that it can be able to plan the modern life patterns to respond the needs of modern life for different groups of people. Due to the existence of the neighborhood culture and social life among the Shushtar’s people and also because of users of the town, a community (factory of plantation) formed in this town; So Kamran Diba emphasized on the approach of creating neighborhood units and social spaces in design. The important architectural points of Shushtar are the expansion of the town in the surface not in the height. This kind of architecture that refers to the vernacular architecture of this region is the result of, Diba's attitude into the neighboring unit architecture. The designing idea of this town is based on the climate and special attention to the region climate and climatic solutions that have derived from traditional Iranian architecture. According to Diba, the design of Shushtar No, follows the original patterns of traditional Iranian architecture, that its forms are derived from the climate constraints, available local technology conditions, the customs and culture of the region. Because of extreme heat of Shushtar No, one of the important factors in designing, creating the cooling and thermal comfort in the buildings for users. So the important factor in designing the buildings of Shushtar New town was to prevent the direct radiation of sun into the buildings and decrease the temperature of the interior space. Finally, according to the studies conducted to this research, it can be concluded that the vernacular design in this town has been found through three factors: cultural, climatic characteristics and attention to the field of design. Each of these factors has applied different strategies to create vernacularism in the residential town. A collection of these three factors has led to the successful design of Shushtar New Town. Unfortunately, after the operation of the Shushtar New town, due to the problems that are mentioned in the article, these factors were changed by residents and became an undesirable and inappropriate form; Thus this town has already been in a very unfair situation.

    Keywords: Vernacularism, Kamran Diba, Shushtar No, Residential Town
  • M. Goudarzi, Y. Emami * Pages 65-76

    Bande dessinée is the name of kind of comic strips which are produced in French language countries like France, Belgium and Switzerland. One of the most important duties of this kind of art is to create heroes and superheroes. In fact, there are different types of methods for producing heroes being used in various countries all over the world like the United States of America, Japan, France, Belgium, etc. The main question of this research is that: What methods do France and Belgium, as the main producers of bande dessinées in the whole world, use to create their own superheroes? And also we ask about the advantages and disadvantages of these methods which the mentioned countries have experienced during the history of bande dessinée production. The goal of this research is to reach to the reasons of success and failures that these countries had in their process of producing bande dessinée and creation of superheroes. The necessity to start this research is to make a good use of others’ experiences of this global and successful art and industry in order to utilize these facts in our own local comic strips and national superheroes. In fact, we have not payed attention to comic strip as a kind art and industry as much as the world has payed attention to. One of the reasons that America or France or other countries had been successful in giving a birth to many superheroes of their own during the past century has been using efficiently of comic strip. There have been too many years that we are noticing that our children need an Iranian hero with their national culture but although in all these years we knew what we need, we have not gone through the right way. As a result, we have tried to fulfill this research and reach to an appropriate conclusion by using various theories about the methods of creating heroes and also by studying the famous successful superheroes of French and Belgian comic strips. We chose French and Belgian ones because their superheroes are not really Super. They live like ordinary people in the society. They are not much more than normal people in any ways; neither in their physical manner nor in their appearance, social life, cultural aspects, etc. Therefore, a strong relationship would take place between audiences and these kinds of superheroes. This relationship could give fans an opportunity to be able to trust their heroes and rely on them. The truth is that whenever they can rely on their heroes, they will choose them as a role model in their lives. Also another reason that we picked French and Belgian superheroes not the American ones, is that French language comic strips have been more popular among different generations in Iran. People have read Tintin bande dessinées or Asterix during recent years. The American heroes are popular, too. But the most of the people are familiar with the cinematic version of them and not the comic ones and in order that we are going to find out about the comic methods of creating superheroes and not the cinematic methods, we are not going to mention the American heroes in this research. As a matter of fact, that is the exact reason that we are searching for it; to find a way in creating superheroes to make them trustworthy. The fact is that the main and the most important audiences of these art formats are children and adolescents. The superheroes’ responsibility is to make a belief in them called trust. They must trust on their hero. That is the duty of a good hero. Whenever he or she could do this job, we can call him or her a successful superhero; someone whom people can imitate from, someone whom people can ask for their solutions in their common problems, someone who can relief them in difficult situations. That is how a real superhero needs to be; someone who trustable.

    Keywords: Bande Dessinée, Comic strip, Superheroes, France, Belgium
  • M. Nazari *, A. Tabe, N. Taslimi Pages 77-86

    Whatever you read in this article is an analysis of the problems facing Iran's educational animation arts and crafts, including the significant reduction in audience and the sheer consumption of minors in the industry. The quest in which, we seek to dominate the country in order to develop and increase the mental and physical abilities of children. Along this path, the findings of educators and the families of Shiraz Primary Schools’ Children prompted the authors of the opposite research to ask a question through a statistical and library method. Find the right answer to the question "How do preschool children best relate to their imaginations and educational animations?" Consequently, it seems that the use of Wendy Griswold modified diamond (Twentieth-Century American Sociologist), which has fundamental characteristics such as art, society, creators, audiences and distributors makes it easier to achieve the damage. Make the appropriate education system the focal point of research goals and thereby promote artistic practices. With this approach, we believe that different qualities of children and lack of education that values the language of minors have motivated the education sectors’ intermediaries to draw Iranian minors into laziness and consumerism unknowingly with their own often misunderstood perceptions and move away from new experiences. For example: Today, we show nearly forty percent of children, within three to ten hours, of most foreign animations who seem indifferent to what goes on around them, or that they suppress their artistic and intrinsic values. On the contrary, we expect adult behavior and production. While many scholars believe that minors tend to be more knowledgeable about their types of visual arts (drawing, painting, sculpture, etc.) than their supporters, and in the absence of classical education, more creative actions are needed to they do. Behavior that is close to self-taught (unofficial) artists, referring to beauty to the pure nature of self. By doing so, society values the classical product of the industry that goes beyond the imitation power of children and beyond the power of their analysis. Because of this unhealthy attitude, the wish of having a smaller child with the future of social dignity and higher financial power is conceived. Summarizing the findings of this research shows that there are fifteen things that can directly or indirectly influence maladaptive behaviors of young children, mentioned below: 1) Adult aesthetic reductions, 2) lack of awareness of the quality and physical skills of children, 3) lack of awareness about the motivation and nature of children, 4) the unilateralism of the mediators in the field of education, 5) forming unrealistic habits, 6) jealousy in the creation of false society levels, 7) lack of creative economy, 8) weakness in shared personal and social views of children, 9) restrictions on Production Management, 10) lack of cash market, 11) an unnecessary increase in unskilled intermediaries, 12) monopoly in Educational Production, 13) absence of effective supporters and supervisors of educational animations, 14) decline in Domestic Competitive Markets, 15) unfair distribution of art and social capital inconsistent with the country's social context. This is a characteristic set that has not taken any positive steps to improve the current state of Iranian society, especially the visual arts and its related industries. Therefore, in a small study, we will find that the type of treatment of children in Group A, as well as the lack of healthy education for all segments of society is a major factor in all five indicators of cultural diamond. It is supposed to be transformed to modify the current structure with the "education" variable. Hence, extending this question to the original question of the article leads us to the first general answer, namely, "to cultivate and teach the social and behavioral foundations of individuals to the children." The second step is the transition from unilateralism and "encouraging the child to do the right artwork", to openly please the Iranian animation industry with its hidden facets; the third step is "small partnerships in the production of content and moving images". The event that the authors of the article believe in is a way to avoid mere consumerism, to guide the child's new experiences, and to give a new shape to the Iranian educational industry. By making the media content more enjoyable based on the participation of newcomers with peer groups or natural and self-motivated artists, their unique colors, shapes, and techniques make any age group more enthusiastic about their intrinsic art; various artistic media (design, painting, sculpture, etc.);  to solve the emotional needs of children, to find a solid solution, habits in the common understanding of beauty become the intersection of their feelings and intellects, so that the new cultural conditions cause the proper distribution of wealth and healthy competitiveness, and finally, the emergence of a proper pictorial convergence in the production process.

    Keywords: Pathology, Animation, education, Child, Shiraz-Iran