فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:9 Issue: 2, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/04/15
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
|
  • Fatemeh Barati, Abbas Pourshahbaz *, Masoud Nosratabadi, Zahra Mohammadi Page 1
    Background

    Road accidents are a major cause of deaths, injuries, and financial losses globally, especially in developing countries. Iran is one of the countries with a high rate of road accidents causing considerable damage in different domains. Therefore, in order to tackle this problem, we need to examine its causes.

    Objectives

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association of risky driving behavior with impulsiveness, attentional bias, and decision-making styles.

    Patients and Methods

    This was a descriptive-correlational study. The sample included 117 male drivers, aged 20 - 34 years, attending car insurance agencies in Tehran. The participants were selected using the convenience sampling method. The data were gathered using the Manchester Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), the Decision-Making Style Scale (DMS), and the Dot Probe Task to assess attentional bias. All data analysis was conducted using Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis, by using SPSS, version 22.

    Results

    According to the results of the Pearson correlation coefficient, risky driving behavior was significantly correlated with impulsiveness subscales (P < 0.01) and attentional bias (P < 0.05). In addition, significant relationships were observed between risky driving behaviors and three decision-making styles, including rational (P < 0.05), spontaneous (P < 0.01), and avoidant (P < 0.01).

    Conclusions

    Based on the study results, impulsivity, decision-making styles, and attentional bias as factors influencing drivers’ cognitive skills related to driving, could explain the increase in the frequency of risky driving behavior.

    Keywords: Attentional Bias, Decision Making, Impulsive Behavior, Health Risk Behaviors
  • Shirin Hasanpour, Mansoureh Fakhouri *, Mojgan Mirghafourvand Page 2
    Background

    Encouraging people who live with HIV (PWLH) to inform their sexual partner about HIV infection is an effective way to reduce the spread of HIV. It reduces the probability of HIV transmission by avoiding high-risk behaviors.

    Objectives

    To determine the predictors of disclosure of HIV status to a sexual partner(s) in PWLH in Khuzestan province, Iran.

    Patients and Methods

    The current descriptive, analytical, cross-sectional study was performed on 89 men and 31 women with HIV/AIDS. Data were collected from October 2016 to February 2017. A convenience sampling method was used to recruit participants. Socio-demographic and Kalichman HIV status disclosure questionnaires were used to collect data. The questionnaire was filled by participants. In addition to socio-demographic information, high-risk sexual behaviors, history of drug and alcohol use, number of sexual partners, and HIV status of the partner were also reported by participants. A multivariate linear regression model with a backward strategy was used to determine the predictors of HIV disclosure.

    Results

    Half of the participants (49.1%) had two or more sexual partners. 46.7% of participants reported that the HIV status of sexual partners is unknown. Frequency of unprotected vaginal, anal, and oral relationship were 87.5%, 43.3%, and 58.5%, respectively. 71.7% of participants had a history of drug abuse, and 43.3% were current substance users. More than half (58.3%) had a history of imprisonment. Based on the multivariate linear regression model, the variables of employment status, HIV status of sexual partner, unprotected vaginal sex, unprotected anal sex, and recurrent consumption of narcotic drugs were predictors of HIV disclosure. These variables explained 58.7% of the variance in the total score of HIV disclosure.

    Conclusions

    The present study highlighted the need for behavioral interventions, such as providing support and counseling with sexual partners of HIV patients about HIV preventive behaviors, such as condom use, reducing the number of sexual partners, and creation of a positive attitude towards the lives of HIV-positive intravenous drug users to overcome the barriers to reduce high-risk behaviors and drug abuse, through behavioral disease counseling centers.

    Keywords: Disclosure, Sexual Partners, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV AIDS)
  • Leyla Najafi, Ali Arab* Page 3
    Background

    Drug addiction, defined as a chronic brain disease, leads to worse physical and psychological content that makes the most damaging impact on the family system.

    Objectives

    This study investigated the efficacy of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) on psychological resilience in women dependent on drugs.

    Methods

    A semi-trial design study was done by a pre-test/post-test and the control group. The statistical population of this study was drug abuser women who bedded in addiction treatment camps in Zahedan and got detoxification. The single-stage cluster was sampling method; twenty-seven females were randomly divided into the trial (n = 13) and control groups (n = 14). Resilience questionnaire (CFI) was developed by Connor and Davidson in 2003, which comprised of 25 items.

    Results

    There was a significant change in the interpersonal competence, negative affective tolerance, and spiritual effects in the post-test in the experimental group compared with the control group. According to the Eta coefficients report, the most effective one was the imagination of individual competence, with the effect and difference equal to 34% in post-test scores, which is the effect of ACT.

    Conclusions

    Acceptance and commitment program appears to be an effective therapeutic intervention in improving psychological resilience in drug abuser women. As such, it is suggested that therapists should use ACT to promote significant psychological resilience along with medical treatments for drug abuser women that need critical care of their psychological functioning.

    Keywords: Acceptance Commitment Therapy, Addictive, Psychological Resilience, Drug Abuser Women
  • Alireza Khosravi, Saeed Bakhshani * Page 4
  • Bede Chinonye Akpunne*, Ebenezer Olutope Akinnawo, Ibukunoluwa Busayo Bello, Oluyinka Olutola Olajire Page 5
    Background

    Globally, psychoactive substance use (PSU) and sexual harassment of female undergraduates are strongly linked and regarded as major public health concerns. However, research efforts on these problems are yet to be given adequate attention in Nigeria.

    Objectives

    This study examined the patterns and predictive influence of PSU on exposure to sexual harassment and the self-esteem of female undergraduates.

    Patients and Methods

    Stratified sampling was used to select 500 female polytechnic undergraduates (mean age = 20.8), across four randomly selected departments, who responded to Sexual Experiences survey (SES), Substance Abuse Prevalence scale (SAPS), and Rosenberg Self- Esteem scale. Data collection took place in the school community within five days. Frequency counts were employed to analyze participants’ demographic characteristics, while multiple regression analysis was used to answer the research questions.

    Results

    Reported patterns of sexual harassment were 62.8%, ranging from 7.4% rape to 39.2% sexual contact. 26.8% of the sexual harassment took place in the school environment with school mates and teachers as perpetrators. The prevalence of PSU was 73.4%. A significant positive correlation was observed between age and PSU, between age and sexual harassment, and between PSU and sexual harassment. PSU significantly predicted exposure to sexual harassment (R2 = 0.065, P = 0.005) but failed to predict self-esteem significantly (R2 = 0.028, P = 0.115).

    Conclusions

    Our findings revealed the need to urgently curtail sexual harassment of students, considering the threats it poses to the Nigerian academic clime and its staggering cost to the current and future states of the Nigerian society at large.

    Keywords: Nigeria, Self-Esteem, Psychotropic Drugs, Sexual Harassment, Female Undergraduates
  • Nasrin Motazedian, Mehrab Sayadi *, Somaye Oboodi, Hassan Joulaei Page 6

    Street children are a hard-to-reach population. Since the direct method is not feasible and has some limitations, we utilized the network scale-up (NSU) as an indirect method. This study was conducted in Shiraz municipalities. Our target population was Iranian boys between 10 to 18 years of age during the years 2014 to 2016. Three trained psychologists conducted face to face interviews with 86 street children (boys) on the streets, through the convenience sampling technique. The social network size of street boys in Shiraz was estimated at 17 persons (ranging from zero to 92 people, mean = 17 ± 17, median = 13). Overall, the network size of the hidden population might be smaller than the general population, due to the stigmatized nature of their behavior and place of work.

    Keywords: Iran, Shiraz, Network Scale-up, Homeless Youth (Street Children)
  • Farhad Faridhosseini, Maedeh Kamrani *, Mahmoud Reza Azarpazhouh, Maliheh DadgarMoghaddam, Naghmeh Mokhber, Abdolrahim Rezaee, Reza Boostani Page 7
    Background

    Sexual transmission of human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) has been widely reported in different populations, including Khurasan in the northeast of Iran.

    Objectives

    The present study compared the frequency of psychiatric symptoms and disorders in patients with HTLV-1 associated myelopathy, asymptomatic carriers of the virus, and healthy control group. Patients and

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study had three groups, including HTLV-1 infected patients who visited HTLV-1 Clinic of Qhaem Hospital of Mashhad, Iran (30 individuals with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis [HAM/TSP] and 45 in the asymptomatic group) and 41 HTLV-1 seronegative individuals in the control group. All subjects were screened by SCL90 for psychiatric symptoms, as well as motor disability levels according to Osame’s motor disability score (OMDS). Subjects who scored higher than the cut-off point in each screening evaluation attended structured clinical interviews (SCID) based on the fourth edition of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV-TR). The data were analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), the spearman correlation test and chi-square test, and SPSS19 was used for statistical analysis (P < 0.05).

    Results

    In general, 116 subjects were studied. The carrier and healthy groups were not significantly different in terms of psychiatric disorders. However, the frequencies of major depression (P = 0.011) and dysthymic disorders (P = 0.028) were higher in patients with myelopathy than healthy individuals. In addition, the frequency of the major depressive disorder was higher among patients with HAM/TSP than the HTLV-1 seronegative group (P = 0.002). The frequency distribution of major depression (P < 0.001) and generalized anxiety (P = 0.018) was observed with an increase in OMDS.

    Conclusions

    Regarding the high frequency of psychiatric symptoms, especially in patients with myelopathy, designing suitable psychiatric interventions seems essential in such patients.

    Keywords: Human T-Lymphotropic Virus 1, HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy, Mental Disorders, Paraparesis, Tropical Spastic
  • Ali Reza Shafiee-Kandjani, Zahra Mohammadzadeh, Shahrokh Amiri *, Asghar Arfaie, ParvinSarbakhsh, Salman Safikhanlou Page 8
    Background

    Cognitive functions are higher-order cortical activities that include various parameters such as concentration, executive function, and working memory.

    Objectives

    The purpose of this study was to compare cognitive functions in three groups of Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Internet Addiction Disorder (IAD), and normal people. Patients and

    Methods

    This descriptive-analytical study included patients with ADHD, IAD, and normal individuals (26 normal individuals and 27 patients in each of the IAD and ADHD groups) who were evaluated by Conners’ Adult Scale, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), Young Internet Addiction Test, and Persian Paper and Pencil Cognitive Assessment Package (PCAP). Data were analyzed by SPSS 23 software. The ANOVA test with Bonferroni’s pairwise comparison and chi-square test were used for data analysis at a significance level of 0.05.

    Results

    The results showed that the ADHD subjects scored higher (P < 0.01) on the GHQ test and its subscales, as well as the Conners’ test. Also, patients with ADHD had lower scores on attention, concentration, and working memory scales than IAD and normal counterparts (P < 0.01). Working memory was weaker in IAD patients than normal subjects and ADHD and cognitive function is more damaged than IAD.

    Conclusions

    The results showed that patients with ADHD had higher levels of impairment in working memory than IAD patients. Meanwhile, cognitive deficits were more sensible in ADHD.

    Keywords: Executive Function, Working Memory, Internet Addiction, Adult, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder