فهرست مطالب

Cardio Vascular and Thoracic Research - Volume:12 Issue: 2, 2020
  • Volume:12 Issue: 2, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/04/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 14
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  • Sudhakar Reddy Pathakota, Rajasekhar Durgaprasad*, Vanajakshamma Velam, Lakshmi AY, Latheef Kasala Pages 78-83
    Introduction

    Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) are the markers of atherosclerosis. An association between CACS and CIMT with presence of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD) is well established. However relationship between severity of CAD with CACS and CIMT is less clear. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between severity of CAD assessed by SYNTAX and Gensini scores with CACS and CIMT.

    Methods

    This prospective study was conducted on 351 patients with CAD between June 2015 to December 2016. CACS was obtained using AGATSTON algorithm with 128 slice multidetector computer tomography (MDCT) before conventional coronary angiography (CCA). CIMT was measured by using Philips IE33 Echo machine. The severity of CAD was assessed by SYNTAX score (SS) and Gensini score on CCA. Correlation between severity of CAD with CACS and CIMT was analysed.

    Results

    Mean CACS was 241.5±463.7, and this was positively correlated with over all SS (r=0.417, P<0.0001) and Gensini score (r=0.405, P<0.0001). Mean CIMT was 0.80±0.18 mm and this was also significantly correlated with SS (r=0.450, P<0.0001) and Gensini score (r=0.459, P<0.0001). Multivariate analysis showed that CACS was independently associated with diabetes mellitus (β:0.11, P=0.021), SS (β:0.251, P=0.010) and mean CIMT (β:0.128, P=0.028). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed a cut off CACS of >493 for SS≥33 (high-SS tertile).

    Conclusion

    Our study confirmed a significant correlation between CACS and CIMT with the severity of CAD assessed by SS and Gensini scores. CACS and CIMT may be considered as important noninvasive diagnostic modalities in the assessment of the severity of CAD.

    Keywords: Coronary Artery Calcium Score, Carotid Artery, Intima-Media Thickness, Coronary Artery Disease
  • Adama Sawadogo*, Hoang Nam Nguyen, Nicolas D’Ostrevy, Lionel Camilleri, Kasra Azarnoush Pages 84-89
    Introduction

    Minimally invasive approach in cardiac surgery has become an established and common technique in many cardiac surgery centres throughout the world. We report how we safely introduced minimally invasive approach in cardiac surgery in our department and we aim to demonstrate that this approach is feasible in any medium-size cardiac surgical centre.

    Methods

    it consisted of retrospective and descriptive study on 60 patients who underwent minimally invasive mitral valve (45) or aortic valve surgery (15) from January 2017 to Februry 2018. The approach was 3 to 6-cm right thoracotomy through the 4th and 5th intercostal space. The Cor-KnotTM system was used to tie the knots of the prosthesis in case of mitral valve replacement and aortic valve replacement and the ring if mitral valve repair.

    Results

    There was no conversion of thoracotomy to sternotomy. The average duration in ICU was 4.3± 2.3 days and 3.3 ± 1.5 respectively for mitral and aortic valve surgery. Four mitral patients and 1 aortic patient were reoperated for bleeding. No in-hospital death was observed. The postoperative discharge echocardiogram was normal in 95.6% of the mitral valve patients the trans-aortic mean gradient for the aortic valve patients was 16.3 ± 6 mm Hg. The thirty-day mortality was zero. In the majority of the patients, the scar of the thoracotomy were almost unseen.

    Conclusion

    It is possible to safely implement this new approach in any mid-size cardiac centers. The use of modern technology such as 3D video and Cor Knot allows achievement of excellent short term outcomes.

    Keywords: Minimally Invasive Surgery, Cardiac Surgery, Valve Surgery, Cor Knot, Auvergne
  • Behnaz Akbari, Samad Ghaffari ID, Naser Aslanabadi, Bahram Sohrabi, Leili Pourafkari, Fariborz Akbarzadeh, Hasan Javadzadegan, Ahmad Separham*, Malihe Sehati Pages 90-96
    Introduction

    Literature has shown the effects of intravenous/intracoronary nicorandil on increased myocardial salvage in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with mechanical reperfusion. However, the possible cardioprotective effect of oral nicorandil on the clinical outcome prior to primary coronary angioplasty is not well documented. Our aim was to assess the effect of oral nicorandil on primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI).

    Methods

    A total of 240 patients with acute STEMI undergoing PPCI were randomly assigned to oral nicorandil (Intervention, n=116) and placebo (Control, n=124) groups. The intervention group received 20 mg oral nicorandil at the emergency department and another 20 mg oral nicorandil in the catheterization laboratory just before the procedure. The control group received matched placebo. Our primary outcome was ST-segment resolution ≥50% one hour after primary angioplasty. Secondary outcome was in-hospital major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), defined as a composite of death, ventricular arrhythmia, heart failure and stroke.

    Results

    In the patients of intervention and control groups, the occurrence of ST-segment resolution ≥ 50% were 68.1% and 62.9% respectively, (P=0.27). In-hospital MACE occurred less frequently in the intervention group, compared to placebo group (11.2% vs. 22.5%, P=0.012).

    Conclusion

    Although the administration of oral nicorandil before primary coronary angioplasty did not improve ST-segment resolution in patients with acute STEMI, its promoting effects was remarkable on in-hospital clinical outcomes.

    Keywords: Acute Myocardial Infarction, Oral Nicorandil, ST-Segment Resolution, Primary Angioplasty, Cardioprotection
  • Hossein Shahinfar, Maryam Safabakhsh, Sara Mansouri, Kurosh Djafarian, Cain C. T. Clark, SakinehShab-Bidar* Pages 97-105
    Introduction

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between the consumption of an energy-dense diet and cardiometabolic risk factors in Iranian older adults.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study was conducted on 226 older adults who were living in Tehran, Iran. Dietary energy density (DED) was calculated as energy per weight of food, kcal/g. The usual intake of participants was measured using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements, fasting blood sugar, serum lipid profile and blood pressure and were assessed. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel-III (NCEP ATP III).

    Results

    Those who were in the third tertile of DED compared to the first tertile had 19% lower odds of having the cardiometabolic risk factors and metabolic syndrome (MetS) 0.81 (0.39,1.68) but the association was no significant (P=0.58). There was a significant inverse association between DED and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (β=-0.14, P=0.03) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (β=-0.17, P=0.01). We did not find any significant association between intake of energy-dense foods and serum levels of triglyceride (TG) (P=0.62), fasting blood sugar (FBS) (P=0.06), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (P=0.72) and waist circumference (WC) (P=0.28).

    Conclusion

    DED is negatively associated with SBP and DBP in Iranian older adults. Prospective studies are needed to establish a causal link between DED and MetS and risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD).

    Keywords: Metabolic Syndrome, Obesity, Diet, Energy Intake
  • Ahmad Separham_Soudabeh Dinparvar_Safa Savadi-Oskouei_Leili Pourafkari_Aidin Baghbani-Oskouei_Nader D Nader* Pages 106-113
    Introduction

    There is paucity of data about the possible role of ABO antigen in response to pharmacologic reperfusion therapy in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and its relationship with ST segment recovery; thus, we aimed to evaluate the association of ABO antigen with ST-segment resolution in STEMI patients treated with thrombolysis.

    Methods

    This prospective and observational study was conducted between March 2016 and September 2017 on patients with first acute STEMI within the first 12 hours after onset of symptoms treated with thrombolysis. Myocardial reperfusion success was determined by single-lead ST-segment recovery in 12-lead ECG. Patients were considered as responders if ST-segment resolved ≥50% or were assigned as non-responders if ST-segment resolution was <50%. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to examine the contribution of “A” and “B” blood group antigens to ST-segment resolution and the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular or cerebrovascular event (MACCE). Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were reported for each variable.

    Results

    In this study 303 patients (187 males and 116 females) with a mean age of 56.6 ± 16.8 (ranging from 39 to 87 years) were enrolled. 184 patients (60.7%) were responders and 119 patients (39.2%) were non-responders. The presence of either A (4.5 folds increase) or B (5.4 folds increase) antigen was associated with a higher likelihood of a response to thrombolytic therapy, while had not effect on the occurrence of MACCE.

    Conclusion

    We conclude that the presence of A or B blood group antigens is associated with a better response to thrombolytic therapy in patients with acute STEMI. This finding may imply a higher likelihood for thrombotic occlusion of coronary arteries in patients who have either A or B antigen in their blood.

    Keywords: ABO Blood Group, Acute Myocardial Infarction, ST-Segment Resolution, Thrombus Burden, Thrombolysis
  • Alireza Rostamzadeh, Kamal Khademvatani*, Mir Hossein Seyed Mohammadzadeh, Shahrzad Ashori, Mojgan Hajahmadi Poorrafsanjani, Behzad Rahimi, Behshid Ghadrdoost Pages 114-119
    Introduction

    Epicardial fat thickness (EFT) can reflect risk of cardiovascular disease particularly coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of this study was to investigate the association of EFT assessed by echocardiography and presence as well as severity of CAD.

    Methods

    Two hundred and twenty consecutive patients who candidate for coronary angiography because of possible CAD were studied. EFT was evaluated in standard parasternal long axis (PlAX) and parasternal short axis (PSAX) view from 3 cardiac cycles at the end of systole and diastole. The severity of CAD was defined in two ways: (1) SYNTAX score, (2) number of vessels with significant lesion.

    Results

    PLAX (EFTS ) (EFT in systole) and PLAX (EFTd ) (EFT in diastole) were significantly higher in patients with CAD in comparison with patients without CAD (P = 0.046, P = 0.041 respectively). There was a significant correlation between PLAX (EFTS ) (P = 0.05), PLAX (EFTd ) (P = 0.04) and SYNTAX score. There was no statistically significant relationship between EFT and number of diseased vessel (P > 0.05). Multivariate analysis was done for adjusting the effects of confounding factors and it showed that EFT (OR: 10.53, P = 0.004) was significantly correlated severe CAD as assessed by the SYNTAX score.

    Conclusion

    EFT assessed by transthoracic echocardiography was higher significantly in patients with CAD than in normal patients. EFT as an easily available and cost-effective echocardiographic feature might be useful to predict complexity of CAD.

    Keywords: Epicardial Fat Thickness, Coronary Artery Disease, SYNTAX Score, Echocardiography
  • Nahid Karamzad, Neda Izadi, Sarvin Sanaie, Elham Ahmadian, Aziz Eftekhari, Mark J.M. Sullman, Saeid Safiri* Pages 120-128
    Introduction

    This study aimed to perform a meta-analysis on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among patients with asthma and to measure the association asthma has with MetS.

    Methods

    The Web of Science, Medline, Scopus, Embase and Google Scholar were searched using the “Asthma”, “Metabolic Syndrome”, “Dysmetabolic Syndrome”, “Cardiovascular Syndrome”, “Insulin Resistance Syndrome”, “Prevalence”, “Odds Ratio”, “Cross-Sectional Studies”, and “Case-Control Studies” keywords. All observational studies reporting the prevalence of MetS among people with and without asthma were included in the study. In the presence of heterogeneity, random-effects models were used to pool the prevalence and odds ratios (OR), as measures of association in cross-sectional and case-control/ cohort studies, respectively.

    Results

    The prevalence of MetS among patients with asthma (8 studies) and the OR comparing the prevalence of MetS among patients with and without asthma (5 studies) were pooled separately. The pooled prevalence of MetS among patients with asthma was found to be 25% (95% confidence interval (CI): 13%–38%). In contrast, the overall pooled OR for MetS in patients with asthma, compared to healthy controls, was 1.34 (95% CI: 0.91–1.76), which was not statistically significant.

    Conclusion

    The prevalence of MetS was relatively high in patients with asthma. Furthermore, the odds of MetS was higher in patients with asthma, compared to healthy controls, although this difference was not statistically significant. More original studies among different populations are needed in order to more accurately examine the association between asthma and MetS, as well as the relationship asthma has with the individual components of MetS.

    Keywords: Metabolic Syndrome, Prevalence, Asthma, Epidemiology, Meta-analysis
  • Bagher Pourheydar, Abdolrahman Biabanghard, Reza Azari, Naser Khalaji, Leila Chodari* Pages 129-135
    Introduction

    Aging-dependent decline in the angiogenesis of heart is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This study was aimed to characterize effect of exercise on angiogenesis alterations and molecular mediators which are related to angiogenesis in the heart under aging condition.

    Methods

    Twenty-one male Wistar rats were assigned into three groups: young, aged, and exercise. Aged animals in the exercise group run on treadmill for 8 weeks. At the end, heart samples were collected and used for histological evaluation , determination of angiogenesis by immunostaining for PECAM-1/ CD31 and expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) levels by ELISA. P<0.05 is considered as statistically significant.

    Results

    Our results showed that angiogenesis, and VEGF-A levels were significantly decreased, TSP1 (P>0.0001) and p-NF-κB (P>0.001) levels were significantly increased in the heart of aged group compared to young group. Exercise group showed significant increase in angiogenesis, VEGF-A (P>0.0001), and p-NF-κB (P>0.001) and showed significant decrease in TSP-1 levels (P>0.001) compared to aged group. Moreover, compared to the young group, aged group showed histological changes in the heart, such as interstitial edema, and congestion, whereas, treatment with exercise improved these undesirable changes in the heart of exercise groups.

    Conclusion

    These findings indicated that aging-related decrease in angiogenesis in the heart may mediated by downexpression of VEGF-A and overexpression of TSP-1 proteins. Also, we showed that p-NF-κB protein was increased in the heart of aged rats, this probably mediated by compensatory mechanism. It was also showed that exercise as novel non-pharmacological therapy modifies VEGF-A and TSP-1 and increases p-NF-κB protein levels in the aged heart.

    Keywords: Aging, Heart, Angiogenesis, Exercis
  • Arezou Tajlil, Samad Ghaffari*, Leili Pourafkari, Sina Mashayekhi, Neda Roshanravan Pages 136-139
    Introduction

    The knowledge regarding the demographic characteristics of patients with Covid-19 and risk factors distribution is still evolving. Considering the role of cigarette smoking in the pathogenesis of lung diseases and the effect of nicotine on expression of the entry receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), it is important to determine the implications of smoking in COVID-19.

    Methods

    In this brief report, by using the published articles in the literature, we aimed to compare the reported prevalence of smoking in patients with COVID-19 to the prevalence of smoking in the general population of the corresponding report. Binomial tests were conducted and a P value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

    Results

    Among the screened papers, we found 12 peer-reviewed articles in which epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 patients, including smoking status, were stated. Based on the descriptive reports of characteristics of COVID-19 patients, we observed a significantly lower proportion of COVID-19 patients with smoking history compared to what is expected, given the population average for each study’s geographic area.

    Conclusion

    This analysis of available data showed a lower prevalence of smoking in COVID-19 patients in comparison to the regional average. Considering the limitations of the study, the results should be interpreted with great caution and be viewed just as a preliminary report to motivate related basic and clinical researches.

    Keywords: COVID-19, Nicotine, Smoking, Coronavirus Disease
  • Tufan Çınar*, Veysel Ozan Tanık, Kadir Gürkan Pages 140-144
    Introduction

    Studies found that the inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF). It is well-known that apolipoprotein-A1 (Apo-A1) demonstrates antiinflammatory and anti-oxidant properties in a healthy physiological system. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether there is any difference of Apo-A1 levels in patients with PAF and healthy subjects.

    Methods

    In this prospective cohort study, we enrolled a total of 35 PAF patients and 34 comparable healthy participants. Apo-A1 levels were measured from each subject using an immunophelometric method. All enrolled subjects were followed-up for one year during the study period.

    Results

    Serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were statistically higher in PAF patients compared to healthy subjects (1.54±1.99 vs. 1.06±2.01, P= 0.016, respectively). Of note, patients with PAF had lower Apo-A1 levels (1.84±0.74 vs. 2.55±0.44, P= 0.001, respectively). There was no statistical difference between the groups in terms of apolipoprotein-B levels (1.08±0.36 vs. 0.99±0.38, P= 0.339, respectively). We did not find any correlation between Apo-A1 levels and PAF attacks in the study.

    Conclusion

    The main finding of this study was that Apo-A1 levels were significantly lower in PAF patients compared to healthy participants. Based on our results, we considered that Apo-A1 may have a key role in the pathogenesis of PAF.

    Keywords: Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation, Apolipoprotein-A1, Inflammation
  • Niki Tadayon, Negin Yavari, Sina Zarrintan*, Seyed Masoud Hosseini, Seyed Moahammad Reza Kalantar Motamedi Pages 145-149
    Introduction

    Subclavian artery injury is an uncommon vascular trauma with potential morbidity and mortality. Management of subclavian artery trauma requires open and endovascular techniques and timely and efficacious decision is mandatory. We retrospectively reviewed traumatic subclavian artery injuries in a high-volume vascular surgery center in Iran.

    Methods

    In a retrospective study, we assessed subclavian artery injuries during 6 years in ShohadaTajrish Medical Center. Background characteristics, type of incision, type of operation and outcome of patients were evaluated.

    Results

    A total of 14 patients had subclavian artery injury (mean age 29.9 ± 13.4 years, 92.9% male). Trauma was in left and right sides in eight (57.1%) and six patients (42.9%) respectively. Arteriorrhaphy, interposition and ligation of injured artery was done in 7 (50.0%), 3 (21.4%) and 4 (28.6%) patients respectively. Associated nerve injury was present in six patients (42.9%). Endovascular proximal control was obtained in six patients (42.9%) prior to vascular exposure. Time of patient referral did not have significant association with shock or type of operation (P > 0.05).

    Conclusion

    Although traumatic subclavian artery injuries are rare, its vascular exposures and reconstructions are of potential clinical concern. Endovascular interventions can facilitate proximal control. In addition, endovascular repair by covered stent is an alternative to open surgery.

    Keywords: Subclavian Artery, Vascular Trauma, Proximal Control
  • Jianmei Li*, Qing Li, Yan Shen, Lihong Zhang, Chunmei Zhang, Tao Guo, Zihong Guo Pages 150-151

    In the study, we present the case of a 65-year-old male with rupture of right SVA into the right atrium that caused pleural effusion and acute right-sided heart failure (ARHF), which corrected by surgical intervention.

    Keywords: Pleural Effusion, Acute Right-Sided Heart Failure, Sinus of Valsalva Aneurysm
  • Mohammad Mozafar, Sina Zarrintan*, R. Shane Tubbs Pages 152-155

    We report a rare case of concomitant abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and left renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The patient was an 81-year old man who presented with vague abdominal pain. The investigations revealed a 110*73*62 mm AAA together with 69*56 left renal mass. Open repair of AAA with left radical nephrectomy was conducted. A simultaneous procedure is safe and does not increase morbidity and mortality in selected cases.

    Keywords: Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm, Renal Cell Carcinoma, Nephrectomy
  • Mohammad Mostafa Ansari Ramand, Mohammadreza Baay, Nasim Naderi* Pages 156-157

    The disaster due to the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) around the world has made investigators enthusiastic about working on different aspects of COVID-19. However, although the pandemic of COVID-19 has not yet ended, it seems that COVID-19 compared to the other coronavirus infections (the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome [MERS] and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome [SARS]) is more likely to target the heart. Comparing the previous presentations of the coronavirus family and the recent cardiovascular manifestations of COVID-19 can also help in predicting possible future challenges and taking measures to tackle these issues.

    Keywords: Coronavirus, Heart, Cardiovascular, SevereAcute Respiratory Syndrome(SARS), Middle East RespiratorySyndrome (MERS), COVID-19