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هنرهای زیبا - معماری و شهرسازی - پیاپی 78 (تابستان 1398)
  • پیاپی 78 (تابستان 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/04/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • محمدحسین شریف زادگان*، حسین قانونی صفحات 5-18

    نهادگرایی نگرشی اصالتا اقتصادی است که به عنوان نظریه ای برون زا، جایگاه ویژه ای در بسیاری از رشته ها همچون مدیریت، علوم سیاسی، جامعه شناسی و... یافته است. این نگرش از دهه 1990 میلادی با عنوان «گرایش نهادی» در برنامه ریزی شهری و منطقه ای مطرح شده و می توان آن را در کنار نظریه های برنامه ریزی مبتنی بر مشارکت، از رویکردهای غالب برنامه ریزی در دهه های اخیر دانست. اهمیت نهادگرایی در برنامه ریزی در این است که برنامه ریزی خود یک نهاد است که نیازمند شناخت بافتار و زمینه های نهادی برای شناسایی مشکلات و تصمیم گیری برای حل آن هاست. افزون بر آن، پیاده سازی تجویزهای برنامه ریزی، نیازمند سازوکارهای نهادی است. بنابراین، مقاله حاضر با استفاده از روش توصیفی-تحلیلی، به بررسی آثار اندیشمندان برجسته درباره رابطه نهادگرایی و برنامه ریزی می پردازد تا به یک گونه بندی جامع و مانع از نظریات مختلف درباره این ارتباط دست یابد. گونه بندی نهایی، نگرش نهادی نسبت به برنامه ریزی را در سه دسته «برنامه ریزان نهادی غیر انتقادی» (نهاد در برنامه ریزی)، «برنامه ریزان نهادی انتقادی» (طراحی/مداخله نهادی) و «برنامه ریزان نهادی مبادله ای» (هزینه مبادله برنامه ریزی) جای می دهد. این دسته ها را به ترتیب می توان در ذیل رویکردهای نهادگرایانه «جامعه شناختی»، «تاریخی» و «انتخاب عقلانی» جای داد. همچنین از منظر الگوواره های کلان، این رویکردها به ترتیب در سه دسته «عمل گرایانه»، «پسا-اثبات گرایانه» و «اثبات گرایانه» جای می گیرند.

    کلیدواژگان: برنامه ریزی، گونه بندی، نهادگرایی تاریخی، نهادگرایی انتخاب عقلانی، نهادگرایی جامعه شناختی
  • عیسی حجت*، مهدی محمودی کامل آباد، مریم زندیه وکیلی صفحات 19-28
    مسیله اصلی این تحقیق، چگونگی تحقق تعامل میان فرم و سازه است. این تحقیق در پی آن است تا با تبیین معیارهایی در ارزیابی بناها از نظر تعامل فرم و سازه و با بررسی نمونه‎هایی از معماری امروز ایران، راهکارهایی را جهت ارتقای آن ارایه کند. بر این اساس از روش تحقیق کیفی، تحلیل محتوایی استفاده می شود. به این صورت که ابتدا بناها از جهت ارتباط میان فرم و سازه در سه گروه سازه خودنما، همساز با فرم و فراموش شده در فرم دسته بندی می شوند. سپس براساس نیازهای سازه و فرم و ویژگی‎های هر گروه، پارامترهای کیفی این تعامل شامل مشارکت فرم در بازدهی بالاتر سازه، صداقت در بیان عناصر سازه، درک رفتار سازه در فرم، تناسب سازه با نیازهای عملکردی و معنایی فرم و تناسب فرم با نیازهای ساخت سازه (زمان، اقتصاد و ملاحظات کیفی) ارایه می‎شود. در ادامه بر مبنای این پارامترها، معیارهای ارزیابی بناها در تعامل فرم و سازه استنتاج می شود. در نهایت نمونه‎هایی از معماری امروز ایران با روش پیمایشی و بر اساس این پارامترها و معیارها مورد ارزیابی قرار می گیرند تا نقاط قوت و ضعف آن‎ها در تعامل فرم و سازه شناسایی گردد. نتایج این تحقیق شامل ارایه راهکارهایی جهت بهبود معماری امروز ایران در تعامل فرم و سازه است.
    کلیدواژگان: فرم، سازه، تعامل، ارزیابی، معماری امروز
  • مرجان شرفی*، مصطفی بهزادفر، سید عبدالهادی دانشپور، ناصر برک پور، حمیدرضا خانکه صفحات 29-38
    مشارکت، مفهومی محلی، متنوع، پیچیده و پویا است. از این رو نظریه ها و دیدگاه های موجود در زمینه مشارکت در برنامه ریزی شهری که اغلب در ساختار کشورهای غربی ارایه شده اند، در سایر کشورها اثربخشی لازم را ندارند. این در حالی است که تاکید اغلب پژوهش های انجام شده در این حوزه در محیط برنامه ریزی شهری کشور، بر سنجش نظریه های موجود معطوف و هدف آن ها تعیین سهم متغیرهای شناسایی شده از مشارکت و ارزیابی فرایند های مشارکتی بوده است. اما با توجه به ماهیت ذهنی و تعاملی این پدیده، ادراک آن توسط کنشگران مختلف می تواند با دیدگاه های نظری جهانی، متفاوت باشد. بنابراین محدود کردن آن در ساختار نظریه های موجود، تامل برانگیز است. هدف این پژوهش، شناخت ادراک مردم و برنامه ریزان از فرایند مشارکت در محیط برنامه ریزی شهری است. چراکه تحقق مشارکت تنها مستلزم به کارگیری فرایند و شیوه های مناسب مشارکتی نیست، بلکه نیازمند شرایطی است که صرفا عینی و متاثر از ساختارهای رسمی محیط برنامه ریزی نیستند و لازمه کشف آن ها، درک تجربه و معنای تجربه کنشگران از فرایند مشارکت است. این پژوهش در دسته پارادایم تفسیرگرایی قرار می گیرد. در این پژوهش از تحلیل محتوای کیفی استقرایی آشکار به منظور تفسیر داده ها استفاده شده است. یافته ها بیانگر آن است که مهم ترین مفهوم در حوزه ادراک برنامه ریزان و مردم از مشارکت در محیط برنامه ریزی شهری، مشارکت گریزی مردم و برنامه ریزان است.
    کلیدواژگان: مشارکت عمومی، تجربه مشارکت، مشارکت گریزی مردم، مشارکت گریزی برنامه ریزان، محیط برنامه ریزی شهری
  • کتایون تقی زاده*، محمدرضا متینی، الناز کاکوئی صفحات 39-48
    به منظور دست یابی به یک معماری پاسخگو که بتواند با شرایط پیرامونی اش سازگار باشد، رویکرد غالب آن است که معماران، طراحان و مهندسان سازه، تمرکز خود را بر روی طراحی و ساخت پوسته های ساختمانی متحرک متشکل از اعضای صلب و مفاصل مکانیکی قرار می دهند.  گرچه ممکن است این شیوه مزایایی به همراه داشته باشد، اما می تواند با ایجاد مشکلات و ضعف هایی چون شکست و گسیختگی ناشی از تنش های بالا در مفاصل، منجر به هزینه بالای تعمیر و نگهداری شود. هدف از تحقیق پیش رو، بهره گیری از پتانسیل مکانیزم های انعطاف پذیر در طراحی و ساخت نما های متحرک است که بدین منظور، پس از دسته بندی کاربرد مکانیزم های انعطاف پذیر در معماری در دو سطح (سطح نخست: جایگزینی آن ها با مکانیزم های صلب-پیکر و سطح دوم: طراحی مکانیزمی یکپارچه)، تمرکز این مقاله بر روی سطح نخست است. دستآورد این سطح که در قالب سه زیر دسته ((1) حرکت های انتقالی، (2) دورانی و (3) انتقالی- دورانی در مفاصل انعطاف پذیر) و به روش شبیه سازی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت، طراحی، شبیه سازی رایانه ای و ساخت سه مدل فیزیکی از پوسته های متحرک ساختمانی است که غالب مزایای ساختارهای انعطاف پذیر چون یکپارچگی ساختار، کاهش تعداد اعضا و وزن سازه، کاهش چشمگیر تنش در مفاصل، هزینه تعمیر و نگاه داری و در نهایت توجیه اقتصادی طرح را به همراه دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: پوسته های ساختمانی متحرک، مکانیزم انعطاف پذیر، مکانیزم صلب- پیکر، مکانیزم انعطاف پذیر دوپایا
  • سیده سولماز راستجو، محمدرضا بمانیان* صفحات 49-58

    معماری خانه که تحت تاثیر فرهنگ جامعه شکل می گیرد، باید پاسخ گوی نیازهای زندگی ساکنان خود باشد. هدف از این تحقیق، تدوین الگوی ارتباطات فضایی خانه معاصر با توجه به فرهنگ است. برای نیل به این هدف، ابتدا شاخص های فرهنگی موثر بر ارتباطات فضایی خانه، شناسایی شدند. در مرحله بعد، با روش دلفی دو مرحله ای با پرسشنامه نیمه باز از شش خبره، شاخص ها اعتبار بخشی شده و دو شاخص محرمیت و سلسله مراتب، دارای بیشترین وابستگی با ارتباطات فضایی خانه معرفی شدند؛ سپس با روش نحو فضا، که یک روش استدلال منطقی است، از روی پلان 381 خانه در تهران، الگوهای محرمیت و سلسله مراتب ترسیم شدند. این خانه ها که به صورت تصادفی و از مناطق مختلف انتخاب شدند، تغییرات کالبدی ارتباطات فضایی خانه معاصر ایرانی  طی 30 سال نشان می دهند. مشاهده تطبیقی الگوها نشان می دهد، الگوی غالب دهه شصت، یکی از الگوهای غالب دهه 50 است که در آن فضای هال نقش کلیدی دارد و تفکیک فضاها از این فضا صورت می گیرد. سرویس بهداشتی به مرور با یک گره از فضاهای اصلی جدا شده و در پلان خانه، جایگاه ثابتی یا در کنار ورودی و یا در کنار اتاق خواب یافته است. بدین ترتیب، با گذشت زمان، خانه ها دارای محرمیت و سلسله مراتب بیشتری شده اند.

    کلیدواژگان: خانه معاصر ایرانی، محرمیت، سلسله مراتب، الگو، ارتباطات فضایی خانه
  • محمدحسن خادم زاده*، پوریا محمودی اصل همدانی صفحات 59-72

    تجدد و روشنفکری، یکی از رویش های مهم فکری دوران مشروطه در ایران است که منجر به بازخوانی بسیاری از مفاهیم موجود از گذشته و بازتعریف آن ها براساس نگرش های نوی آن زمان می شود. این مقاله، ازطریق بررسی متون آن دوران و منابع مرتبط دیگر و با استفاده از روش تفسیری-تاریخی و تحلیل محتوا، برای پاسخ گویی به این سوالات، که خوانش جدید از تاریخ توسط تجددخواهان چه نقشی در تکوین اندیشه میراث ملی ایران داشت؟ و آثار معماری گذشتگان در این موضوع چه جایگاه و اثری داشتند؟ به بررسی مفهوم تجدد و مفاهیم مرتبط دیگر در این موضوع می پردازد. سپس مضمون تازه ای از مفهوم تاریخ از نگاه متجددان را که می توان آن را «خوانش تجددخواهانه از تاریخ» نام نهاد، مورد مداقه قرار می دهد. بررسی زمینه های "تکوین اندیشه میراث ملی معماری ایران" ناشی از پیامد این خوانش از اهداف این پژوهش است، که بر معماری باقی مانده از گذشته ایران به عنوان رکنی مهم از تاریخ که هویت ساز و در فهم هستی و چیستی تاریخی ما اهمیت فراوانی دارد استوار شده است. آثاری که متجددان قصد دارند تا آن را به عنوان میراث ملی ایرانیان به تایید، ثبت و ضبط رسانده همه را به اهمیت آن واقف ساخته و بر حفاظت از آن تاکید ورزند.

    کلیدواژگان: تجدد، تجددخواهان، تاریخ، مشروطه، میراث ملی، معماری
  • زهرا افتخار، مریم اختیاری*، مسعود طاهری شهرآئینی صفحات 73-86

    با توجه به روند توسعه و تغییر در جوامع امروزی و زوال اجتناب ناپذیر ساختمان ها، بهسازی و استفاده مجدد تطبیقی، یکی از مناسب ترین گزینه ها جهت انطباق با شرایط و نیازهای جدید هر بنا است. این عمل چه در مراحل اولیه تصمیم گیری و چه در فرآیند طراحی و انتخاب کاربری جایگزین به علت موارد متعدد دخیل در تصمیم گیری، با پیچیدگی هایی مواجه است. بنابراین در این مسیر، چارچوب و سیر مشخص و سیستماتیکی جهت کنترل و هدایت امر نیاز است. نظر به عدم ارایه چنین چارچوبی در ایران، در این مطالعه سعی شده است تا با بررسی پتانسیل استفاده مجدد تطبیقی از یک ساختمان موجود و بررسی نحوه ی تعیین کاربری جایگزین مناسب برای آن، ضمن معرفی مدل های آکادمیک، روند تصمیم گیری به عنوان یک الگو قابل استفاده باشد. بدین منظور، سیلوی قدیم شهر شیراز به عنوان نمونه انتخاب و ضمن پتانسیل سنجی، فرآیند انتخاب کاربری جایگزین نیز معرفی گردیده است. نتایج نشان می دهد که پتانسیل سیلو برای استفاده مجدد تطبیقی، بالا و نیز کاربری مناسب جایگزین برای آن فرهنگی- گردشگری است. دستاورد این مطالعه می تواند به عنوان یک الگو برای طراحان و معماران برای استفاده مجدد تطبیقی از ساختمان های موجود با عمر کالبدی حداقل 20 سال و در بافت های شهری قابل استفاده باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: انطباق ساختمان، استفاده مجدد تطبیقی، مدل تصمیم گیری، پتانسیل سنجی
  • فریناز ریخته گران، محمدجواد نوری، آمنه بختیار نصرآبادی* صفحات 87-98

    یکی از چالش های اساسی شهرنشینی عصر حاضر، سلطه خودرو بر فضاهای شهری است. فضاهایی که زمانی بستر حیات جمعی شهروندان بودند، با نفوذ خودرو، تا حدود زیادی نقش سازنده خود را در ارتقای کیفیت زندگی شهروندان از دست دادند. یکی از مهم ترین سیاست هایی که در سال های اخیر جهت تقلیل این سلطه موردتوجه قرارگرفته است، پیاده مدار نمودن خیابان های شهری است. از آنجا که مدیریت شهری با محدودیت های مالی، فنی، عمرانی و... روبه رو است، اولویت بندی پیاده مدارسازی خیابان های شهری حایز اهمیت است. نگارندگان این مقاله به دنبال رفع یک خلا روش شناسانه در حوزه اولویت بندی پیاده مدارسازی خیابان های شهری بوده و بدین منظور شهر گز مورد مطالعه قرار گرفته است. در این مقاله مدلی چندبخشی ارایه شده است که بر اساس شاخص های زیربنایی جریان حرکت پیاده (شاخص های چیدمان فضا) و سطح پوشش خدمات رسانی کاربری های شهری (دسترسی به اختلاط کاربری ها)، پایگاه داده جهت اولویت بندی پیاده مدارسازی خیابان ها را تولید می کند. سپس با اجرای مدل F’ANP بر روی پایگاه داده ها، وزن شاخص ها محاسبه شده و با ساخت شاخص مرکب اولویت بندی پیاده مدارسازی خیابان های شهری (PIMSW)، خیابان ها اولویت بندی شده اند. یافته ها نشان می دهد که اولویت ایجاد محورهای پیاده مدار در شهر گز تحت تاثیر سه مولفه زیر بنایی "چیدمان فضا"، "دسترسی به اختلاط کاربری های فراغتی" و "دسترسی به اختلاط کاربری های مرتبط با نیازهای روزمره یا کاری" قرار دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: پیاده مدارسازی، اولویت بندی، چیدمان فضا، سطوح خدمات رسانی کاربری ها، اختلاط کاربری، مدل F’ANP
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  • MohammadHosseinh Sharifzadegan *, Hossein Ghanouni Pages 5-18

    In recent years, a new wave of emphasis has been emerged on the role of institutional factors in construction of social action in economics, political sciences, organizational sociology, and management. This institutional turn in policy-making and its reflections on planning emphasize that any planning effort is embedded in a unique institutional setting -which has evolved by a certain historical and geographical background- and this setting is making paving the way for new institutional context. Institutionalism is originally an economic approach, which as an exogenous theory has found a prominent role in many fields such as management, political sciences, sociology, etc. Since 1990s, this approach has been discussed in urban and regional planning under "institutional turn" rubric. Since then, this approach has been one of the most discussed topics in urban and regional planning alongside planning theories based on participation (communicative planning theory, consensus-building theory in planning, participative planning theory, etc.). In fact, two main topics of recent academic debate in planning can be distinguished: participation in planning, institutions in planning. The importance of institutionalism in planning comes from the fact that planning is itself an institution; an institution which needs to explore the contextual and institutional settings for identification of issues and problems and making a decision on how to solve/alleviate those problems and issues. Moreover, the implementation of planning prescriptions needs institutional (and organizational) mechanisms. Although institutionalism has been discussed in Political sciences, sociology and especially economics literature of Iran, analysis of planning articles in Iran academia shows that there has been little attention to this influential field of thought in urban and regional planning which has become one of the main topics of discussion in 21st century planning theory. So there is a gap in this sense that should be filled. Therefore, the present article is aimed to do so. Therefore, the present article starts by reviewing the literature, extracting ideas and thoughts of prominent urban and regional academics about the relation of institutionalism and planning by using descriptive analytical method, to introduce a comprehensive typology of ideas about this increasing relationship. The resulting typology, classifies the institutional approach to planning in three categories: non-critical institutionalist planners (institutions in planning), critical institutionalist planners (institutional design/intervention) and transactional institutionalist planners (transaction cost theory of planning). These three categories can be classified according to institutionalist approaches as follows (respectively): sociological institutionalism, historical institutionalism, rational-choice institutionalism. Finally, they can be categorized in pragmatist, post-positivist and positivist paradigms respectively. Each of these institutionalist approaches to planning encompass difference prescriptions in considering institutions in planning thought and action. This article is not aimed to judge which approach is better or more useful. There is the belief that each of these approaches can be useful in different circumstances. The judgment about usefulness of any of these three approaches should be done based on the problems faces, resources in hand and above all, contextual and institutional characteristics of the place that planning intends to change.

    Keywords: Planning, Typology, historical institutionalism, rational-choice institutionalism, sociological institutionalism
  • Isa Hojat *, Mehdi Mahmudi, Maryam Zandiyehvakili Pages 19-28
    The structural engineering science is currently serving as an isolated discipline in the buildings design process rather than working in cooperation with the architectural form. In some cases, the non-interacting structure is dominating the architectural form. In the other cases, the architectural visual aspects have excellence and superiority over the structure. In most of the latter cases, the embedded structure is decorated with the historical elements. In general, the separation between the architectural and the structural disciplines can give rise to the educated engineers who do not have neither comprehensive knowledge nor realistic insight towards design of buildings. From the architectural point of view that will eventually cause unstable, awkward and not worthwhile buildings. From the structural point of view that will cause inefficiency in consumable materials, design complexity and the structural performance. Although the relationship between the architectural form and the structure has been pointed in some literatures; however, development of the measures and criteria for the interaction between between the architectural form and the structure is not deeply discussed so far. This research paper intends to bridge the gap between the architectural form and the structural performance aiming to improve the Iranian contemporary architecture in terms of the architectural-structural interaction. We develop necessary criteria for evaluating such interaction via scrutinizing some case studies from the Iranian contemporary architecture. We firstly characterize buildings based on architectural-structural relationships into three categories including “the symbolized structure within the architectural form”, “the compatible structure with the architectural form” and “the ignored structure with respect to the architectural form” categories. Secondly, we present a specific definition for the architectural-structural interaction in which accounts for both architectural and structural demands and performances. We also develop the qualitative parameters for the architectural-structural relationship. These parameters are “the form participation in higher structural efficiency”, “the integrity in the expression of structural elements and optimal structural performance”, “understanding the behavior of the structure in the architectural form”, “appropriateness of the structure with the conceptual and structural requirements” and “appropriateness of the form with structural requirements (time, economy, and qualitative considerations)”. Afterwards, we develop evaluation criteria accounting for the defined parameters and then analyze some case studies taken from the Iranian contemporary architecture include: Isfahan mosalla, Azadi tower and Al-ghadir mosque. Finally, we suggest some remedy measures to fill the gap between the architectural form and the structural performance. They include but not limited to “the effective training of the designers and architectural students in order to have better insights towards the structural performance”, “the joint cooperation between architects and structural engineers during different stages of the design process”, “avoiding pure formal copies of famous design elements in Islamic architecture and trying to adopt it with the modern structures”, “considering equal priorities for visual aspects of the architectural form and the structural demands in architectural design process”, “systematic approach to use decorations in design of the architectural form and the structure” and “avoiding structural elements only for showing off the advances in technology”.
    Keywords: Form, Structure, interaction, assessing, contemporary architecture
  • Marjan Sharafi *, Mostafa Behzadfar, Seyed Abdolhadi Daneshpour, Naser Barakpour, Hamidreza Khankeh Pages 29-38
    Public Participation is a local, diverse, complicated and dynamic concept. So, the existing theories in the field of public participation in urban planning which has been developed in the global North countries are not in the line with the characteristics of the planning environments of developing countries, moreover they have not enough efficiency in these countries. Whereas, in theory, most of the research noticing to public participation in the urban planning environment in Iran have adopted the positivist approach to evaluate the existing theories and have aimed to determine the Importance of known variables and their impact on public participation. In the other part of these researches have been tried to evaluate the consequences of participatory processes. These researches attempt to deal with this complicated and abstract phenomenon through shrinking it to numbers and figures within the framework of existing theories, without considering the characteristics of planning environment. Accordingly, there is a contradiction in understanding that is riddled with misunderstandings and ambiguity about the concept of participation and its effectiveness in the urban planning environment in Iran. From an empirical point of view, due to the essence of this concept and the variety of its understanding and practice in different structures, the contemporary experiments that are based on the theories, models and experiences of other countries, over-reliance on the techniques of participation and merely emphasized on the objective conditions of the formal structure of the planning environment, not only have not decreased the gap between theory and practice, but also have resulted in practice in trapping participation into a vicious and faulty cycle. Therefor this research tries to recognize the informal structures of urban planning environment which affect public participation, through discovering the experience of people and planners in public participation and the meaning of it in the urban planning environment of Iran. This research can be categorized within the interpretive paradigms. Epistemologically, it emphasizes on the interaction between the researcher and the participants and the closest possible objective distance. This research uses ‘manifest inductive qualitative content’ analysis methodology. Data gathering has been done using in-depth unstructured interviews. Choosing participants (interviewees) has been targeted towards developing the concepts and continued until theoretical saturation. 22 individual in-depth interviews and 2 group interviews have been conducted with planners and people who had experience in participation. Being aware of the interactive characteristic of the concept of participation, some field surveys have been conducted during the procedure of the study in order to develop the concepts further. The findings of the study demonstrate that the most important concept in the understanding and practicing of participation for the people and the planners, simultaneously, is “refusal from participation”, which is a different concept than the concept of refusal argued in former theories in the field of social sciences. Finally, by achieving an in-depth understanding of the components of the participatory planning environment, this research, that has considered the current conditions of the planning environment of the country, underscores the areas requiring intervention to fill the gap between theory and practice in participation.
    Keywords: Public Participation, the experience of participation, planners’ refusal to participation, people’s refusal to participation, urban planning environment
  • Mohammadreza Matini, Elnaz Kakouee Pages 39-48
    In order to achieve a responsible architecture, which can adapt itself with surrounding conditions, the major approach is that architects, designers and structural engineers concentrate on design and construction of kinetic structures consisted of rigid bodies and mechanical joints. Although this method may have some advantages in, but for architectural applications, which increasingly need their own solutions in each project, it can have deficiencies such as failures and ruptures due to high tensions in joints as well as high costs in repairing and maintenance. Kinetic skins in architecture are usually designed and executed in negligible numbers and customized for each new project. In architecture as other fields of engineering, kinetic structures are usually based on the principles of the basic construction that rigid bodies are connected with mechanical joints. However, there is a difference between moving structures in the machine industry and architecture. The high weight of these structures with mechanical elements leads to higher weights, which can cause lots of deficiency in earthquakes. In addition, the construction of complex designs that are often desirable for architects and designers is only due to the complexity of mechanisms and considerable increasing in the number of elements. In other words, along with all the advantages of structures made with rigid elements, which cannot be ignored, disadvantages of this design and construction also have to be considered. Most of challenges due to rigid mechanical structures seem to be caused by animated joints; high stresses, fractures and structural failures often occur in these parts of structures. The aim of this research is to use the potential of compliant mechanisms in design and construction of kinetic facades to familiarize architects and designers with their functions, applications and advantages and for that; after classifying the application of compliant mechanisms in architecture in two levels (the first level is to replace compliant mechanisms with rigid ones and the second one, designing an integrative mechanism), Here, the focus is on first level. In the first level, developed structures are designed in a rigid-body mechanism in which compliant joints replace with mechanical joints, which lead to simplicity in construction and maintenance. The achievement of this level, which has been considered in three subcategories (Translational, rotational, translational-rotational movements in compliant joints) by means of simulation method, is design, computational simulation and construction of three physical models of kinetic skins with compliant joints. Through these models, most benefits of compliant structures such as structural integrity, reduction in member numbers and structure weight, significant reduction in joints’ tension, cost of repair and maintenance and finally, economic justification of plan can have been achieved. In the second level, integrated flexible mechanisms were considered, most of which are difficult to design and need nonlinear equation analysis. Nature, plants in particular, as an inspirational source in the design of these mechanisms have been studied, so that by exploring the rules of motion in the tested plants and transferring them to kinetic structures in architecture, to achieve greater reliability and less complexity, these structures were achieved.
    Keywords: Kinetic building skins, Compliant mechanisms, Rigid-body mechanisms, Bi-stable Compliant Mechanisms
  • Seyyede Solmaz Rastjoo, Mohamadreza Bemanian * Pages 49-58

    Home architecture, should be a live, coherent, sustainable and comfortable one. These are qualitative descriptions and needed to be changed to patterns. A pattern is a mix of an event and a space. Culture creates life style events. Therefore, the home architecture contains patterns for space connections in it. These patterns are studied with the space syntax method. In this method, home plans change to graphs. Space syntax method has shortages, in which space details as well as views, space dimensions and interior details are not shown. In this study, these shortages are removed and do not effect results, because cultural patterns like confidentiality and hierarchy are shown in graphs by nodes and spaces. These two indices do not depend on method shortages, so this method has reliability and validity. Cultural patterns are removed from contemporary homes, so they become similar to each other in cities all over the world. Iranian homes lost cultural values like other ones. The main question is that, which cultural indices effect on home and how they changed during the time. The aim of this research is Extracting a home space connection pattern for Iranian contemporary homes according to culture. The present research studies Iranian home typology over past 30 years (from 1970 to 2000) using space syntax method. These studies are based on cultural pattern studies. A Delphi method used for identifying more effective patterns. It is a research tool for identifying issues for decision making in information systems. In this research, Delphi multi-round survey procedure is used twice. At first six experiences were asked for more effective cultural patterns on space connections of home. They confirmed that five indexes contain confidentiality, hierarchy, security, identity, home Interactions with family and home Interactions with nature have more effect on space connections. For the next time, they selected two from five indices. Results show that hierarchy and confidentiality are the most effective indices on space connections. There are different ways for identifying confidentiality and hierarchy. For example adding nodes before entrances shows more confidentiality and hierarchy. However, for home, two ways show more confidentiality and hierarchy. A graph having a node or an interface space after entrance has confidentiality index. A home with confidentiality pattern has entrance with view control and access. A graph having a node before bedrooms and livings. A home with hierarchy has more than three spaces or nods between entrance and bedrooms. Plans from 381 homes from different districts collected and changed to graphs. Homes were random selected in order to economy and residential rules, do not affects results. From each decade, prevalent pattern, Dominant pattern and optimized pattern graph is detected. According to these graphs, during 1970-1980, hall was the main space after entrance. After that during last two decades, hall space deleted from plans. Nods before entrance and bedrooms increased. A node before W.C. spaces is confirmed. W.C. space is always located beside bedrooms or near entrance by adding a node. Homes during last three decades have more confidentiality and hierarchy.

    Keywords: Iranian Contemporary Home, Pattern, Home Spatial Connections, confidentiality, Hierarchy
  • MohammadHassan Khademzade *, Pouria Mahmoudi Asl Hamedani Pages 59-72

    Modernity and enlightenment is one of the major intellectual sprouts of the Constitution Age in Iran, which lead to the re-readings of most of the concepts of the past, and their re-definition based on the new attitudes and approaches of that time. Among these topics was the concept of “history”. The intellectuals, influenced by the fundamental components of the new world such as rationalism and humanity and relying on the concepts such as “progress”, liked to offer  a new reading of the concept of history with regard to these components. This reading was conducted in an atmosphere where the new world had figured out new relationships in culture, society, politics… with peculiarities such as experimental sciences, power of criticism and rationalism and elimination of holy and lofty issues by setting up logic, something that threw a skeptical eye to most of the precedents. Therefore, it founded a new concept of the history by criticizing the previous theme of the history, which can be referred to as “a modernistic reading of history”. By studying the texts of those ages and other related sources authored after the Constitution era and by using an interpretative-historical and content analysis method, the present article seeks to answer to the questions as to:”What role did the new reading of the history by the modernists play in the genesis of the idea of national architectural legacy of Iran?”, and “What status and influence did the works of previous architects have on this issue?” In order to answer these questions the outlook of the modernists toward the architecture remained from the past need to be examined and explored as an important pillar of the history, which makes identity. Extension of the discussion of this article encompasses the individuals who are somehow known as the modernists of the Constitution Age. The objective of this research is to study the effect of modernistic reading of the history on the “Genesis of the idea of national architectural legacy of Iran” which is one of the outcomes of this new reading of the history. Therefore, it deals with the nature of this effect, its origins and its results in addition to studying the roots and continues toward the emergence of the idea of national architectural legacy of Iran. In order to achieve this objective, modernity is defined and the course of modernity in Iran is explored in an effort to follow the path of metamorphism of the concepts at the Constitution Age. Upon contemplation of the transformation occurred in the theme of the concept of history in the opinions of the modernists, the research studies the tendencies, which took, place in the opinions of modernists concerning the architectural works of the past and served as an evaluation of the genesis of the idea of national architectural legacy of Iran. The research also tries to show that this new attitude of the Constitution Age actually intended to confirm, record and register the historical architecture of Iran as a national Iranian legacy, notify everyone on its importance and emphasize on its conservation.

    Keywords: Modernity, Modernists, history, Constitution, National Legacy, Architecture
  • Zahra Eftekhar, Maryam Ekhtiari *, Masoud Taheri Shahraeini Pages 73-86

    The process of change and development in today’s societies has affected buildings too, in a way that their wear and deterioration is inevitable. Eventually, they may be deserted and no longer be suitable to serve their primary purpose, or due to lack of demand for their services, they may be made redundant. Under such circumstances, naturally, their initial usage does not fulfill the current requirements. Therefore, the possibility of upgrading and reusing as well as creating a different usage in order to adapt a building to the new conditions and needs may be assessed. Today’s societies face the problem of dealing with the deserted buildings that they have inherited. Meanwhile, revival through creation of a new function and adaptive reuse of such buildings give a new life to the building, instead of restoration and various types of maintenance for instance in a museum. This also returns it to the urban life cycle, which is one of the ideal available alternatives to the today’s societies. Buildings and the industrial heritage that are left in the heart of urban centers, are results of the deindustrialization in urban settings in the country over the recent years. The heritage of the past industry, by protecting such areas as a symbol of the history of modernism in Iran, is known as “industrial heritage”. The industrial heritage links the contemporary age to the past and reinforces the spirit of the place. This place can be considered as a space where collective memories are revived and preserved. Some of the issues discussed in relation to the industrial heritage are: physical recovery and changing the functional structure, adapting the industrial heritage to the needs and requirements of today’s society, and an economic revival through creation of new usages in order to make the industrial buildings profitable. Therefore, adaptive rehabilitation and reuse are the most suitable options for adaptation to the new requirements and needs of each individual building. This process, both in the early stages of decision-making and in the design and alternative use selection process, is faced with complexities due to the many factors involved in the decision making. Therefore, a clear and systematic framework and course of action are needed to control and guide the process. Due to lack of such a framework in Iran, this study seeks to investigate the potential for adaptive reuse of an existing building and examine how to determine the appropriate alternative for it. This is done by introducing academic models, to use a template for the decision making process. For this purpose, the old silo of Shiraz was selected as a sample. In addition to assessing its potential, the alternative use selection process was introduced. The results indicate that the silo has a high potential for adaptive reuse, and an appropriate alternative use for the silo is a cultural tourist attraction. The results of this study can be used as a template for adaptive reuse of existing buildings by designers and architects.

    Keywords: Building Adaptation, Adaptive Reuse, Decision-making model, Assessing Potential
  • Farinaz Rikhtehgaran, MohammadJavad Nouri, Ameneh Bakhtiar * Pages 87-98

    One of the main challenges of urbanization in this century is the domination of automobile over urban spaces. Urban spaces that once lay the foundations of citizen’s common life, with the influence of the car on them, lost their constructive role in improving the quality of citizen’s life largely. One of the most important policies that has been considered in recent years to reduce the domination is making urban streets more walkable. Since urban management faces financial, technical, construction constraints, it is very important to prioritize urban streets in order to make them walkable. This paper seeks to fill a methodological gap in the field of prioritizing of making urban streets walkable. This gap is originated from two sources. The first is that in the most recent research, researchers have failed to prioritize streets in order to be more walkable without mental processes. The second is that the indicators used in recent research are not mostly the underpinning indicators. While the indicators such as space syntax indicators or land use service areas can be used as the underpinning indicators, they emphasized on such indicators like furniture, tiles etc. The last is important too but the most important differences between them is that the last one improves walkability while the first one attract the pedestrian movement stream more fundamentally.  The city of Gaz placed in Esfahan province-ShahinShar County is the case study of this paper. Accordingly, in this paper, a multivariate model is provided through the ArcMap software model builder, based on the underpinning indicators of the pedestrian movement stream (space syntax indicators (4 indicators)) and the Urban land uses service areas (9 land uses accessibility indicators), which calculates the space syntax indicators and service areas for the urban streets, Concurrently. Then, by implementing the F'ANP model on the output of the provided model, the weight of the 13 indicators is calculated and by formulating a composite index of prioritizing streets in order to make them more walkable(PIMSW: Priority Index of Making Streets Walkable), GAZ streets are prioritized. The results show that using F’ANP model for each city, a unique walkability model can be suggested based on the each urban context. This article suggests that a comparison between PIMSW models in different cities should be considered in future studies. While most of the previous studies have calculated and considered the indicators that influence walkability of urban streets either with the same weight or by the weights extracted from mental processes, in this paper, according to the city of Gaz, the weight of each indicator is extracted by F'ANP model. Also, The results of the paper show that, unlike most previous studies, which have recognized the integration in the general form as the most correlated indicator in prioritizing urban streets in order to make them more walkable, the connectivity, control and choice indicators in the city of Gaz, respectively, have a higher weight than the integration in prioritizing Gaz streets in order to make them more walkable.

    Keywords: Making walkable, prioritizing, space syntax, Land use service area, Mixed land use, F'ANP Model