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پژوهش های مدیریت عمومی - پیاپی 47 (بهار 1399)
  • پیاپی 47 (بهار 1399)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/04/25
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • فاطمه مشهدی حاجی علی، سید مهدی الوانی*، محمدجواد کاملی، غلامرضا معمارزاده طهران صفحات 5-30

    همکاری های علمی از محرک های اصلی نوآوری و از مولفه های اصلی توسعه فناوری های بومی است. در عرصه دفاعی، نوآوری در بهبود تجهیزات، فرایندها و ارایه خدمات پیشرفته به نیروهای نظامی نقش اساسی دارد. بنابراین تحقیق حاضر در راستای تحلیل شبکه های همکاری دفاعی با توجه به نیاز ویژه در هر یک از بخش های گوناگون فرایند توسعه فناوری و نوآوری به بررسی شبکه، نوآوری و فرایند توسعه فناوری و نوآوری، انواع همکاری های دفاعی، انواع شبکه همکاری و تجارب شبکه سازی دنیا پرداخته است. سپس با کمک تحلیل محتوا شاخص ها و ویژگی های هر یک از شبکه های همکاری استخراج گردیده است. و در ادامه انواع شبکه های همکاری با توجه به فرایند توسعه فناوری و نوآوری در صنعت دفاعی سطح بندی شده است. در نهایت با کمک پانل خبرگان متشکل از اندیشمندان و مدیران حوزه دفاعی، انواع تعاملات بازیگران شبکه همکاری دفاعی بر حسب ماهیت همکاری، قابلیت های شبکه و نیاز صنعت دفاعی در فرایند توسعه فناوری و نوآوری شناسایی و سطح بندی شده است.

    کلیدواژگان: شبکه، روابط مبتنی بر همکاری، فرایند نوآوری، انواع شبکه همکاری، صنایع دفاعی، انواع همکاری دفاعی
  • هادی میرزایی*، آرین قلی پور، سید رضا سیدجوادین، طهمورث حسنقلی پور صفحات 31-54

    هدف پژوهش حاضر شناسایی معیارهای مشاغل حیاتی و کلیدی در شرکت ملی نفتکش ایران (NITC) در جهت جذب و حفظ بهتر استعدادهای سازمان بوده است. رویکرد پژوهش حاضر کیفی بوده و از جنبه شیوه گردآوری داده ها از نوع  توصیفی (مطالعه موردی) می باشد. جامعه آماری  پژوهش، مدیران و کارشناسان شرکت ملی نفتکش ایران در نظر گرفته شده است. با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری هدفمند، داده هایی از 12 شرکت کننده در طی دو مرحله جمع آوری گشت؛ به گونه ای که در مرحله نخست با ابزار مصاحبه (12 مصاحبه)  داده های کیفی استخراج شد. سپس با تحلیل تم، معیارهای مشاغل حیاتی و کلیدی تعیین شدند. در مرحله دوم پژوهش به منظور تعیین اهمیت معیارها نسبت به یکدیگر، پرسشنامه مقایسات زوجی تنظیم و میان خبرگان سازمان توزیع شد. پرسشنامه های مذکور، بر اساس فرایند تحلیل سلسله مراتبی (AHP) و از طریق نرم افزار اکسپرت چویس تحلیل شدند. در نهایت، مدلی برای مشاغل حیاتی با 7 بعد و مدلی دیگر با 3 بعد برای شناسایی مشاغل کلیدی تنظیم گشت.

    کلیدواژگان: مدیریت استراتژیک منابع انسانی، مدیریت استعداد، مشاغل حیاتی، مشاغل کلیدی
  • امیرحمزه عالی نژاد، عادل آذر*، محمدابراهیم پورزرندی صفحات 55-84

    ارزیابی ظرفیت نوآوری شرکت های دانش بنیان و پیش بینی میزان ظرفیت نوآوری آن ها برای این شرکت ها بسیار حایز اهمیت است و تصمیم در خصوص انتقال یا بسط فناوری شرکت تابع میزان ظرفیت نوآوری است. هدف اصلی این تحقیق، طراحی مدل ارزیابی ظرفیت نوآوری شرکت های دانش بنیان با رویکرد استنتاج فازی عصبی- تطبیقی است. سیستم استنتاج فازی عصبی - تطبیقی ([1]ANFIS) روش مناسبی برای حل مسایل غیرخطی است. ANFIS ترکیبی از روش استنتاج فازی و شبکه عصبی است که از توانایی هر دو بهره می برد. جامعه تحقیق و نمونه آماری جهت تدوین، اجرا و تست مدل، تمامی شرکت های دانش بنیان پارک فناوری پردیس است که درنهایت تعداد 180 مورد ارزیابی، انجام شده توسط ارزیاب های متخصص جمع آوری و مبنای محاسبات مدل قرار گرفت. برای ارزیابی عملکرد مدل، از پارامترهای مجذور میانگین مربعات خطا (RMSE)، درصد خطای نسبی (ε)، میانگین خطای مطلق (MAE) و ضریب تبیین (R2) محاسبه گردید که به ترتیب مقادیر 0136/0، 3/1 درصد، 048/0 و 998/0 به دست آمد که نشانگر دقت و قابلیت اعتماد در پیش بینی خروجی مدل است. این پژوهش از نظر هدف، کاربردی و با توجه به روش گردآوری داده ها از نوع توصیفی- پیمایشی است. خروجی این پژوهش، یک سیستم استنتاج فازی- عصبی هوشمند (ANFIS) است

    کلیدواژگان: شرکت دانش بنیان، نوآوری، سیستم استنتاج فازی عصبی-تطبیقی (ANFIS)
  • علی ضیائی بوکانی، فریبرز رحیم نیا*، یعقوب مهارتی، علیرضا خوراکیان صفحات 85-110

    مفهوم" تعصب گرایی در سازمان" از جمله مفاهیمی است که کمتر در ادبیات مدیریت مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. تعصب گرایی در سازمان، حالتی در افراد سازمان است که به دور از معیارهای معمول، وظایف مقرر و عادی محوله و با بیش از توان معمول، در جهت دستیبابی به اهداف سازمانی، فعالیت نمایند. تعصب گرایی در سازمان به عنوان یک نگرش می تواند در به حداکثر رساندن بهره وری سازمانی نقش مهمی را داشته باشد. پژوهش های صورت گرفته با این مفهوم اغلب با دیدگاه منفی انجام شده اند. از دیدگاه مثبت، تعصب گرایی در سازمان می تواند نشانگر تعهد و تعلق بالای اعضاء به سازمان، گروه کاری، شغل و سازمان باشد. دراین پژوهش، با بررسی نظرات صاحب نظران و مدیران صنایع، در جهت شناخت علل شکل گیری تعصب گرایی در سازمان از دیدگاه مثبت پرداخته شده است. در این راستا، از روش شناسی نظریه ی داده بنیاد با رویکرد ظاهرشونده، استفاده شده است. جامعه مورد مطالعه در این پژوهش را کارکنان شاغل در صنایع استان خراسان رضوی، تشکیل داد و با اتکا به اصل نمونه گیری نظری در نظریه ی داده بنیاد، با انجام هفده مصاحبه، اشباع نظری، حاصل شد. در این پژوهش پس از تجزیه و تحلیل های صورت گرفته در طی فرآیند کدگذاری و مقایسه مستمر، 46 کد یا داده اولیه و 5 مفهوم نمودار شد. حاصل کدها، مفاهیم و مقوله های به دست آمده، به ظهور مدل نهایی پژوهش، تحت عنوان علل تعصب گرایی در سازمان منجر شد.

    کلیدواژگان: تعصب گرایی، تعهد، سوگیری، استراتژی داده بنیاد
  • امیرمحمد کلابی* صفحات 111-134

    پژوهش حاضر شناسایی و طراحی مولفه های موثر بر پایداری مدل های کسب وکار رشد و ثبات یافته در صنعت ICT  می باشد. در این پژوهش چارچوب پژوهشی آمیخته اکتشافی (کیفی-کمی) انتخاب شده است. نمونه ی آماری مرحله کیفی 9 نفر از مدیران شرکت های حوزه ارتباطات و فناوری اطلاعات که شرکت آن ها در چرخه عمر کسب وکار به مرحله رشد و ثبات رسیده و نمونه آماری مرحله کمی نیز 277 نفر از مدیران و کارشناسان و خبرگان این حوزه در میان 270 شرکت منتخب از 960 شرکت حوزه ارتباطات و فناوری اطلاعات، می باشند. ابزار گردآوری داده ها در مرحله کیفی مصاحبه نیمه ساختاریافته و در مرحله کمی پرسشنامه محقق ساخته است. برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده های کیفی روش تحلیل محتوا و برای داده های کمی از روش تحلیل عاملی اکتشافی و تاییدی به کمک نرم افزارهای معادلات ساختاری استفاده شده است. نتایج پژوهش نشان داد تمامی ابعاد و مولفه های مدل پایداری مورد تایید واقع شدند و عوامل موثر بر پایداری مدل کسب وکار به ترتیب نوآوری، خلق ارزش مشترک، رهبری مشارکتی، عوامل اقتصادی و حاکمیت شرکتی می باشند.

    کلیدواژگان: پایداری مدل کسب وکار، مدل کسب وکار پایدار، چرخه عمر کسب وکار
  • سمیرا کرمی، ندا محمداسماعیلی*، سمانه حاجی عسگری نوش آبادی صفحات 135-160

    تحقیقات متعدد تاثیر برنامه ریزی مسیر شغلی بر نگرش های کارکنان را مورد تاکید قرار داده اند. کارکنان انتظار پیشرفت و رشد مداوم در مسیر شغلیشان را دارند و در مرحله ای که شغل برایشان یادگیری ندارد  و احساس می کنند رشد مهارتی در آنها متوقف شده است و یا امکان ارتقا در سلسله مراتب سازمانی برایشان میسر نمی شود، پدیده فلات زدگی رخ می دهد. این تحقیق با درک اهمیت نگرش هایی مانند درگیری شغلی و تعهد سازمانی به بررسی تاثیر پدیده فلات بر این دو متغیر در هلدینگ ساختمانی تراز پی ریز با تعداد کارکنان 130 نفر که تعداد 97 نفر با روش نمونه گیری تصادفی ساده انتخاب شدند، پرداخته است. به منظور گردآوری اطلاعات پرسشنامه ای شامل 52 سوال(متشکل از سه پرسشنامه استاندارد با پایایی بالای 7/0) استفاده شد و در مجموع 94 پرسشنامه مورد تایید جمع آوری و داده ها با استفاده از نرم افزار PLS  تحلیل گردید. در مجموع 14 فرضیه مورد بررسی قرار گرفت که یک مورد آن رد شد و تاثیر فلات زدگی شغلی محتوایی بر تعهد هنجاری مورد تایید قرار نگرفت. فلات زدگی ساختاری بر همه ابعاد تعهد سازمانی و نیز بر درگیری شغلی دارای تاثیر منفی می باشد و فلات زدگی محتوایی نیز بجز بر تعهد هنجاری بر سایر ابعاد تعهد سازمانی و نیز بر درگیری شغلی تاثیر منفی دارد. همچنین نقش میانجی درگیری شغلی مورد تایید قرار گرفت. به بیان دیگر فلات زدگی با کاهش درگیری شغلی کارکنان می تواند موجب کاهش تعهد سازمانی شود.

    کلیدواژگان: فلات زدگی شغلی محتوایی، فلات زدگی ساختاری، درگیری شغلی، تعهد سازمانی
  • سید علیقلی روشن*، کیوان برزگر، محسن یعقوبی صفحات 161-188

    هدف این پژوهش ارایه ی الگوی بنیادی سیستم مدیریت استعداد است. در پژوهش حاضر با انجام یک مرور نظام مند و نقد الگوی های مستخرج مدیریت استعداد، یک الگوی نظری بنیادی برای سازمان ها با هر نوع ساختار سازمانی طراحی و ارایه می شود. بدین منظور، برای شناسایی و استخراج مقالات، جست وجوی نظام مند به دو پایگاه داده ها شامل اسکپوس (الزویر) و موسسه ی علوم اطلاعات شبکه ی علمی (تامسون روترز)، محدود بوده است. سپس با انجام یک مرور نظام مند، مطالعاتی که مربوط به طراحی مدل مدیریت استعداد (2018-2006) بودند و ماهیت غیر تجربی یا نیمه تجربی داشتند، استخراج و پالایش شد. در کل، مقالاتی که به مطالعه طراحی الگوی مدیریت استعداد مربوط می شد، شامل 37 مقاله بودند که 31 مقاله بدلیل همپوشانی (تشابه مولفه ها) حذف شدند. در نهایت الگوی مدیریت استعداد براساس 6 مقاله که همگی آن ها در معتبرترین مجلات بین المللی منتشر شده بودند، استخراج گردید. یافته های پژوهش نشان داد که سیستم مدیریت استعداد، حداقل باید شامل سه مولفه ی کلیدی جذب و انتخاب، آموزش و توسعه، و نگهداشت باشد. بنابراین، لازم به نظر می رسد در طراحی نقشه ی سیستم مدیریت استعداد برای سازمان، هر سه مولفه در نظر گرفته شده و در برنامه ریزی منابع انسانی مورد تاکید قرار گیرند.

    کلیدواژگان: استعداد، مدیریت استعداد، جذب و انتخاب، آموزش و توسعه، و نگهداشت
  • حبیب الله سالارزهی* صفحات 189-218

    میزان مشارکت  شهروندان در اداره امور عمومی و حکمرانی  متناسب با سیر تطور پارادایم ها و نظریه های علوم سیاسی و مدیریت دولتی در ادوار مختلف تاریخ متفاوت بوده است . پارادایم نخستین در رشته مدیریت دولتی، همان پارادایم مدیریت دولتی  سنتی  مبتنی بر نگرش دولت فن سالار و ابزار گرا است که بر دولت حداکثری  و مشارکت حداقلی شهروندان استوار  بود. با گذار از پادارادیم مدیریت دولتی سنتی به مدیریت دولتی نوین یا همان مدیریت گرایی،  بر  دولت حداقلی و مشارکت حداکثری بازار و بخش خصوصی  تاکید می شد. در ماورای  مدیریت دولتی نوین و حرکت به سوی پارادایم مدیریت ارزش عمومی، پیوند مدیریت دولتی با شهروندان از رهیافت اخلاقی ، ارزشی و  نهادی مورد توجه قرار گرفت. در این پارادایم به ارزش های  حقوق شهروندی ، مردم سالاری ،  نهاد گرایی ، خدمت گرایی، مشارکت،  سرمایه اجتماعی و جامعه مدنی توجه بیشتری نسبت به پارادایم های پیشین مدیریت دولتی شده  است. همچنین  قلمرو  قدرت عمومی در مدیریت ارزش عمومی از حوزه  دولت ، دیوان سالاری های دولتی و بازار  به حوزه های وسیع تری در سطح جامعه مدنی و شبکه های حکمرانی توسعه یافته است و شرکاء و بازیگران زیادی از بخش های مختلف دولت، بنگاه های تجاری و سازمان های مردم نهاد در خلق ارزش های عمومی و پاسداشت ارزش های عمومی مشارکت دارند.

    کلیدواژگان: مدیریت دولتی سنتی، مدیریت دولتی نوین، حکمرانی خوب، مدیریت ارزش عمومی
  • عاطفه ریگی، نعمت الله عزیزی*، عبدالوهاب پورقاز صفحات 219-243

    هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی انتقادی مدیریت دانشگاه ها در دستیابی به رتبه برتر در رتبه بندی های جهانی است که از رویکرد تحقیق کیفی از نوع تحلیل انتقادی بهره گرفته است. شرکت کنندگان در تحقیق، افراد صاحب نظر در  موسسه پژوهش و برنامه ریزی آموزش عالی، وزارت علوم، تحقیقات و فناوری، دانشگاه تهران، موسسه آموزش عالی بیمه اکو، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی و دانشگاه فنی و حرفه ایی بود. شرکت کنندگان 16 نفر از افراد آگاه به حوزه مورد مطالعه بودند که با روش نمونه گیری گلوله برفی مورد مصاحبه قرار گرفتند. برای این منظور از مصاحبه نیمه ساختارمند استفاده شد. پژوهش حاضر از دو روش بازبینی مشارکت کنندگان و مرور خبرگان غیر شرکت کننده در پژوهش به منظور اعتبار سنجی استفاده شد. به منظور تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها از دو نوع تحلیل موضوعی و تحلیل متون گفتاری که از روش های تحلیل CDA هستند،  استفاده شده است.  نتایج نشان داد مشکلات مدیریت دانشگاه های کشور با دو عامل مرتبط است که عبارتند از : - عوامل درون فردی (سیاست زدگی افراطی مدیران دانشگاه ها، عدم توجه به تفویض اختیار و تلاش برای حفظ وضع موجود، یکی پنداشتن مدیریت دانشگاهی با مدیریت سایر سازمان ها، تصمیم گیری و برنامه ریزی نامناسب)، -عوامل برون فردی (سیستم نظارت و ارزیابی معیوب، سازماندهی و هماهنگی نامناسب). در این راستا، راهبردهایی به منظور بهبود رتبه دانشگاه های ایران در رتبه بندی های جهانی ارایه شده است.

    کلیدواژگان: آموزش عالی، رتبه بندی دانشگا ه ها، رتبه بندی های جهانی، مدیریت دانشگاه
  • ماریه شکرزهی، حامد آرامش*، سهیلا کشاورز صفحات 245-273

    پژوهش حاضر با هدف شناسایی عوامل موثر بر استقرار یادگیری سیار در دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان انجام شد. روش این پژوهش برحسب هدف، کاربردی  و  برحسب نوع داده ها، آمیخته است؛ ارایه الگو در این پژوهش به روش کیفی فراترکیب انجام شده، بدین صورت که با استفاده از روش فراترکیب 49 مقاله یادگیری سیار در دانشگاه ها مورد بررسی و میزان اهمیت و اولویت هر یک به کمک روش کمی آنتروپی شانون تعیین شد. به منظور اعتبار یابی مدل، پرسشنامه شماره یک طراحی و در بین جامعه آماری توزیع شد. جامعه آماری پژوهش حاضر را کلیه دانشجویان دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان به تعداد 21217 نفر شامل می شوند، نمونه آماری با استفاده از جدول مورگان تعداد 377 نفر بدست آمده و به منظور تجزیه وتحلیل داده ها از روش تحلیل عاملی تاییدی با کمک نرم افزار Smart PLS 2 استفاده شده است. طبق یافته های تحقیق عوامل موثر در این الگو در دو بعد زیرساختی (ابزار و فناوری و زیرساخت حمایتی)، و فردی (ویژگی های شخصیتی کاربران و ویژگی های مهارتی کاربران) دسته بندی شده اند.

    کلیدواژگان: یادگیری سیار، دانشگاه، فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات
  • مهدی محمدی*، بهمن حاجی پور صفحات 275-306

    همکاری هم زمان شرکت های رقیب که از آن به همکاری-رقابت یاد می شود اخیرا موردتوجه صنایع و شرکت ها قرار گرفته است. شرکت ها با اغراض مختلفی همچون افزایش بهره وری، ارتقاء جایگاه رقابتی و کسب دانش و تکنولوژی روز صنعت خود از این راهبرد بهره می گیرند. در سطح جهانی شرکت های خودروساز متعددی همچون جنرال موتورز، تویوتا و نیسان و در ایران نیز شرکت ایران خودرو ازجمله شرکت هایی هستند که از این راهبرد جهت پیشبرد اهداف خود بهره گرفته اند. اما بررسی های انجام گرفته حاکی از این است که این پدیده در صنعت خودروسازی ایران تاکنون الگوسازی نشده است و ابعاد و مولفه های آن شناسایی نشده است. رویکرد سیستمی می تواند در ایجاد یک الگوی جامع و منسجم نقش آفرینی کند. پژوهشگر در این مقاله قصد دارد با استفاده از ابزار روش شناختی کیفی و راهبرد نظریه پردازی داده بنیاد به شناسایی الگوی همکاری-رقابت در صنعت خودرو ایران بپردازد. جامعه آماری این پژوهش شرکت ایران خودرو و روش نمونه گیری، نمونه گیری هدفمند است. نتایج حاصل از تحقیق در قالب سیستم همکاری-رقابت در سه بخش شناسایی شده است. بخش اول به محرک های همکاری-رقابت شامل دودسته کلی از محرک های داخلی و خارجی، بخش دوم فرایند همکاری-رقابت با محوریت استراتژی های همکاری و درنهایت بخش سوم به پیامدهای به کارگیری همکاری-رقابت در صنعت خودرو ایران می پردازد.

    کلیدواژگان: روابط بین شرکت ها، رویکرد سیستمی، نظریه پردازی داده بنیاد، همکاری، همکاری-رقابت
  • زهرا وفایی، مرجان فیاضی*، محمدعلی شاه حسینی صفحات 307-334

    رهبری سازه های اجتماعی پیچیده و پیگیری توامان اهداف اجتماعی-اقتصادی، دو ضرورت در پژوهش و عمل علوم اجتماعی به شمار می روند. علیرغم آنکه سازه های اجتماعی رهبری پیچیدگی و سازمان اجتماعی، رویکردهایی نوآورانه در پاسخ به این الزامات محیطی هستند، نقاط ضعف هر سازه، منجر به عدم تحقق اهداف اجتماعی مطلوب می شود. نظر به بنیان نظری مشترک و ویژگی های منحصر به فرد سازه های رهبری پیچیدگی و سازمان اجتماعی و ظرفیت بالای ساز و کارهای ترکیبی در خلق نوآوری اجتماعی، ترکیب عناصر این دو سازه، مولد نوآوری و پیچیدگی بیشتر برای پاسخ گویی به نقاط ضعف آن است. بر این اساس، از سویی، رهبری پیچیدگی راهکاری مقتضی برای راهبری سازه های اجتماعی ذاتا پیچیده بوده و از سویی دیگر، سازمان اجتماعی بستری مناسب برای الحاق اهداف اقتصادی و اجتماعی به شمار می رود. سازمان های اجتماعی آموزشی که علیرغم فعالیت در محیطی متلاطم و کمبود منابع مالی ضروری، وضعیت های پایدار محیطی نشان داده اند برای این مطالعه برگزیده شدند. در این پژوهش پدیده ی رهبری پیچیدگی در بستر سازمان اجتماعی آموزشی از منظر تحلیل پدیدارشناسی تفسیری مطالعه شده تا ماهیت تجارب جدید و پیچیده ی رهبران رسمی را تبیین نماید. یافته های پژوهش بیانگر اهمیت عقلانیت عملی و اخلاق هنجاری در توانمندسازی رهبری پیچیدگی در سازمان اجتماعی به منظور جذب نوسانات داخلی و خارجی و توسعه ی وضعیت های محیطی پایدار است.

    کلیدواژگان: رهبری پیچیدگی، سازمان اجتماعی، اخلاق هنجاری، عقلانیت عملی، پدیدارشناسی تفسیری
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  • Fateme Mashhadi Hajiali, Seyed Mehdi Alvani *, Mohammad Javad Kameli, Gholamreza Memarzade Tehran Pages 5-30

    Scientific collaboration is one of the main drivers of innovation and a key component of indigenous technology development. When academia, industry, and government are embedded in a growing network of interactions, interactive learning and the expansion of knowledge resulting from it leads to innovations that help advance the technology industry. In the defense field, innovation plays a key role in improving equipment, processes and providing advanced services to the military. Therefore, the present study aims at analyzing defense cooperation networks according to the special needs in each of the various sectors of the technology development process and innovation to examine the network, innovation and technology development process, types of defense cooperation, types of cooperation networks and network experiences. Then, with the help of content analysis, the indices and characteristics of each collaboration network are extracted. Finally, with the help of an expert panel of defense thinkers and executives, a variety of interactions of the Defense Cooperation Network actors depending on the nature of the cooperation, capability, and level of cooperation have been graded according to the process of technology development and innovation in the defense industry. Networks and defense industry needs are identified and leveled in the process of technology development and innovation.

    Introduction

    The defense industry is one of the most important users of new technologies in the country that play an active role in the innovation process. In this way, it can direct the innovative processes by presenting defense needs, evaluating existing technologies and providing suggestions for improving defense technologies (Beigi and Alim Mohammadi, 2015). Military centers are one of the key parts of any country, because ultimately the security, authority and peace of mind of each country is achieved with their help. Since this section, according to its missions, it must continuously upgrade its capabilities and provide advanced technologies and weapons, in the meantime, part of its needs through knowledge cooperation networks with organizations such as Non-defense universities and research centers are realized. Cooperation networks, especially in defense centers, allow the maximum use of academic capacity for the defense sector, leading to the development and provision of new products and services for the armed forces through the production of many ideas in this regard, development and improvement. The functions and quality of current products for the Armed Forces are improved by improving the design and quality of raw materials and improving the supply, production and support processes, improving the efficiency of investment projects by developing internal and external networks through the participation of existing units in the network. Creating defensive competence by reducing costs, increasing efficiency and bagging Higher quality is provided by contracting and working with external business partners, effective interaction between product specialists and defense technologies with armed forces experts and industrial and academic elites to create a suitable space for identifying, producing and collecting ideas, opportunitiesSince each step of the innovation process has different features and conditions and accordingly requires the use of a specific range of ideas and activities, the present study examines the types of cooperation networks and according to It has examined the development process and defense innovation in a variety of collaborations, and based on the nature and sensitivity of the activities of each section of this process in military centers, it has provided the most appropriate network for use in each step.

    Case study

    In this qualitative research, elites of defense ministry in technology management department in Iran constitute the research population and data collection.

    Materials and Methods

    Dou to the nature of the subject, the research is conducted in a qualitative manner and is based on content analysis. Data collection is conducted through interview with 12 elites of defense military research institute in Iran.

    Discussion and result

    After examining the dimensions of the issue and exchanging views on the characteristics of the cooperation network and the types of cooperation between the defense and non-defense centers, according to the organizational conditions, new axes were proposed for study that covers the previous axes. Also, the panel of experts examined the characteristics of the cooperation network and compared it with the types of defense and defense cooperation in seven stages of the process of technology development and innovation. In this way, the characteristics of each cooperation network are compared with the nature of each level of cooperation in each of the stages of the innovation development process and according to the characteristics and nature of the activities of that sector and the type of interactions, and finally the appropriate cooperation network. Identify for each level. For this purpose, the consensus index was used to analyze the opinion of experts.

    Conclusion

    Based on the content expressed in the panel of experts and content analysis, it was concluded that at each level of cooperation, we need to use a particular type of cooperation network. In addition, due to the various stages of the process of technology development and innovation, each of which has its own characteristics, different cooperation networks should be used, and it is not possible to achieve success simply by establishing a cooperation network. Rather, the conditions and characteristics of cooperation and the desired part of cooperation have a great impact on the choice of how to cooperate. Therefore, according to the characteristics of each cooperation network and the existing conditions, some cooperation networks can be used at any level of cooperation.

    Keywords: Network, Collaborative Relationships, Innovation Process, Collaborative Network Types, Defense Industry, Collaborative Defense Types
  • Hadi Mirzaie *, Aryan Gholipour, Seyed Reza Seyed Javadin, Tahmoures Hasangholipour Pages 31-54

    The purpose of this study was to identify the criteria of critical and key jobs in National Iranian Tanker company to better attract and retain talents in the organization. In the present study, a qualitative approach was taken and it was descriptive (case study) in terms of data collection.  The participants were chosen from managers and experts in National Iranian Tanker Company (NITC). Based on purposive sampling, data were collected from 12 participants in two stages. In the first stage, qualitative data were collocated through 12 interviews. Then, the criteria of critical and key jobs were identified via thematic analysis. In the second stage, investigators designed and submitted a paired-comparison questionnaire to organizations' elites in order to determine the importance of criteria. The aforementioned questionnaires were analyzed based on AHP technique and via Expert Choice software. Conclusively, a model comprising of 7 dimensions for critical jobs and a model with 3 dimensions for key jobs were set.

    Introduction

    There is a noticeable association between strategy and human resources. The SHRM literature focuses on human resource (HR) management systems as resources of competitive advantage, and employees as strategic assets. According to Armstrong (2009), strategic human resource management is an approach to decision making on the intentions and strategy of the organization about employment relationship and the organization's staffing, training, improvement, performance management, compensation, employee strategies, policies and practices. Talent Management has become one of the most prevalent terms in strategic human resource management and as the most effective tool to gain competitive advantage and value creation. Collings and Mellahi (2009) define strategic TM as activities and processes that involve the systematic identification of key positions which differentially contribute to the organization's sustainable competitive advantage, the development of a talent pool of high potential and high performing incumbents to fill these roles, and the development of a differentiated architecture to facilitate filling these positons with competent incumbents and to ensure their continued commitment to the organization. Strategic positions are those impact strategy and exhibit high variability in employee performance.
    National Iranian Tanker Company (NITC) is the biggest company crude oil industry. Considering the necessary factors for Talent Management, the present research intends to answer this question that what are the criteria of critical and key jobs in order to attract and retain talents in National Iranian Tanker Company?

    Case study

    The research context in this study is limited and includes all mangers and experts in National Iranian Tanker Company or NITC.

    Materials and Methods

    A qualitative research approach was taken in this research so that it was applied in terms of research objective and was case study (single-case) in terms of data collection. Based on the nature of the study, the sampling method for both interviews and questionnaires were purposive sampling method. In the initial stage of data collection, investigators used semi-structured interviews. Likewise, data were analyzed thematically in this stage. Then, in the second stage, researchers used paired comparison questionnaires to compare criteria of critical and key jobs in pairs.

    Discussion and Results

    In the present study, qualitative data were collected in two stages. In the initial stage, data were accumulated through semi-structured interviews. Upon qualitative data collection, investigators analyzed them thematically. Eventually, 7 themes or criteria for critical jobs and 3 themes or criteria for key jobs were identified. The identified criteria for critical jobs included strategic impact, value creation, the knowledge and skills of incumbent, incumbent's performance, the consequences of incumbent appointment, incumbents' attraction, and customers' satisfaction. Likewise, the criteria of key jobs were recognized as strategic impact, value creation, and the consequences of incumbent appointment. After recognizing the criteria of critical and key jobs, a questionnaire made by researchers were set and distributed to NITC's elites to compare the criteria in pairs. After collecting the questionnaires, the importance of critical and key jobs was determined through Analytic Hierarchy Process or AHP.

    Conclusion

    Today, the attraction and retention of talents is of organizations' concerns. In the literature of strategic human resource management, the role of strategic jobs has been noticed to improve the efficiency. National Iranian Tanker Company or NITC is the biggest company in crude oil shipping sector. The company tends to identify, retain, and develop its competitive advantage in line with its strategic planning. Accordingly, NITC seeks for the identification of critical and key jobs as strategic jobs. The key point is that the company required to identify the criteria of critical and key jobs. As the critical and key jobs in any company would be based on its strategies and goals, the criteria of critical and key jobs in companies would be different to one another. Hence, the critical and key jobs will be dissimilar. The identified criteria of critical and key jobs are relatively similar to criteria of strategic jobs in other companies in oil and gas industry, however, the findings of present research would not be generalized to other organizations as a case study.

    Keywords: Strategic Human Resource Management, Talent Management, Critical Jobs, Key Jobs
  • Amir Hamzeh Alinejad, Adel Azar *, Mohammadebrahim Pourzarandi Pages 55-84

    Assessing the innovation capacity of knowledge-based companies and predicting their innovation capacity is very important for these companies, and the decision to transfer or expand the company's technology depends on the level of innovation capacity. The main purpose of this study is to design a model for assessing the innovation capacity of knowledge-based companies with a neural-adaptive fuzzy inference approach. Nervous-adaptive fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is a good way to solve nonlinear problems. ANFIS is a combination of fuzzy inference and neural network that utilizes both. The research and statistical sample population for compiling, implementing and testing the model is all the knowledge-based companies of Pardis Technology Park, and finally 180 items were evaluated, collected by expert evaluators and based on model calculations. To evaluate the performance of the model, the parameters of the average error square (RMSE), relative error percentage (e), absolute error average (MAE) and coefficient of explanation (R2) were calculated, which are 0.0136, 1.3%, and 0.048, respectively. And 0.998 was obtained. which indicates the accuracy and reliability of the model output prediction. This research is descriptive-survey in terms of purpose, application, and data collection method. The output of this study is "ANFIS".

    Introduction

    Assessing the innovation capacity of companies is a complex and elusive concept that is difficult to determine. Measuring the capacity for innovation requires quantitative and qualitative considerations. In both cases, the companies are both. And ‌.. Innovative. Therefore, knowledge-based companies that are leading the new economy in the world need to recognize their innovation capacities and be aware of the level of innovation capacity and formulate specific strategies to reach the desired level. The knowledge economy has been the mainstay of investment in small and medium-sized enterprises. In Europe, these companies make up 99.8% of the total number of companies in EU member states, numbering 19 million across the EU. (E-Business policy group 2016). Knowledge-based companies that are constantly moving on the edge of knowledge, their products and services are innovative. These companies have the right innovation capacity to make the necessary decisions about the company's technology transfer or development by relying on that capacity. What managers are interested in is the level of innovation capacity of the company and predicting the level of innovation capacity according to the trend of changes in innovation capacity indicators.

    Case study

    The statistical population of this study in the process of identifying and extracting the components and dimensions of innovation capacity, includes 19 professors in the field of innovation and experts in knowledge-based companies. The statistical sample for compiling and implementing the model is 241 knowledge-based companies located in Pardis Technology Park.

    Research Innovation

    The innovation of this research is in the method of research, because according to some features of the concepts of innovation and capacity measurement, both of which have their own ambiguities and ambiguities, their study was not accurate through binary science (Azar and Faraji, 2017). Therefore, by examining the existing literature (Wang's method) and using the opinions of experts, the researcher has chosen the approach of fuzzy systems that can model the qualitative aspects of human knowledge and reasoning processes without using a little precise analysis using one of the fuzzy rules. Famous fuzzy inference, for modeling, fuzzy-nerve inference method Or the ANFIS is comparative.

    Materials and Methods 

    This research is based on the purpose, applied and developmental type (using the model to measure the amount and predicting the innovation capacity in the company) and according to the method of data collection and complete step-by-step research of descriptive-survey type (which is a method for obtaining information). It can also be explored in terms of the views, beliefs, opinions, behaviors, motivations, or characteristics of a group of members of a community (as well as the discovery of the dimensions and components of innovation capacity). The reason for using ANFIS in both systems is as follows: (Ata & Kocyigit, 2010) 1-Use neural networks to sort data and identify patterns. 2-Creating a clear fuzzy inference system that has fewer problems and fewer errors in computations than neural networks. 3-This system maintains the benefits of a fuzzy expert system, while also reducing the need for an expert. 4-Due to the use of fuzzy logic, the problems of modeling and analyzing complex data in this method are reduced. 5-It is possible to enter the qualitative dimensions of human experience into this system. 6-Finally, the neural fuzzy system has the ability to learn while maintaining the benefits of the fuzzy inference system. According to the conceptual model, the following can be developed and designed in two ways: neural-adaptive fuzzy inference model: 1) The first way is the direct use of 25 indicators as model inputs (the advantage of this method is the awareness and direct observation of the role of each indicator in the model, but the complexity and length of calculations are its disadvantages). 2) The second way is to use the indicators in the form of 5 dimensions to form smaller and simpler models in order to use the output of these subsets as inputs to the final model (the advantage of this way is the simplicity of the model but no direct knowledge of the role of each indicator in the model). In his research, the researcher has calculated the innovation capacity in both ways. In this paper, the first method that is based on indicators is presented. For this purpose, the data of 180 companies were evaluated by experts based on the above 25 indicators, a 180 * 26 matrix (26 columns and 180 rows, the last column as the score of each company) was prepared. By defining a random data selection function, the data matrix was divided into two separate parts with optional and completely random percentages, 80% of the data was used for system training and 20% for model testing. This fuzzy inference system is able to provide analyzable outputs based on the inputs provided. Analytical output helps the company to assess the sensitivity of the output by changing each of the input variables and make the necessary corrections based on it.

    Validation

     The validation of the research was considered from two perspectives; first, validation of data collection tools, which was confirmed by the opinion of narrative experts and SPSS software reliability of the input indicators. Expert evaluation has been used. To evaluate the performance of the model, the parameters of the mean error square error (RMSE), relative error percentage (e), absolute error average (MAE) and explanatory coefficient (R2) were used and the values of 0.0133, 1.3%, 0.048 and 0.998 were obtained, indicating the accuracy and reliability of the model output prediction.

    Results and suggestions

    Some aspects of this research are similar to the dimensions of Morel and Bowley's research (2004-2014), such as research and development activities, ideas, creativity and customer relationship, but the indicators of these dimensions are completely different according to the statistical community and technological differences between the two countries. They are different. Also, compared to Wang's research, although the method used is fuzzy, the method used in this research is the fuzzy neuro-adaptive inference method, which has the greatest advantage for model design. Compared to Proshch et al.'s (2017) research, indicators such as total scientific and technical staff (S&T), total R&D spending, and risk capital (VC) are common. In Hayata Research (2018), employee quality indicators, research capacity and multiplicity, budget and research grants, and access to the research community are shared. Compared to the research of Arasti et al., There are only common dimensions in the field of dimensions, but the indicators of these dimensions are completely different. During the research process, many ideas and opinions came to the researcher's mind that there was no opportunity to implement and implement them. Therefore, the following topics are recommended for interested researchers in this field: •Connect the fuzzy inference system to the organization's management database to receive instantaneous information and provide analytical reports on the status of innovation capacity in the form of intelligent business systems. •Use simulation algorithms and evolutionary algorithms to analyze and simulate implementation steps and provide effective reports to managers. •Combining neural networks and genetic algorithms to design the optimal model for implementing an innovation capacity assessment system. •Combining fuzzy logic, neural network, genetic algorithms, and meta-innovative optimization methods to produce an intelligent system that is continuously able to provide improving suggestions for improving the evaluation system.

    Keywords: Knowledge Foundation, innovation, Adaptive Fuzzy-Neural Conclusion System (ANFIS)
  • Ali Ziaei Boukani, Fariborz Rahimnia *, Yaghoob Maharati, Alireza Khorakian Pages 85-110

     The concept of "fanaticism in the organization" is one of the concepts that has been considered less in the management literature. Fanaticism in the organization is a form of Organization members that works beyond the usual standards, routine tasks, and with more than usual ability to meet organizational goals. Fanaticism in an organization as an attitude can play an important role in maximizing organizational productivity. Researches carried out with this concept are often conducted with a negative view. From a positive point of view, fanaticism in the organization can be a sign of the high commitment of members to the organization, work group, job and organization. In this research, by exploring the views of industry experts and experts, we have studied the causes of fanaticism formation in the organization with a positive view. In this regard, the methodology of the data theory approach has been used with the apparent approach. The research community in this study was the employees working in industries of Khorasan Razavi province. Based on the theoretical sampling method in the data theory, 17 theoretical Saturation was obtained. In this research, after analyzes made during the coding process and the continuous comparison, 46 codes or initial data and 5 concepts were plotted. The result of the codes, concepts, and categories derived from the emergence of the final model of research, led to the fanaticism of the organization.

    Introduction

    When globalization and economic freedom have become widespread, employees are becoming a competitive advantage in organizations. Dynamic characteristics of the competition market have made organizations more aware of the need to adapt to their strategy, structure, processes and culture. Based on evaluations carried out on a number of organizations with high productivity, various factors were considered for the reasons for the success of these organizations. In fact, the main question is, what is the main reason for the success of these organizations?. One of the important factors that can cause people to take unconventional actions is fanaticism; fanaticism as an out-of-moderation behavior can be in the form of a curtain on the wisdom and personality of a person and put a picture opposing reality to the person. In fact, after conducting the investigations, one of the important factors in the success of organizations was the identification of the humanistic fanaticism of the organization. Fanaticism can sometimes be realized in relation to the tribe, country, race, religion, and sometimes to culture, language, opinion, or sometimes to a job, post and organization. The fanatics of the organization are far from the standard criteria and standard tasks assigned to the organization to take any action to achieve organizational goals. The term "prejudice" in the different cultures may have both a negative meaning and a positive meaning.

    Case study

    In this research, the Khorasan Razavi Industries of the community studied. According to the opinions of the experts, the organizations that rank in the organizational rank, usually have more fanatics. Also, according to the research goal, among the employees working in the Khorasan Razavi Industries, individuals selected as managers who are not members of the supervisory board of the organization and have academic education, have a high degree of organization in relation to the duration of the organization. And in terms of affiliation and belonging to the organization, have a good reputation in the organization.

    Materials and Methods

    The present research is orientated in fundamental research and the paradigm governing this research is Interpretivism. In this research, the strategy of data theory has been used with emerging approach. In this study, MAXQDA software was used to analyze the data.

    Discussion and Results

    In this research, 46 codes and 5 related concepts were obtained. Based on interviewees' opinion, the causes of fanaticism in the organization are presented as five factors. In fact, in this research, fanaticism in an organization is affected by five factors; 1-The program-oriented activities of the organization. Organizations that consider programming as the first principle of the organization's existence and focus their activities on the basis of pre-designed programs not only clarify the future of the organization's way, but also provide a clear and transparent way for members of the organization. As programmatic can lead to fanatical behaviors in the organization, the confusion and lack of transparency in the future direction can lead to a lack of fanaticism in the organization.2-Humanity is against the needs of employees. As the behavior of family members is emotional and sincere, the relationships of individuals and managers in the organization should be the same. If the attention of the organization passes through the material needs of the employees and addresses the needs of immaterial, one can expect that the members of the organization react to this concern of the organization and become fanatical towards the organization.3-Purposeful employment. If the organization can use the best people to best fit their organizational goals and programs, they can be expected to become fanatical with the organization.4-Training-centered and continuous employee empowerment. Organizations can achieve the fanaticism of the organization through training-centered and continuous employee empowerment.5-Leadership in the organization. The effectiveness of some aspects of leadership is conditional on the fairness of the leaders' performance, and as a result, justice concerns directly or indirectly influence the leadership's response.

    Conclusion

    The central issue in this research is "fanaticism in the organization". The research findings show that organizations often make false attempts (consciously or unknowingly) to create fanaticism in the organization, but none of these organizations have a specific pattern and program to create fanaticism in the organization. The five factors derived from the results of this study show that the existence of these factors can be unified by creating behavioral fanaticism in the organization. Among other things, the importance of planning in the organization and the formulation of organizational values ​​is not only necessary during the development phase but also at the implementation stage. Unfortunately, most organizations are focusing on codified plans and organizational values ​​until the compilation phase and play a minor role in its implementation. The second factor is humanity against the needs of employees. Paying attention to the basic needs of the members of the organization cannot help the organization to achieve fanaticism. Members of the organization need more than basic needs to become fanatical workers. The third factor is the importance of recruiting and recruiting organization forces. Although definition of recruitment and recruitment may appear as a simple process, it is not easy to achieve an effective achievement. The fourth factor is training-based organization. Empowering is the easiest way to share other people in power. In this way, sense of trust, dual energy, pride, commitment and self-reliance are created in the people, and participation in organizational affairs increases, and ultimately, it can lead to the appearance of behavioral prejudices in the organization. Eventually, the last factor is leadership in the organization. Managers of the organization as leaders and leaders and the pattern of other members of the organization play a very important role in the behavior of fanaticism in the organization. Moralism, justice, the creation of a supportive atmosphere in the organization, and the creation of a sense of trust and honesty in the behavior of top executives can organize the organization's promise of a secure organization.

    Keywords: Fanaticism, commitment, Bias, Grounded Theory
  • Amir Mohammad Colabi * Pages 111-134

    The present study identifies and designs the components that affect the sustainability of the growth and sustainability business models in the ICT industry. In this research, the exploratory (qualitative-quantitative) research framework has been selected. Statistical sample of the qualitative stage of 9 managers of ICT companies whose companies have reached the stage of growth and stability in the life cycle of the business, and the quantitative sample is 277 managers and experts in this field. The data collection tool was semi-structured in the qualitative stage of the interview and in the quantitative stage of the questionnaire. To analyze the qualitative data, content analysis method and for quantitative data, the exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis method has been used through structural equation software. The results of this study showed that all dimensions and components of the sustainability model were confirmed and the factors affecting the sustainability of the business model were innovation, creating shared value, participatory leadership, economic factors and corporate governance.

    Introduction

    Nowadays, sustainability is converted to a part of business model all around the world (Antolin-Lopez et al, 2016:7). Corporates make connections with their physical, biological and social environment, affect it and are affected by it (Phillis & Davis, 2009:6). Business sustainability model by creating a shared understanding of business logic, making the possibility of analyzing, improving business management, and creating a vivid perspective, leads corporates to get prepared for entering the market and thus, makes maintaining and enhancing the corporate’s position in domestic and global markets possible (Jonson, et al. 2019). In recent studies the discovery of sustainable business models has been very important to scholars (Yang, et al. 2017:168). But currently there is no general definition neither for sustainable business models nor for the factors affecting the sustainability. The other issue which is tried to be focused on as a specific condition of Iran is sanctions. As stated previously, given the current environmental status of Iran, in which the sanctions can be considered as the most important issue, a long-term presence in the environment and maintaining the current situation essentially need the sustainability of business models. So, this study tries to discuss the intra-organizational and inter-organizational dimensions of business models based on the specific situation of Iran. Antolin Lopez et al. (2016) argue that the diversity of the tools evaluating corporate’s sustainability and the loss of knowledge over this issue create complexity and cause confusion of the researchers. Also, in measuring three dimensions of the corporates sustainability (economic, social, and environmental) no exact criterion is considered. So, the purpose of this study is identifying and designing the components of sustainable business model which is consistent with domestic businesses and the firms which are studied have already passed the Innovation and the Startup phase of the business model lifecycle and now are in the growth and stability phase. The approach of this study is also the evaluation of inter-organizational and intra-organizational factors which must be assessed to reach to sustainability.

    Methodology

    A mixed approach composed of qualitative and quantitative part has been applied for this study. In the qualitative part content analysis and coding method, and in the quantitative part exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis have been done in order to identify the factors affecting business sustainability. The qualitative sample in composed of 9 managers of developed and knowledge-based enterprises in ICT industry. As the population is not random, the purposeful sampling method (snowball sampling) has been applied. In the quantitative part the sample size, calculated by Cochran formula, includes 277 managers, employees and the experts of the field. In the qualitative part library research and semi-structured interviews are done for collecting data. First the main questions were designed based on the theoretical literature, then gradually new questions were formed during the interviews and were added to the main ones. So, the interview protocol consists of the questions which are exploratory in nature and are along with reaching to business sustainability. In this step the main dimensions and indices of the study were extracted and then were coded using content analysis and were used for preparing the questionnaire which was to be used in quantitative part. In the quantitative part data collected using researcher-made questionnaire and analyzed using Amos23 and Spss20. To examine the validity of the questionnaire the content validity and the constructs validity methods were applied, as the questionnaire were confirmed by three experts and faculty members in this field. The reliability was examined by Cronbach's alpha and the resulted mean was 71 which indicates that the evaluation tool has a proper reliability. To analyze the qualitative content, qualitative content analysis method was implemented. In content analysis two ways of content analysis including latent and manifest content analysis were conducted. In other words, in some cases the latent content of the data was extracted too and each interviewee’s quotes were arranged in a table. In the next step data coding, which is the base of pattern analysis, was done. Each interviewee was given a code from Q1 to Q9. Open coding was done according to the key concepts of the managers’ verbal statements and in the concept-driven coding a title has been given to each category of the stated common concepts.

    Findings 

    The findings resulted from analyzing the qualitative content of semi-structured interviews include indices and dimensions extracted from verbal statements of managers about the factors affecting sustainability of businesses. These findings show that the factors affecting business sustainability include five elements: shared leadership, innovation, economic factors, corporate governance and creating shared value. In this study 30 indices were organized in the form of 5 components. Assessment of the findings show that the innovation with the standard factor loading (SFL) equals to 0.97, creating shared value with the SFL = 0.67, shared leadership with the SFL = 0.626, economic factors with the SFL = 0.553 and corporate governance with the SFL = 0.427 are respectively the most important factors affecting the sustainability of business models. In assessing the factors obtained in each of the 5 dimensions of our model we come to the conclusion that in order to have a sustainable business model, not to fail in innovation and startup phase, and to reach to the growth and development phase these dimensions and components must be specially taken into consideration. In other words, this model can be utilized as the base of sustainable business in all types of organizations.

    Discussion and conclusion

    Innovation causes changes to all the dimensions of a corporate and while unfortunately many of the corporates in the beginning of their establishing have cognitive biases, they do not care enough about the needs and the realities of the market. Considering the innovation dimension creates flexibility in all sections and causes the early-stage businesses to pass the upcoming challenges successfully. The findings of this study show that the innovation is the most important factor which must be focused on and the components affecting this dimension respectively are: presenting alternative solutions, creating new financial solutions, new products and services, simplifying the process of using products, and designing flexible structure. Producing new financial solutions and the ability to research, develop and create online fund management systems in order to automatically update the resources and proper planning, would have essential impact on business sustainability. Producing new products and services and presenting alternative solutions in solving unpredicted problems also can contribute the corporates in their sustainability. Creating shared value is creating value from making connections between the profitability and competitive advantage of the corporate and its social responsibilities. Networking, offering free services and paving the way for creating added value and supporting the cultural-religious values would result in business sustainability. Offering the best services with lowest prices and special services in supply chain and communication channels along with offering specific services to consumers and other stakeholders can effectively impact on creating competitive advantages and increasing the profitability. So, the corporates are trying to use their own and the society’s weaknesses and strengths as opportunities to be exploited along with the competitive advantage. The effective components in this dimension respectively are: employee partaking in profits, supporting cultural-religious values, facilitating the communications between stakeholders, offering best services with the lowest prices, offering free services and creating added value. Shared leadership is one of the main infrastructures and bases in the formation of venture capital corporations and is the basis of innovation formation which is our most important dimension. The causes of success in shared leadership are in having team spirit, being good at negotiations, having the ability to persuade stakeholders, and being flexible. Corporates should try to improve the team spirit by creating idealism, pursuing goals, and supporting the work groups in the corporate. Inducing altruism, contribution, goal-orientation, and having a positive image of the business can enhance the growth and sustainability of the corporate. The effective components of this dimension are respectively: commitment to completing the work, awareness of current issues, positive forward thinking, inducing altruism and positive image, high ambiguity tolerance, solving inter-organizational conflicts, high flexibility and team consistency, idealism and pursuing the goals, partaking and high team spirit, and being sure of success and growth of the business. In the economy dimension the most influential factors in sustainability are respectively: costs reduction, developing economies of scale, and efforts to gain profits for stakeholders. These factors would increase the productivity and create opportunity and competitive advantage for corporates. A proper corporate governance is the prerequisite of the corporate sustainability. In this dimension these components respectively are the most helpful factors for businesses in reaching to sustainability: developing the culture of caring about social responsibility, transparency and availability of the information, constructive interactions with lawmakers, supporting the managers and employees, and creating motives and positive spirit.

    Keywords: Business Model Sustainability, Sustainable Business Model, Business Life Cycle
  • Samira Karami, Neda Mohammadesmaeili *, Samaneh Hajiasgari Nooshabadi Pages 135-160

    Employees, especially new generation employees, expect to progress steadily in their careers, and when they reach a stage where the job is not learned and their skills improvement is stopped or they are unable to advance in the organizational hierarchy, Plateau phenomenon occurs which can have many consequences on important attitudes of employees.Understanding the importance of attitudes such as job involvement and organizational commitment, this study investigates the impact of the plateau phenomenon on these two variables in Taraspay.The survey method was used to collect data with a questionnaire including 52 questions. A total of 14 hypotheses were examined, one of which was rejected and the effect of content, plateau on normative commitment was not confirmed.

    Introduction

    Over the past decade, most organizations have seen an increase in organizational reengineering. Organizations strive to become more efficient by flattening the organizational structures and reengineering operations to maintain competitiveness. The restructuring has led to fewer vertical promotion opportunities for the employees.
    On the other hand, simple job design, non-use of motivational approaches to job design such as job enlargement, job rotation, job enrichment, and lack of attention to the need for professional development of employees have made employees feel that their job is not enough challenging, it doesn't matter  enough and it don't use their potential. Stopping people in the hierarchy and feeling lack of skills and professional growth, referred to as plateauing, can have adverse effects on employees' attitudes, which in this article affect two very important attitudes for the organization. Job involvement and organizational commitment have been addressed.

    Case study

    The statistical population of this study is all personnel of the holding company and its subsidiaries. This holding is one of a series of State Pension Fund Holdings and is working in the field of construction and real estate. The total number of employees was 130 and 97 were selected by simple random sampling

    Materials and Methods

    The present study is applied in terms of purpose and is a descriptive-survey that describes the conditions and phenomena studied. The research literature was compiled by library method and data collection was done by questionnaire. Cronbach's alpha, composite reliability and convergent validity were used to determine the reliability of the constructs.

    Discussion and Results

    In this paper, 5 main hypotheses and 9 sub-hypotheses were investigated, with the exception of one case confirmed. The results are in line with many other studies conducted in different fields.

    Conclusion

    Failure to career management and creating a plateau for employees can lead to negative results and therefore organizations can take steps to reduce these negative consequences, some of which are most common: Job counseling (talk employees about current and future job activities and personal and professional skills development), succession planning, job planning workshops, multiple career paths, using team-based structures, job enlargement, job enrichment, job rotation and so on.

    Keywords: Job Involvement, Organizational Commitment, Occupational Plateauing
  • Seyed Aligholi Rowshan *, Keyvan Barzegar, Mohsen Yaghoubi Pages 161-188

    The purpose of this research is to provide a basic model for a Talent Management System (TMS). In the present study, by conducting a systematic review and critisizing talent management models, it is tried to provide a fundamental theoretical model that be suitable for all organizations with any structure. The findings of the research showed that TMS should include at least three key items of attraction & selection, training & development and retaining.

    Introduction

    Talented employees are key sources of success and the power of competitive advantage in any organization. Therefore, many organizations are focused on hiring, developing and retaining them. Retention and managing the talents help companies succeed and play a key role in retaining market leadership and development. In recent years, various models of talent management have been presented, most of which, show merely an ideal talent management condition regardless of the actual circumstances of the organization. Therefore, it seems necessary to develop a comprehensive conceptual model and do an overview of existing talent management research.  Therefore, a comprehensive and extensive literature review of talent management is developed.  Moreover, there is no consensus among academics on definition of talent and talent management. According to the literature review, we define talent as follows: “A person with specific abilities (knowledge, skills, experience) who is committed to his or her job and helps the organization achieve its goals.” Talent management is “identifying key posts and analyzing the talent gap to meet the shortage of labor market demand and then the process of recruiting and selecting, training and developing, and retaining current and future employees”.

    Methodology

    In this research, a systematic review is done and models of talent management are studied and a fundamental theoretical pattern for organizations with any type of structure is presented. For this purpose, to identify and extract papers, systematic review was limited to two databases, including Scopus and The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI). Both databases have reliable sources and are used in a large number of studies. Then, through a systematic review, studies that focused on the design of a talent management model (2006–2018) and had a non-empirical or semi-empirical nature were extracted and reviewed. Therefore, theses, editor's notes, book chapters and books were not included in this review. Due to a common process, conference papers were also ignored. In this research, the term "talent management" was used for systematic review. In total, the articles related to the study of talent management design consisted of 37 articles, 31 of which were removed due to overlap (similar items), finally the talent management model based on 6 articles, all of which were published in the most prestigious international journals, were selected.

    Discussion and conclusion

    According to the research findings, each of the talent management models had a number of shortcomings, including not mentioning some dimensions and components of talent management (i.e. recruitment and selection, training and development, maintenance, evaluation, gap analysis and where do the organizations select the talents they needed) in some of the models. Moreover, in some papers, they focused on talented people and ignored other employees. Based on the research findings, the organization's sensitive positions must firstly be identified and qualifications be matched to these positions. Then, it is suggested to evaluate the talents inside the organization and outside the organization and provide a pool of the talents needed by organization. After the talent pool is formed, the organization will provide the right people with the key posts from the talent pool. Likewise, in designing a talent management systems’ map for the organization, all three key components of talent management model (i.e. recruitment and selection, training and development, and retention) should be considered and emphasized in HR planning. Finally, it is suggested to organizations in different industries to focus their attention on providing the conditions and improving these components.

    Keywords: Talent, Talent Management, Recruitment, Selection, Training, Development, and retaining
  • Habibollah Salarzehi * Pages 189-218

    Citizens in a society are the main owners of the political system and public management. The extent of involvement in the country and public management has been different concerning the evolution trend of paradigms and theories of political sciences and public management in different  time periods. The initial paradigm in public management is the same as the Technocratic  and  Instrumentalist traditional public administration   which was based on the maximum government and the minimum involvement of citizens in public administration. Shifting from the paradigm of traditional public management to the new public management, the minimum government and   citizens maximum involvement and privatization were emphasized. Beyond the new public management and moving toward the paradigm of public value management, the interaction between public management and citizen was considered concerning the ethical and institutional approach. In this paradigm, the values of citizens rights, democracy, institutionalism, serving people, involvement, social capital, and civil society have been considered more than before. Further, the realm of public power in the public value management, bureaucracy and the market has been developed to the wider domains in civil society and governance networks. In the paradigm of public value management, the power is, in nature, various and many partners from different parts of the government, businesses, and NGOs involve in creating and protecting public values.

    Introduction

    The historical trend of paradigms in public management developing from the traditional public management to the paradigm of public value management is affected by the trend of this maximum government to maximum democracy. The paradigm of traditional public management was consistent with  maximum government. In the transition from the paradigm of traditional public management to new  public management  and to public value management, we witness the strengthening of non-governmental sectors and civil society which means moving toward perfect and democratic governance. In this paradigm, the process of transferring power from the state to sectors outside the realm of government (e.i the private sectors and civil society) has been greatly considered. In this regard, the values of democracy, civil society, social capital, and the synergy of diverse areas of power have increased.

    Case Study

    The present paper is analytical which theoretically considers the paradigm of public value management as a new paradigm in public management. The case studies and field studies are not considered in this paper.

    Theoretical Framework

    The paradigm of the public value management which is similar to the new public services highlights the citizen’s behaviors, network governance and  participatory governance. The public value management aims to develop a discourse of collective co-creation values, democratic values in the path of good  governance. The public value management believes in the reflection of new public services in the community, the continuous improvement and citizens’ satisfaction. Stability, a dominant feature of the traditional public management paradigm, is not credible in the public value management discourse, and stability is replaced by change , learning  and innovation. Public value management seeks to synergize public sector actions and decisions with the resources of the private sectors and NGOs. Public value management emphasizes the development of the capabilities of mutual and collective relationships, and accountability is the result of the active participation of citizens. Democracy and the consolidation of direct participation styles of citizens are centered by public value management, and the power is distributed in a vast network of society actors.

    Materials and Methods

    In the present study, we sought to study the paradigms of public management by scrutinizing the scientific resources in public management. In this regard, the present study used a deductive and content analysis approach derived from published articles on public value management.

    Discussion and Results

    Public value management results from the empowerment of civil society and organized social networks and the move toward the discourse of good governance and  democratic governance which requires a re-creation of social capital in government-nation relations. In this discourse, the political activists of the society and the managers of the public sector tend to create public values to pursue the public interests of the society. The process of identifying and accepting public values in society takes place in the context of collective wisdom and comprehensive public participation. Accordingly, a wide range of community activists actively involved in creating, accepting, institutionalizing, implementing these public values, and ultimately judging the extent of realization of these public values.  In the discourse of public value management, there is a kind of pluralistic attitude toward the expected public values. This discourse considers a logical combination of intra-organizational and extra-organizational values in the context of civil society and democracy. Instead of focusing merely on results and practices, public value management highlights the relationships and networks of cooperation between internal and external sectors. Public value management seeks to combine the expected values of government, private sector activists, and civic institutions. Thus, multidimensional attitudes toward political, legal, economic, and social values, innovative learning, and environmental values are emphasized in public value management. Collaboration and co-creation patterns in the relationships of different activists in society beyond organizational and geographical boundaries have modified the function of public management.

    Conclusions

    The paradigm of public value management does not seek to completely negate the paradigms of traditional and new public management, and most of the good and public values in such managements are considered in the paradigm of public value management. Concerning the final result of the paradigm of public management, the paradigm of public value management seeks to reconcile the power, policy, efficiency, and rationality with civil ethics, social justice, and accountability. In this regard, the paradigm of public value management attempts to strongly recreate the link between public administration and politics, ethics and democracy more than before.

    Keywords: Traditional Public Administration, New Public Management, Good governance, Public Value Management
  • Atefeh Rigi, Nematollah Azizi *, Abdulwahab Pourghaz Pages 219-243

    This study aimed to critically examine university management in achieving top global rankings, using a qualitative-research approach with Ruth Wodak’s method of critical discourse analysis. Participants included 16 experts and senior officials from the Institute for Higher Education Research and Planning, University of Tehran, Eco Insurance Higher Education Institute, Alameh Tabatabae University and Technical and Vocational University whom were selected via snowball sampling method. Semi-structured interviews were applied to collect data based on theoretical saturation which were lasting between 30 and 60 minutes. For data validation both participants review (member check) and review by external experts (external check) were applied.Thematic analysis and spoken texts analysis methods were used to analyze data. The results showed that university management problems in Iran are associated with two factors: Intrapersonal Factors (extreme politicization of university managers, disregard for delegating authority and trying to maintain the status quo, assuming academic management the same as managing other organizations, inappropriate decision making and planning); and Interpersonal Factors (defective monitoring and evaluation system, inappropriate organizing and coordination). In this regard, some strategies are presented to improve the global ranking of Iranian universities. 

    Introduction

    Considering the importance of university managers’ role in improving the quality of higher education centers as well as the low ranking of Iranian universities in most international standard evaluation systems, it is necessary to study and critically examine university managers in the process of university management and leadership, and to find the reasons for Iranian universities being dropped behind other universities in the world in the above-mentioned rankings. The results of this study can help higher education managers and policy makers in decision making and strategic planning to enhance the quality of Iranian universities and compete with other universities worldwide while joining the global village to employ international knowledge and gain higher international rankings.

    Case Study

    Participants included 16 experts and senior officials from the Institute for Higher Education Research and Planning, University of Tehran, Eco Insurance Higher Education Institute, Alameh Tabatabae University and Technical and Vocational University whom were selected via snowball sampling method.

    Materials and Methods

    This study used a qualitative approach and a critical interpretive paradigm. According to this paradigm, hidden structures that cause inequality and provide solutions to change can be identified through research (Mohammadpour, 2013). According to the discourse analysis approach, the practical method of collecting data in this study involved reviewing notes taken from related lectures and analyzing interviews. Analysis methods in the CDA included thematic analysis, written text analysis, and spoken text analysis, all three types of which were used in the present study.

    Results

    The results showed that university management problems in Iran are associated with two factors: Intrapersonal Factors (extreme politicization of university managers, disregard for delegating authority and trying to maintain the status quo, assuming academic management the same as managing other organizations, inappropriate decision making and planning); and Interpersonal Factors (defective monitoring and evaluation system, inappropriate organizing and coordination). In this regard, some strategies are presented to improve the global ranking of Iranian universities.

    Discussion and conclusion

    Inappropriate academic management in various areas of decision making, evaluation, and leadership is one of the factors that have been implicated in numerous research studies in lowering university rankings. Jaroka (2015) believes that university rankings help manage these centers and are important in building and securing credit. In addition, as a platform in the field of strategic management, it assists the university in policy and strategy regulation. The effectiveness of a particular management policy can also be assessed using rankings. However, given the fact that the set of activities and their respective performances are represented by rankings, they are direct reflections of the quality of academic centers. Obviously, in addition to harm reduction, eliminating the problems and challenges of university management, and opening new windows to enhance Iran's higher education status, the strategies of this article can be used as a reliable platform to hopefully eventually improve Iranian universities international rankings.

    Keywords: Higher Education, university rankings, global rankings, University Management
  • Mareye Shekarzahie*, Hamed Aramesh, Sohela Keshavarz Pages 245-273

    The present study aimed to identify the factors affecting the deployment of mobile learning in sistan and baluchestan university. The method of this study is applied in terms of the purpose, applied and in terms of data type; the pattern in this study is based on the qualitative method of, which was determined using the meta- synthesis method of 49 mobile learning article in universities, and the importance and priority of each was determined by the quantitative method of shannon entropy. In order to validate the model, questionnaire number one was designed and distributed among the statistical population. the statistical population of this study includes all students of the university of sistan and baluchestan in the number of 21217, the statistical sample using the morgan table was the number of 377 and was used to analyze the data from a confirmatory factor analysis method with the help of smart pls software. according to research findings, effective factors in this model are in two dimensions of infrastructure (tools and technology and support infrastructure), and individual (user personality traits and user skill attributes).

    Introduction 

    Nowadays; Traditional and traditional methods of teaching and learning have lost their effectiveness and effectiveness with the advent of new technologies. Learners are looking for new ways to keep up with the constantly changing environment. Mobile technology is one of the aspects of information technology that has come into the field of education. One of the new ways of teaching is training through mobile devices (Bagherian far & Jawadi por, 2015). Mobile learning is designed from simple programs to support traditional education to more complex systems and even ecosystems, especially for teaching and learning practices. There are various applications of mobile technologies for both formal and informal learning modes. Students' attitudes are another important element that is strongly influenced by mobile learning acceptance (Yeap et al, 2016). Sistan and Baluchestan University as a comprehensive university and scientific pole of the South East of the country as the mother university in Sistan and Baluchestan province was able to join the Jirga of developed universities of the country with the necessary criteria and to be ranked among the top universities in the country. Mobile learning at Sistan and Baluchestan University is not favorable because students have poor computer and internet literacy. The mobile learning system at the University of Sistan and Baluchistan is facing challenges, and mobile learning managers and planners must provide the necessary infrastructure to address these challenges. Therefore, the present study aims to identify the factors affecting the deployment of mobile learning to provide the necessary framework for implementing this type of learning to some extent for universities and academics.

    Case study 

    The study was conducted at Sistan and Baluchestan University. Sistan and Baluchestan University as a comprehensive and scientific university in the south-eastern region of the country started its activities by establishing the Department of Road and Building in Zahedan. The university currently has five approved colleges, including two faculties and two active campuses, which admit students in three departments, with three doctoral, postgraduate, and undergraduate degrees.

    Materials and Methods 

    In this study, the qualitative method of combining indicators affecting mobile learning has been identified. Transcendence is a type of qualitative study that explores information and findings extracted from other qualitative studies related to the subject and the like and, by providing a systematic approach to researchers, by combining various qualitative studies, explores new and fundamental metaphors and themes. The statistical population of this study consists number of 21217 students of Sistan and Baluchestan University. The sample is 377 according to Morgan table. The kappa index was used to measure the reliability of the extracted codes from the combination, using SPSS software, the value of 0.000 and the value of index 0.806 were calculated. Given the small number of significance of 0.05, the assumption of independence of the extracted codes is rejected, so it can be claimed that the extraction of codes has a good reliability. Shannon's entropy method was used to rank the indices extracted from meta- synthesis.

    Discussion and Results 

    After reviewing the research backgrounds, a cross-synthesis method was used to identify the effective codes on the deployment of mobile learning in universities. In this study, Sandlowski and Bareso's (2007) seven-step method was used. In the first step, information was collected by searching and selecting articles from relevant electronic databases including: GCR, Emerald, Science Direct, Springer, and Database Noor Specialty, Magi Iran, Iran Duck, Comprehensive Humanities Portal, Academic Jihad Database. The articles reviewed were from the years (2018– 2018). In the second step, the field method was used to collect information for accountability and validation of the proposed research model. In the hybrid method, after extracting the final codes, Shannon entropy method was used to rank them. Finally, the qualitative model extracted from the transducer was obtained. In the second stage of the research, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used to validate the model using SMART PLS version 2 software. The obtained model was confirmed by the above software, so that all the extracted indices were not eliminated from the transducer method that formed the research questionnaire questions because the factor loadings of all the above indices were above 0.3 and all the indices were significant.

    Conclusion

    After applying academic experts' opinions on effective learning on mobile learning, they were categorized into 2 dimensions (infrastructure and individual), 4 concepts (tools and technology and support infrastructure, user personality traits and user skill characteristics) and 21 indicators that were the main elements of the model. They formed the deployment of mobile learning in universities. In the second stage of the research, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used to validate the model using SMART PLS version 2 software. The resulting hybrid model was validated with the software described above. According to the coefficients obtained from Shannon entropy, code, mobile tools (SMS, mobile games, Bluetooth information sharing, social networks), virtual education, positive motivation, intention to use mobile learning are the most important factors, and They have achieved the highest ratings overall, meaning that in the area of mobile learning at universities, these topics have been studied more and more readily, and have more reproducibility than other codes. Mobile learning at Sistan and Baluchestan University is not favorable because students have poor computer and internet literacy. The mobile learning system at the University of Sistan and Baluchistan is facing challenges, and mobile learning managers and planners must provide the necessary infrastructure to address these challenges. To implement and implement this approach correctly, the present study suggested that universities and institutes provide the necessary infrastructure and facilities, and take measures and training to enhance students' online skills and literacy. Also considering the cultural and regional issues, further studies should be done to motivate learners of this educational system at Sistan and Baluchestan University.

    Keywords: mobile learning University Information Technology, Communication
  • Mahdi Mohammadi *, Bahman Hajipour Pages 275-306

    Synchronous co-operation between competing companies, which is referred to coopetition, has recently been considered by companies and industries. Companies use this strategy for various purposes, such as increasing productivity, improving competitive positioning and gaining their industry knowledge and technology. Multiple car companies such as General Motors, Toyota and Nissan in the world, and Iran Khodro Company in Iran are companies which use this strategy to achieve their goals. But reviews indicate that this phenomenon has not been modeled in Iran Automotive Industry yet and its dimensions and components has not been identified. Systemic approach can play a role in creating a comprehensive and coherent model. In this paper, researcher intends to identify and explain coopetition model in Iran Automotive Industry by use of Qualitative Methodological Tool and Grounded Theory strategy. Statistical population of this study is Iran Khodro Company, and sampling method is theoretical sampling. Results are identified in the form of coopetition system in three parts. The first part deals with coopetition drives which include two general categories of internal and external drives, the second part deals with coopetition process with centered cooperation strategies and, finally the third part deals with outputs of using coopetition in Iran Automotive Industry.

    Introduction

    Competitiveness and being stable in the tumultuous business environment are the most important concerns for industries and companies, which are difficult nowadays for many companies to realize and maintain. Many companies which have been regarded as industry leaders for many years and have been highly competitive in their industry, have found their competitive positioning under threat in the face of new changes in the business environment, so, they have started to cooperate with their competitors to maintain and upgrade their competitive positioning. Cooperating with competitors such as General Motors and Toyota in developing common cars (Hamel, 1989) is in this direction. This synchronous phenomenon of co-operation and competition between companies is called co-opetition (Bengtsson and Kock, 1999; Gnyawali, He and Madhavan, 2008). Applying coopetition strategy can enhance the competitive positioning of companies (Roy and Yami, 2009). Iranian auto manufacturers, especially Iran Khodro Company which has more than 48% of Iran's car market share, have collaborated with some foreign auto manufacturers such as Peugeot, Renault, Suzuki, Haima and Dongfeng for many years.However, conditions such as the country's economic structure, the government`s control over economy, state ownership of large automobile companies along with the country's political and legal conditions and various economic and financial sanctions on Iran have prevented these companies from properly benefiting from coopetition advantages and accordingly, these companies face serious challenges such as threatening competitive positioning, reducing productivity, reducing products quality and increasing customer dissatisfaction. On the other hand, no independent model of coopetition in Iran automotive industry has been provided yet in order to realize the status of coopetition in the Iran automotive industry and then solutions and necessary strategies can be provided to solve the related problems and improve the existing model. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to identify and explain the model of coopetition in Iran automotive industry.

    Materials and Methods

    The case study of this research is "the Model of Coopetition in Iran Automotive Industry". The approach of this research is qualitative in identifying the model of coopetition. The analytical paradigm of this research is interpretive. In this study, the data were selected, collected and adjusted to create the meaning of the phenomenon under study. The strategy of this research is grounded theory by using glazier approach. Finally, data collection in this study is multi-method. In other words, the data of this study are collected through two methods of interviewing and documenting.

    Discussion and Results

    In order to identify the model of coopetition in the automotive industry, past studies and researches have been reviewed by focusing on research questions, resulting in realizing the theoretical framework of coopetition. The interview protocol was designed base on theoretical framework and in-depth interviews were conducted with 14 experts of automotive industry and managers of Iran Khodro Company and 10 documentaries were also analyzed. These resulted in the identification of the model of coopetition in the Iran automotive industry. The results of the study consist of three main parts. The first part deals with coopetition drives, which include two general categories of internal and external drives with centered resources and capabilities. The second part deals with the process of coopetition and strategies of cooperation with competitors and the challenges of coopetition. The third part includes the consequences of applying this strategy in the Iran automotive industry.

    Conclusion

    In this study, we tried to identify and explain the model of coopetition in the automotive industry. The intended model was extracted by use of a qualitative research method and the grounded theory, which is based on a systematic approach consisting of three main parts of drives (internal), processes, and outcomes (external) of coopetition and their relationships. Goals and expectations are the most fundamental drives of coopetition. Stakeholders and, above all, the government, which is a major shareholder of automotive companies, play significant roles in adopting coopetition strategy. The political-legal environment can be the most important and effective external drives on coopetition. Sanctions and international agreements have played significant roles on the formation and performing of coopetition in the country's auto industry, and particularly, Iran Khodro. Two key strategies have been used in the process of cooperating with competitors, including licensing and joint venture. The coopetition results in achieving some resources and capabilities related to knowledge and technology as well as performance improvement in quality part, product basket and market development. On top of all the above mentioned outcomes, the improvement of the company's competitive positioning can be the most important and crucial achievement of coopetition.

    Keywords: Cooperation, coopetition, Grounded Theory, inter-firm relationships, systematic approach
  • Zahra Vafaee, Marjan Fayyazi *, Mohammad Ali Shah Hoseini Pages 307-334

    Leading complex social constructs and binding to socio-economical goals are two major imperatives in social science research and practice. Even though complexity leadership and social enterprise are perceived innovative approaches to address these environmental requisites, shortcomings of either construct inhibited meeting the intended objectives. Shared theoretical grounds and unique characteristics of either construct however, allows combination of elements and generation of further innovation and complexity to address some limitations of each construct. This research investigates the complexity leadership phenomena in the context of educational social enterprises deficient of sufficient financial resources, from interpretive phenomenology standpoint. Findings underline the prominence of practical reasoning and normative morality in enabling complexity leadership and development of environmentally stable states in the relevant social enterprises.

    Introduction

    Seeking fitness in highly connected and complex context of the "Knowledge Era" demands elevated complexity of social constructs to the level of the environment. So, the same as complexity has come to be an "overarching theoretical paradigm in the natural sciences", it is paving the way for a "paradigm shift in the social sciences, particularly in leadership and organizational studies" (Hazy and Uhl-Bien,2013). Complexity leadership and social enterprise are considered complex social phenomena, built on the basic complexity assumptions. Complexity leadership enables "both organizational change and organizational stability" to "absorb perturbations, thus fostering a state of changing network stability" (Marion et al., 2016). Likewise, a more complex conceptualization of the social entrepreneurship processes, builds on the circular change-stability causality (Schwandt et al., 2009). Even though social enterprise and complexity leadership are perceived novel approaches to tackle some complexities in organizational studies and leadership domains, each construct poses limitations. In one way, bringing social and economic essentials to a common space, namely in social enterprises, requires managing internal tensions between different organizational forms and external tension with broader compartmentalized institutional logics (Battilana and Lee, 2014). This implies that the leadership of social enterprises "poses a particularly complex leadership challenge" (Battilana and Lee, 2014). In the other way, the recent economic crisis well exhibited the requisite of infusing "humanitarian and social principles into modern capitalism", giving raise to reclamation of social enterprises (Battilana et al., 2012). Since survival and success of social enterprises, like all complex social evolutions, requires leadership (Battilana et al., 2012), complexity leadership can best serve the needs of the social enterprise. Alternatively, as a complex response to tackle some of the "many challenges that face the world in the coming decades" (Hazy and Uhl-Bien, 2013), social enterprise is gaining momentum (Battilana and Lee, 2014). Hence, common theoretical grounds besides unique qualities of each construct facilitate generation of further social innovation (Mulgan, 2006), using recombinatory operations (Goldstein et al., 2010).

    Research Methodology

    Undertaking qualitative research in the field of network studies advances understanding of the content of network relationships (Jack, 2010). Interpretive phenomenological analysis (Smith, 1996) proves appropriate if capturing the essence of a complex phenomena (Creswell, 2009), namely investigating complexity leadership phenomenon (Johnson, 2015) is intended. In line with Mulgan's (2006) recommendation for "drawing on experiences from organizations like the School" for developing leaders and leadership, we chose educational social enterprises as the context of the study. Three educational social enterprises categorized as non-governmental schools in Iran's capital, comprise the settings wherein the phenomenon under investigation is taking place. Besides the complexity of educational environment (Marion et al., 2016) and social enterprise (Battilana et al., 2012), non-governmental schools under study are particularly deficient of financial resources that are core to their functioning (Battilana and Lee, 2014). Despite diverse internal and external tensions experienced, these schools have developed environmentally stable states (Marion et al., 2016) and are perceived as reputable organizations. Given the prominent influence of individual agents, "particularly those in positions of authority", on complex adaptive systems' dynamics and functions (Uhl-Bien et al., 2007) and their capacity to enable interaction in their “aggregates, meta-aggregates, and meta-meta-aggregates” (Marion and Uhl-Bien, 2001), this study primarily focuses on interaction of micro and meso levels of social system, as the exchange of information and influence between formal leaders and their collectives, within the confines of the social enterprise. Selection of the participants is based on purposive sampling methods, to provide information-rich samples from limited participants (Patton, 2002).

    Findings and Discussion

    Even though number of scholars underlined the fundamental reciprocity between complexity and social entrepreneurship constructs to "further the development of a more insightful robust theory of social dynamics" (Goldstein et al., 2011), influence of social entrepreneurship on complexity construct is rather understudied. This research aims to investigate the reciprocity between the two domains. Research findings reveal that practical reasoning and normative morality (Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy, Retrived on June 2020) serve as dynamic rules enabling the swirl of change-stability causality (Hazy and Uhl-Bien, 2015) across individual and collective levels of the social entrepreneurship system and major drivers of complexity leadership in social enterprise. Findings further suggest that complexity leadership driven by practical reasoning and normative morality nurtures psychological safety, enables affective trust and social networks (Blackwell, 2014), fosters learning in individual and collective levels, and allows processing numerous organizational and environmental perturbations, thus fostering development of environmentally stable states.

    Keywords: Complexity Leadership, Social Enterprise, Normative Morality, Practical Reasoning, Interpretive Phenomenology