فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:8 Issue: 4, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/04/19
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • Cletus Ukwubile *, Jude Odugu, Salihu Njidda, Blessing Umeokoli, Abdulqadir Bababe, Mathias Bingari, Alexander Angyu Pages 321-338

    Cancer disease has been on the increase recently in both developed and developing countries of the world resulting in 40 million deaths annually. Ethno-medicinal survey of indigenous herbal plants used in traditional medicine in the treatment of cancers was conducted in major communities in Bali, Gashaka and Sarduana Local Government Areas Taraba State Nigeria. Traditional medicine practitioners as well native herbalists, herbal plants and product marketers were orally interviewed by structured questionnaires. One hundred and six (106) species of plants from forty-nine (49) families were surveyed and documented in this study. Out of these, 70 % of the plants were neither screened for their anticancer activity nor documented in literatures while no any members of the Families Salvadoraceae, Simaroubaceae, and Elatinaceae have ever been reported for their anticancer activity. Members of the Family Fabaceae have the highest number of species distribution with 15%, followed by Family Asteraceae with 9% while Family Rubiaceae and Annonaceae have 6% and 5% distribution respectively. The leaves of the plants were the most used part in the treatment of cancers in all the communities, and preparation is usually by decoction. Sides effects of these plants were generally low on observation.The need for conservation of these plants is of utmost important because most these plants might go into extinct as a result of urbanization pressure and timber activities in most of these areas surveyed.

    Keywords: Folk medicine, Cancer therapy, Bali, Gashaka, Sarduana
  • Pourya Bazyar *, Ali Jafari, Reza Alimardani, Valiollah Mohammadi, James Grichar Pages 339-357

    Brasica napus L. is one of the most important crops in the world, but every year during mechanized harvesting with conventional combines large quantities of the seeds fall to the ground and thus result in a decrease in yield. Therefore, designing and manufacturing a head specific for harvesting this crop is a high priority. In this study, the head of a combine for harvesting fine-grained products were designed, manufactured and evaluated. Initially, different designs were modeled in Solidworks 2018 software and analyzed in Ansys workbench 2019 software. The best scheme was selected between different designs and a prototype was developed. The results of the analysis indicated that the fabricated apparatus has sufficient strength and stability. The results of field tests indicate that the generalization of the proposed scheme on the scale of a real combine harvester can help to decrease the grain loss for fine-grained products.

    Keywords: Header, design, and manufacturing, Finite element, fine-grained products
  • Pourya Bazyar *, Ali Jafari, Reza Alimardani, Valiollah Mohammadi, James Grichar Pages 358-368

    Fine grain products are harvested in two manual and mechanized forms. Nowadays, common combine harvesters are used, but fine grain products such as Rapeseed, Sesame and Sorghum cannot be harvested with conventional heads of combine harvesters due to the excessive grain loss in the head of the combine. Therefore, the necessity of design and fabricating machines and heads of combine harvesters became the center of attention to researchers because of the nutritional and medicinal benefits of fine-grain products. This research, encompasses an overview of the special headers and machines for harvesting three type of fine grain products with high loss and an evaluation of each of these harvesters.

    Keywords: Sesame, rape, Canola, Harvester, fine grain products
  • Mozhdeh Haddadi *, MohammadJavad Mousavi Pages 370-387
    Background

    There is a worldwide effort to present novel approaches for the development of tolerance-induction treatments in regenerative medicine, after years of investigation in clinical transplantation. Particularly, novel approaches are based on controlling the immune response, including the application of biomaterials or imitation of antigen-specific peripheral tolerance in either solid-organ or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).

    Methods

    New biomaterials have been designed to alter the cell behavior in tissue-engineered creatures and also suppressing immune responses against cells and biomaterial scaffolds. Blunting immune responses has been evidenced to be a wise strategy in regenerative medicine. Incorporation of stem cell biologists, material scientists, and transplantation immunologists can lead to the most innovative solutions.

    Results

    Replacing damaged tissues is the main goal of regenerative medicine. To reach this goal, it is vital to have a comprehensive understanding of the whole regeneration process; for example, the mechanisms of dedifferentiation of cells to progenitor cells or trans-differentiation into another cell types, and rescheduling of somatic cells to pluripotent cells.

    Conclusions

    Exploring the regenerative processes under in vitro and in vivo situations sheds lights on the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms and thereby helps to pave the way toward describing novel regenerative strategies to combat human diseases and finally to strengthen the regenerative medicine.

    Keywords: Immune system, Mesenchymal stem cells, Microfluidics, MicroRNAs, Pluripotent cells, Polymeric delivery systems
  • Francis A Gbore *_Adeyemo M Adewole_Olatunde Oginni_Olufemi A. Adu_Taiwo Akinnubi_Kehinde I. Ologbonjaye_Adewumi Usaefat Pages 388-402
    Ameliorative potential of antioxidants –vitamins C and E on blood profile of Clarias gariepinus fed diets contaminated with varied levels of fumonisin B1 (FB1) was evaluated. Fusarium cultured maize containing FB1 were used to formulate diets containing approximately 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 mg FB1/kg constituting diets 2, 3, and 4, respectively and other nine diets constituting Diets 5 - 13 with the same varied dietary FB1 concentrations but supplemented with 0.6g of vitamin C or E or vitamins C and E. These 12 diets and a control diet were used in 12-week feeding trial. Significant (P
    Keywords: Antioxidant, Blood, Clarias gariepinus, Fumonisin B1, Mycotoxin, Vitamin
  • Moharam Valizadeh, Maryam Beigomi, Bahman Fazeli Nasab * Pages 403-418
    Background

    Considering the increasing resistance of bacteria to antibiotics and the presence of antibacterial agents in plants

    Objectives

    the aim of this study was the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of Tecomella undulata and Momordica charantia ethanol and aceton leaf extract on antibiotic resistance Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Methods

    The leaves of Tecomella undulata and Momordica charantia were collected from Saravan city and extracted by rotary machine. Acinetobacter baumannii strains were collected from urine specimens of Imam Khomeini and Ali-ibn-Abi-Talib Hospitals. Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were determined by micro dilution method.

    Results

    The lowest MIC and MBC of ethanol leaf extract of Tecomella undulata was 0.62 and 1.25mg/mL, respectivelly. The lowest MIC and MBC of aceton leaf extract of Tecomella undulata was 0.31 and 0.62mg/mL, respectivelly. The lowest MIC and MBC of ethanol leaf extract of Momordica charantia was 1.25 and 2.5mg/mL, respectivelly. The lowest MIC and MBC of aceton leaf extract of Momordica charantia was 0.31 and 0.62mg/mL, respectivelly. The resistance of the strains was to amoxiclavanic (10%), ampicillin (20%), gentamicin (0%), ceftazidime (0%) and nitromicin (0%) antibiotics. The aceton extract had more effect on Acinetobacter baumannii than ethanolic extract. The effect of Momordica charantia and Tecomella undulata against Acinetobacter baumannii are the same.

    Conclusion

    By considering the results, obtained and increasing resistance of bacteria to chemical antibiotics, it is suggested that bacterial compositions of these plants can be used to treat bacteria.

    Keywords: Acinetobacter baumannii, Antimicrobial activity, Biofilm effects, Momordica charantia, Tecomella undulata
  • Mahboba Naili *, Asma Errayes, Rabia Alghazeer, Wanisa Abdussalam Mohammed, Moftah Darwish Pages 419-428

    The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitatively the antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials of the leaves extracts of Guava (Psidium guajava Linn.),belonging to the Myrtaceae family. The plant samples were collected from Tajoura eastern part of Tripoli in Libya. Methanol and water were used as solvents in the extraction. The phytochemical screening showed that the ethanolic and aqueous extracts had tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, terpenes in varying proportions while alkaloid was the only exclusion in the methanolic extract.The water, methanol crude extracts as well as flavonoids extract were effective against both Gram- positive and Gram-negative bacteria: Buscillis subtils , Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi.The minimum inhibitory concentration MIC for flavonoids extract was 2.5 mg/ml .It was also found that both extracts (aqueous and methanolic) of the Guajava leaves showed reasonably high content of polyphenols.These results suggest that Psidium guajava L. is not only reliable natural source of antimicrobials but also potential sources of phenolic antioxidants and hence could be nominated for further intensive studies

    Keywords: Medicinal plants, Psidium guajava, Phytochemical, Antimicrobial
  • Niloufar Gholamkhasi, Nastaran Asghari Moghaddam *, Azadeh Mohammadgholi Pages 429-439
    Despite the toxic effects on numerous organs, silver nanoparticles can be used to cease cell cycle and promotes apoptosis in cancerous cells. Therefore, by choosing the right dosage nanoparticles can be helpful for cancer treatment, whilst do not harm normal tissues. In the current study, it has been tried to measure silver nanoparticles toxicity against HPB-ALL leukemia cell line and normal human lymphocytes. The cytotoxicity of 20-nanometer silver nanoparticles was investigated by MTT test. Also, nanoparticles effect on apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry. DNA fragmentation analysis was done to investigate the genotoxicity. MTT colorimetric assay revealed that the maximal half inhibitory concentration (IC50) of silver nanoparticles were at 8.43µg/mL and 15.74µg/mL in cancer cell-line and normal cells, respectively at 24-hour exposure. The IC50 doses of silver nanoparticles were used to assess the induction of apoptosis by flow cytometry. The apoptosis occurred in 12.34% of normal cells and 36.88% of HPB-ALL cells. The difference between these two groups were statistically significant (P
    Keywords: Leukemia, Silver nanoparticles, Cytotoxicity
  • Periyakali Saravana Bhavan*, Duraisamy Anitha, Thankaraj Manjula, Rajendran Udayasuriyan, Ramasamy Kalpana, Madhayan Karthik Pages 440-460

    This study emphasized the survival and growth of the commercially important freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post-larvae on formulated diets supplemented with a probiotic bacterium, Bacillus subtilis at five different serially diluted concentrations (10-1, 10-3, 10-5, 10-7 and 10-9). After 90 days of feeding, 10-7 (CFU, 2.76×10-7) concentration produced the best results in increased survival rate, weight gain, basic biochemical constituents (total protein, amino acid, carbohydrate and lipid) and activities of digestive enzymes (protease, amylase and lipase) when compared with control diet prepared without B. subtilis. This was due to maintenance of good intestinal health, because of B. subtilissupplementation. The presence of B. subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii(subsp. bulgaricus), Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Streptococcus pyogenes have been identified in the gut of M. rosenbergii fed with B. subtilis supplemented diet, through 16S r-RNA gene sequencing which was authenticated with NCBI GenBank. The pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., and Staphylococcus spp.,present in the control prawns as per our previous study (Manjula et al., 2018), were competitively excluded by the experimental prawnsfed with B. subtilis supplemented diet in the present study. Therefore, B. subtilis is recommended for sustainable production of M. rosenbergiiseed.

    Keywords: M. rosenbergii, B. subtilis growth, Protein, 16S r-RNA genee