فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:10 Issue: 3, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/04/19
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • Hassan Ali *, Sherif Eissa, Heba Magdy, Mohamed Khashba Page 1
    Background

    Nowadays, the peribulbar block is used as a tool in glaucoma surgery. As a side effect, it increases intraocular pressure that raises the need for adjuvant medication to overcome this problem in the diseased eye. Dexmedetomidine has proven to decrease intraocular pressure (IOP) in the non-glaucomatous eye.

    Objectives

    In a triple-blinded randomized study, dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to the peribulbar block was used to decrease IOP in the diseased eye.

    Methods

    We randomized 98 eyes to three groups, including D50 (35 eyes) with dexmedetomidine 50 µg, D25 (33 eyes) with dexmedetomidine 25 µg, or control group (C) (30 eyes) with the plain peribulbar block. The study was randomized triple-blinded, aiming at testing the effect of dexmedetomidine on IOP after block injection.

    Results

    The pre-injection IOP was 27.71 ± 2.52, 27.25 ± 3.53, and 26.2 ± 3.57 mmHg in groups D50, D25, and C, respectively, then increased to 29.71 ± 1.69, 30.25 ± 2.36 and 29.4 ± 3.756 in groups D50, D25 and C, respectively, with P >0.05. The pressure decreased after the surgery to 10.86 ± 1.478 in group D50, 10.75 ± 1.63 in group D25, and 10.6 ± 1.589 in group C, with no statistical differences (P > 0.05) between the groups.

    Conclusions

    Dexmedetomidine did not decrease IOP in the glaucomatous eye.

    Keywords: Glaucoma, Dexmedetomidine, Peribulbar Block
  • Doaa Abou El Kassim Rashwan *, Ahmed Rabea Mohammed, Samaa A. Kasem Rashwan, Ahmed Sayed Abd El Basset, Hesham Ahmed Nafady Page 2
    Background

    Mastectomy is a common surgical procedure associated with intra and postoperative pain if untreated adequately will lead to chronic pain.

    Objectives

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of serratus anterior plane block using bupivacaine/magnesium sulfate versus bupivacaine/ nalbuphine for mastectomy.

    Methods

    40 ASA I and II female patients age 25 - 60 years underwent breast cancer surgery received the block before induction of general anesthesia were divided into two groups GBM (n = 20): (bupivacaine/magnesium sulphate): received bupivacaine 30 mL 0.25% and 500 mg magnesium sulphate, GBN (n = 20): (bupivacaine/nalbuphine): received bupivacaine 30 mL 0.25% and nalbuphine 0.2 mg/kg. The following parameters were recorded: The sensory block, motor block, postoperative heart rate, noninvasive mean blood pressure: at 1, 6, 12, 24 h, postoperative time to first request of analgesics (hours), VAS at rest and movement at 1, 6, 12, 24 h, postoperative analgesic requirements (pethidine mg/24 h).

    Results

    The sensory block was statistically significantly lower in the GBM group than the GBN group at 24 hours postoperatively. The Medical Research Council scale was statistically significantly lower in the GBN group than the GBM group at 24 hours postoperatively. Postoperative time to first request of analgesics (hours) was statistically significantly longer in the GBN group than the GBM group, VAS at rest was statistically significantly lower in the GBN group than GBM group at 6th and 24th hours, VAS at movement showed no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Intraoperative fentanyl and postoperative analgesic requirements (pethidine mg/24 h) showed no statistically significant differences between the two groups.

    Conclusions

    Serratus anterior plane block using bupivacaine/nalbuphine provided effective postoperative analgesia, reduced postoperative pain than bupivacaine/magnesium sulfate in a mastectomy.

    Keywords: Mastectomy, Magnesium Sulfate, Nalbuphine
  • Afsaneh Barabady, Anita Baghdassarians, Elham Memary *, Akram Yazdani, Azam Barabady, Shahram Sayadi Page 3
    Background

    Benson’s relaxation (BR) technique is a suitable non-pharmacological approach to reduce preoperative anxiety (PA).

    Objectives

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of BR therapy on PA and the induction and maintenance dose of propofol during cataract surgery (CS).

    Methods

    Seventy-two patients were randomly divided into two experiments or BR and control groups. The Amsterdam and Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety inventory (STAI) scores were used to assess PA directly two days and a half-hour before the CS. The control group did not receive any preoperation intervention or relaxation. Benson’s relaxation method was performed three times, each time for 20 minutes, including two days before surgery, a night before surgery, and an hour before the surgery in the presence of a researcher by an audio file. The induction and maintenance dose of anesthetic drug was recorded and compared between the two groups.

    Results

    The mean propofol consumption was significantly reduced during the induction of anesthesia in the intervention group compared to the control group (0.99 ± 0.29 versus 1.29 ± 0.49; P = 0.005) as well as the maintenance of anesthesia (84.66 ± 17.98 versus 108.33 ± 34.38, P = 0.001). The results of the post-intervention Amsterdam anxiety score showed a significant decrease in the intervention group compared to the control group (P = 0.032, F = 9.61, Eta2 = 0.12). The control group showed a higher Spielberger state score compared to the intervention group as well as the Spielberger trait (P < 0.001, F = 14.78, Eta2 = 0.18).

    Conclusions

    The BR method effectively reduces the level of PA in patients undergoing CS. Moreover, it reduces the need for anesthetic drug, propofol, during surgery.

    Keywords: Cataract Surgery, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Benson’s Relaxation, Preoperative Anxiety, Anesthetic Drug
  • Seyyed Hasan Karbasy, Azadeh Sekhavati, Amir Sabertanha, BibiFatemeh Shakhsemampour * Page 4
    Background

    Some studies have reported the effect of nitroglycerin on the reduction of pain after surgery.

    Objectives

    The primary goal of the current study was to evaluate the addition of nitroglycerin (as a nitric oxide donor) to morphine in patient-controlled analgesia. Besides, its effects on the reduction of pain and stability in hemodynamic indices after abdominal surgery are also investigated.

    Methods

    The current study was performed on 60 patients as candidates for abdominal surgery. Morphine (0.75 mg/mL) and nitroglycerin plus morphine (morphine 0.5 mg/mL + TNG 15 μg/mL) infusions were used for control and case groups, respectively, with the same induction of anesthesia. The severity of postoperative pain, hemodynamic indices of systolic blood pressure, diastolic pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and nausea were measured after surgery (immediately, 2, 6, 12, and 24 hours after surgery).

    Results

    The pain score decreased for both groups almost similarly. The mean systolic blood pressure was highly reduced in both groups. However, the mean diastolic blood pressure in the control group was considerably lower than that of the case group. Besides, the respiratory rate in the case group dramatically diminished and approached the normal value.

    Conclusions

    Combined administration of nitroglycerin and morphine had no synergistic effects on reducing postoperative pain. However, it led to more stable hemodynamic indices and improved breathing, without any side effects.

    Keywords: Pain, Morphine, Nitroglycerin, Patient-Controlled Analgesia
  • Ali Dabbagh *, Parissa Sezari, Soodeh Tabashi, Ardeshir Tajbakhsh, Nilofar Massoudi, Maryam Vosoghian, Mohammadreza Moshari, Alireza Jaffari, Navid Nooraei, A. Sassan Sabouri, Seyedpouzhia Shojaei, Sara Salarian Page 5
    Background

    Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has been used to evaluate the residents’ competency; however, the thriving of residents needs especial training methods and techniques. Small group learning has been used for this propose.

    Objectives

    This study assessed the attitudes of CA-1 to CA-3 anesthesiology residents toward level-specific small-group blended learning.

    Methods

    Anesthesiology residents from Department of Anesthesiology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (SBMU), Tehran, Iran participated in this cross-sectional attitude assessment descriptive-analytical study throughout the 2nd academic semester (May-October 2019). They took part in a level-specific small-group blended learning program and filled out an attitude assessment questionnaire. The questionnaire included eight closed questions and was filled out anonymously.

    Results

    The residents believed that this program made important contributions to their theory training and clinical skills of anesthesia; while created a greater sense of solidarity. In addition, nearly the majority of the respondents did not believe that participating in the classes made interference in their clinical duties or was a difficult task. Instead, the majority of residents believed that these classes were in favor of reducing their burnout. The reliability of the questionnaire based on Cronbach’s Alpha was 0.885.

    Conclusions

    Anesthesiology residents are in favor of small-group learning, especially when considering their clinical setting and the degree of burnout they tolerate.

    Keywords: Education, Anesthesiology, Residency Program, Small Group, Attitude Assessment
  • Hamed Afsharjoo, Ata Mahmoodpoor, Kavous Shahsavarinia, Farzad Rahmani * Page 6
    Background

    Nasogastric tube (NGT) insertion is one of the most common procedures in the Emergency Department (EDs).

    Objectives

    This study aimed to evaluate the ease of NGT installation using the conventional method and the SORT method.

    Methods

    We conducted a randomized clinical trial in a university hospital on 200 patients who required NGT insertion during Mar-Sep, 2019. The patients were randomly divided into two groups of 100 patients each, receiving the SORT and conventional methods. Finally, the feasibility of NGT insertion was examined in the two groups using the frequency of NGT insertion attempts, pain during insertion (based on the VAS score of 1 - 10), patient satisfaction with the procedure (rating of 1 - 10), and incidence of complications.

    Results

    There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of age, body mass index, sex, and history of NGT use. However, the mean patient satisfaction score was higher (P < 0.05), whereas the mean pain score was lower (P < 0.05) in the group receiving the conventional method compared to the other group. Moreover, there was no statistically significant difference in complications (P > 0.05).

    Conclusions

    The study showed that using the conventional method in comparison with the SORT method was significantly better for NGT insertion in conscious patients in terms of patient satisfaction and pain relief. Therefore, it is recommended not to use the SORT method in conscious patients.

    Keywords: Pain, Patient Satisfaction, Emergency Ward, NGT
  • Nahid Manouchehrian *, Soghra Rabiei, Abbas Moradi, Zahra Lakpur Page 7
    Background

    Labor pain is a severe pain, and intrathecal opioid injection is one of the analgesia methods to reduce it.

    Objectives

    We assessed the effects of intrathecal Fentanyl and Sufentanil on the onset, duration, and quality of analgesia for labor analgesia.

    Methods

    In this double-blind, randomized clinical trial, 54 healthy nulliparous women 18 - 45 years in the active phase of labor who were requesting labor analgesia were enrolled in two groups fentanyl (F) and sufentanil (S). Patients received 75 µg fentanyl or 7.5 µg sufentanil intrathecally in the fentanyl group (n = 27) and the sufentanil group (n = 27), respectively. Pain relief, onset, duration of analgesia, hemodynamic parameters, patients' satisfaction, and neonatal Apgar score were assessed in this study. Data were analyzed by using SPSS16.

    Results

    There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of demographic and hemodynamic parameters. The onset time of analgesia was 5.6 ± 4.3 and 3.6 ± 2.1 minutes, in the sufentanil and fentanyl groups, respectively (P = 0.037). The duration of analgesia was higher in patients who received sufentanil than those who received fentanyl (113 ± 45 vs. 103 ± 22 minutes (P = 0.629)). The pain score in the Fentanyl group was significantly lower at 5, 10, and 15 minutes after spinal analgesia (P < 0.05). The sedation score at 1 and 5 minutes was significantly higher in the fentanyl group than the sufentanil group (P < 0.05). The frequency and severity of pruritus and satisfaction rate in the fentanyl group were significantly higher than the sufentanil group.

    Conclusions

    Intrathecal fentanyl and sufentanil have a similar analgesic effect on labor. Fentanyl is associated with a faster onset of analgesia and more satisfaction, while sufentanil has longer analgesia.

    Keywords: Intrathecal Injection, Analgesia, Fentanyl, Sufentanil, Labor Pain
  • Fatemeh Javaherforooshzadeh*, Laleh Gharacheh Page 8
    Background

    Airway management in patients with hereditary heart disease is an important therapeutic intervention.

    Objectives

    The purpose of this study was to compare direct laryngoscopy (DL) with video laryngoscopy (VL) in pediatric airways management for congenital heart surgery.

    Methods

    This study was designed as a prospective randomized clinical trial. Two consecutive groups of 30 patients undergoing elective noncyanotic congenital heart surgery. The patients were divided into direct laryngoscopy versus video laryngoscopy for intubation of the trachea. The main outcomes were the number of success rate in the first attempt, and the secondary outcomes were the duration of successful intubation and complications, such as desaturation and bradycardia.

    Results

    Intubation procedure time was measured as 51.13 ± 17.88 seconds for the group with direct laryngoscopy and 59.66 ± 45.91 seconds for group with VL that was significant (P = 0.006). In DL group, 22 patients were intubated on the first attempt, 8 patients on the second attempt, and 6 patients on the third attempt, compared to 24, 6, and 2 respectively, in VL group. The differences were significant only in the third attempt between groups (P = 0.033). The important difference established in heart rate (HR) and SpaO2 amounts between the two groups at any time (P < 0.05).

    Conclusions

    VL can produce better visualization for intubation of trachea in congenital heart disease, but this is time-consuming. Indeed, training in the use of the VL should be increased to reduce the time required for performance. Moreover, further studies are recommended to approve these helpful findings.

    Keywords: Airway Management, Direct Laryngoscopy, Children Congenital Heart Disease, Video Laryngoscopy
  • Mahshid Ghasemi, Faramarz Mosaffa, Behnam Hoseini, Faranak Behnaz * Page 9
    Background

    Myofascial pain syndrome is a chronic syndrome that occurred in a local or focal part of the body. The basis for myofascial pain syndrome is the presence of myofascial trigger point or points, producing pain in clinical examinations.

    Objectives

    This study aimed to compare the effect of injection of bicarbonate, hyaluronidase, and lidocaine on myofascial pain syndrome.

    Methods

    The patients were randomly allocated to three groups of bicarbonate, hyaluronidase, and lidocaine. The injection was done at two painful regions of trapezius muscle with a sonography guide for each patient. The values of visual analogue scale (VAS), pre-injection range of motion (ROM), immediately after injection, second and fourth week were measured.

    Results

    The analysis showed that there were no significant differences between the three groups for age, gender, BMI, and height (P > 0.05). Repeated measures one-way ANOVA (week * group) 4 * 3 was used to compare the effect of bicarbonate, hyaluronidase, and lidocaine on VAS and range of motion (ROM) before injection, immediately after injection, second and fourth week. The results showed that the main effect of group and week is significant for VAS (P < 0.05). This study showed that the values of VAS were significantly different between the three groups during the fourth weeks of the study. Moreover, the patients experienced more pain decline in the hyaluronidase group during weeks before injection, after injection, second and fourth week, which indicated the permanent effect of this medication on pain decline.

    Conclusions

    Injection of lidocaine leads to a significant reduction in pain immediately after injection; however, the decline was not permanent and disappeared in the following four weeks. But VAS reduction in hyaluronidase group more than bicarbonate and lidocaine groups.

    Keywords: Hyaluronidase, Sonography, Myofascial Pain, Bicarbonate, Trigger Point
  • Ina Callebaut, Steffe Jorissen, Caroline Pelckmans, Noor Berends, Martijn Droogmans, Maxime van Rossum, Marijke Nulens, Bjorn Stessel * Page 10
    Background

    Nowadays, complicated and painful surgical procedures are encouraged to be carried out in an ambulatory setting.

    Objectives

    The current study aimed to assess 4-week postoperative pain profiles of 4 painful ambulatory surgical procedures. We analyzed the prevalence of and reasons for non-adherence and partial adherence of patients to a predefined treatment schedule after the ambulant surgery.

    Methods

    The current study analyzed data from a large randomized trial by evaluating the effect of postoperative pain medication on acute postoperative pain at home during the first 4 postoperative days (POD) in patients scheduled for ambulatory hemorrhoid surgery, shoulder or knee arthroscopy, and inguinal hernia repair. Postoperative pain intensity was assessed at POD 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 14, and 28 via the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS). Adherence was assessed on POD 1, 2, 3, and 4.

    Results

    Median average pain scores were above an NRS of 3 during the first postoperative week after shoulder arthroscopy and even above 4 during the first postoperative week after hemorrhoid surgery. 26% of patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy and hemorrhoid surgery still had moderate pain 1 week after surgery. Median average pain scores were below an NRS of 3 during the whole study period after inguinal hernia repair and knee arthroscopy. 24.61% of patients did not use the study medication as prescribed, 5.76% of whom were non-adherent, and 18.85% were partially adherent.

    Conclusions

    Each type of ambulant surgery has its unique postoperative pain profile. New strategies should be developed for pain therapy at home, particularly after the ambulatory arthroscopic shoulder surgery and hemorrhoid surgery. Non-adherence is uncommon if they are provided with a multimodal analgesic home kit together with clear verbal, written instructions, and intensive follow-up.

    Keywords: Postoperative Pain, Treatment Adherence, Ambulatory Surgery
  • Mohammad Sajjad Rahnama'i *, Aida Javan, Navita Vyas, Sandor Lovasz, Neelanjana Singh, Mauro Cervigni, Sanjay Pandey, Jean Jacques Wyndaele, Rajesh Taneja Page 11
    Purpose of the Meeting

    Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is a prevalent but underserved disease. At the Global Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome Society (GIBS) meeting, the organization and participants were committed to delivering word-class expertise and collaboration in research and patient care. Under the umbrella of GIBS, leading research scholars from different backgrounds and specialties, as well as clinicians, from across the globe interested in the science and art of practice of Bladder Pain Syndrome (BPS)/Interstitial Cystitis (IC) were invited to deliberate on various dimensions of this disease. The meeting aimed to have global guidelines to establish firm directions to practicing clinicians and patients alike on the diagnosis and treatment of this disease entity. Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CPPS) is defined by pain in the pelvic area that can have different etiologies. This can be due to urologic, gynecologic, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, neurologic, and autoimmune or rheumatologic diseases. At the GIBS meeting held in Mumbai, India, in August 2019, a multidisciplinary expert panel of international urologists, gynecologists, pain specialists, and dietitians took part in a think tank to discuss the development of evidence-based diagnostic and treatment algorithms for BPS/IC.Summary of Presented

    Findings

    The diagnosis of BPS/IC is difficult in daily clinical practice. Patients with BPS/IC present with a variety of signs and symptoms and clinical test results. Hence, they might be misdiagnosed or underdiagnosed, and the correct diagnosis might take a long time. A good history and physical examination, along with cystoscopy, is a must for the diagnosis of IC/BPS. For the treatment, besides lifestyle management and dietary advice, oral medication and bladder instillation therapy, botulinum toxin, and sacral neuromodulation were discussed. The innovation in bladder instillation applicators, as well as battery-free neuromodulation through the tibial nerve, was discussed, as well.

    Recommendation for Future Research

    As BPS/IC is complex, for many patients, several treatments are necessary at the same time. This was presented at GIBS 2019 as the piano model. In this way, a combination of treatments is tailored to an individual patient depending on the symptoms, age, and patients’ characteristics. In the art of medicine, especially when dealing with BPS/IC patients, pressing the right key at the right time makes the difference.

    Keywords: Bladder Pain Syndrome, Interstitial Cystitis Beyond Horizon, Global Interstitial Cystitis, Bladder Pain Society
  • Ata Mahmoodpoor, Kamran Shadvar, AliAkbar Ghamari, Mojtaba Mohammadzadeh Lameh, Roghayeh Asghari Ardebili, Masood Hamidi, Hassan Soleimanpour * Page 12

    There are many unknown questions and puzzle pieces that should describe the clinical course of COVID-19 and its complications, especially ARDS. We provide the initial immediate surge response to allow every patient in need of an ICU bed to receive one. Till our knowledge is improved, the most important intervention in the treatment of critically ill patients with COVID-19 seems to be the level of standard care and appropriate and early diagnosis and treatment. It seems that each center should have its protocol on the management of critically ill COVID-19 patients regarding prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. This treatment should now be performed regardless of the reason which lies behind the pathophysiology of this disease, which is yet unknown. In this report, we share our experience in the management of critically ill COVID-19 patients during the 2 months in our intensive care unit.

    Keywords: Corticosteroid, Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Hydroxychloroquine, Critically Ill Patients, Hemoperfusion, COVID-19