### فهرست مطالب

• Volume:4 Issue: 1, 2020
• تاریخ انتشار: 1399/04/28
• تعداد عناوین: 14
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• Marziyeh Tavalaee, Maurizio Dattilo*, Parisa Mohammadi, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani Page 1
Introduction

N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), an acetylated form of the amino acid cysteine and precursor of reducedglutathione, plays important roles in a multitude of cellular processes, such as oxidative damage and detoxifica-tion of many electrophiles. Considering the pathophysiology of oxidative stress induced infertility in varicocele,we aimed to investigate the effect of NAC on semen analysis parameters (light microscopy), chromatin struc-ture (aniline blue and acridine orange staining), and lipid peroxidation (BODIPY probe) in varicocelized rats.

Methods

In this experimental study, varicocelizing surgery was carried out on 30 Wistar rats. Ten of them weresacrificed after two months (one round spermatogenesis), together with control rats (n=10) and sham operatedrats (n=10), to verify the varicocele model. Out of the remaining twenty varicocelized rats, ten received NACwhile ten were treated with water (control group) for two months.

Results

All the investigational parameters(sperm parameters, chromatin integrity, and lipid peroxidation) severely worsened 2 and 4 months after surgicalvaricocele. The administration of NAC for two months significantly improved all the investigational parametersas compared to control rats at four months (p<0.05).

Conclusion

The supplementation of varicocelized ratswith NAC was effective in antagonizing the damage as well as in preserving testicular structure and spermato-genetic function. These effects are likely to occur also in clinical varicocele.

Keywords: N-acetylcysteine, Sperm parameters, Chromatin structure, Lipid peroxidation, Varicocele
• Amir Hosein Hasani Fard, Mostafa Hamdieh*, Farhang Abed, Shiva Alikhani, Foojan Farahi, Mir Mehdi Chinifroush-asl Page 2
Introduction

One of the key aspects of mental health is one’s overall health and lifestyle. Longitudinal studieshave shown that dissatisfaction with life causes long-term health damage and increases mortality, suicide ten-dency, unintentional injuries, disability at work, and diseases such as those of cardiovascular nature. Amongstall forms of satisfaction, that of marital is of utmost importance. On a separate note, inhalation of cigarettesmoke exposes passive smokers to many chemical and toxic carcinogens, and it can negatively affect the non-smokers present. Furthermore, in psychiatric counseling sessions, many women report that they hate smoking.If we can show that inhaling cigarette smoke in men can have an impact on marital satisfaction, it can increasethe consistency of family foundations and have positive effects on the health and spirit of family members byinforming families.

Methods

In this study, 200 housewives, who had smoking husbands that smoked at home,were subjected to pre-determined conditions, alongside 200 housewives who had non-smoking husbands andwere therefore not exposed to smoking by their husbands at home. They were divided into two groups and wereassessed by Marital Conflict Questionnaire (MCQ). For a closer look at the level of marital satisfaction, the ques-tionnaire results were divided into three subgroups which were marked as low, moderate, and good.

Results

After calculating the total score of the questionnaire and statistical analysis, the results showed a higher rate ofmarital satisfaction in women who had non-smoking husbands compared to those who had smoking husbandsand this difference was considered significant at P-value <0.001.

Conclusion

Inhaling cigarette smoke in menin the family environment may seem to make a good impression on the smokers, but as the results of our studysuggest, it also has adverse effects on marital satisfaction.

Keywords: Marital Conflict, Passive Smoking, Secondhand Smoking, Environmental Tobacco Smoke Pollution, SmokeInhalation Injuries
Background

Prostate Cancer is recognized as the second cause of death due to cancers among men worldwide.Due to the lack of local evidence on the survival rate of patients with prostate cancer, this study aimed to esti-mate the 5-year survival rate of patients afflicted with this condition in Iran.

Materials and Methods

This studymade use of information on 9,772 prostate cancer cases who were registered in the National Cancer Registryduring 2010-15. A telephone survey, with a response rate of 35%, was conducted to gather additional informa-tion such as death status, demographic characteristics, and clinical profile. Kaplan-Meier estimates was used toestimate five-year survival rates.

Results

The overall five-year survival rate of prostate cancer was 82% (95% CI:80-83%). Significantly higher five-year survival rates were observed among retired patients (rate: 94%,95%CI:92-96), patients receiving a combination of radiotherapy and surgery (rate: 92%,95%CI: 89-94), and patients re-siding in rural areas (rate: 92%, 95%CI: 90-93).

Conclusion

We found that various factors such as occupation,area of residence, and the type of medication, may influence on survival rate of prostate cancer. Careful evalua-tion and understanding of effective factors are required to adopt proper health policies and treatment options.Due to the importance of etiologic and epidemiological data, inclusion of such data into the national registrysystem for Prostate Cancer is strongly recommended

Keywords: Survival analysis, Iran, Disease Registry, Prostate Cancer
• Razieh Yousefian Molla, Heydar Sadeghi*, Farzam Farahmand, Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani Page 4
Introduction

One of the changes in the movement patterns that can be seen in upper limb swing is the excessiveincrease in upper limb movement and swing during walking. As temporal parameters such as cadence andspeed in stationary and mobile environments can be equally used to determine early fall potentials, Therefore,this study aims to investigate the effect of excessive arm swing on speed and cadence of walking.

Methods

30healthy subjects were exposed to Vicon 10 motion capture system analysis and were asked to first walk normallyat normal speeds and then move their hands excessively while walking at the same speed. The temporal datawere extracted and analyzed by Matlab software. Descriptive (mean, SD) and Shapiro-Wilk test for normality ofdata distribution, and paired sample t-test were used to compare the patterns.

Results

there was a significantdifference in cadence and speed variables, between the means of natural arm swing and excessive arm swingmodes (p≤0.05).

Conclusion

Given these results, it should be considered that the effects of upper limb patternchanges on the lower limbs and gait can compensate for the lack of attention to movement and pattern of upperextremity positioning during walking.

Keywords: arm swing, speed, cadence, walkin
• Khatereh Farazmand, Payam Azin, Saber Eskandari, Pegah Farazmand, Nastaran Keshavarz Mohammadi* Page 5
Introduction

It is very important to prevent Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STIs) as they cause many otherhealth problems with serious complications. In fact, prevention is the most effective mean of dealing with STIs.In saying that, the basic requirements of prevention include appropriate health education on the subject. Thisstudy compares the effectiveness of two health education programs regarding bacterial STIs among male stu-dents at Nursing and Medical Schools of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and Health Services inTehran.

Methods

The quasi-experimental study included 430 male students aged between 18 and 30 who weremajoring in nursing and medical field. Two faculties were selected through purposeful non-random sampling.A valid and reliable researcher-made questionnaire was filled out in two steps (before and one month after thetraining). The training interventions in direct education group included a lecture along with a session of ques-tions and answers (Q&As) for one and a half hours. On the other hand, the indirect education only included aweblog on the topic of STIs. The statistical tests were employed to analyze the collected data in SPSS 22.

Results

Generally, students’ knowledge and attitudes toward this subject were at a moderate level before the interven-tion, and only %18.4 of them were well-aware of bacterial STIs. In fact, %44 of the respondents had positiveattitudes toward those diseases. The research results indicated that the educational intervention managed to in-crease the awareness and attitudes of the students in relation to STIs in the two case groups in comparison withthe control group. However, the different methods of education produced similar results and had no significantdifferences. Moreover, attitudes increased in the weblog group slightly more than the lecture group.

Conclusion

According to the findings of this research, The weblog intervention had more effects on their attitudes than thelecture intervention. Therefore, the modern training method based on the use of the internet (weblog) can beused effectively as an alternative or supplement to traditional training methods.

Keywords: Attitude, Bacterial STIs, Direct Training, Indirect Training
Introduction

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the prevalence and the risk factors of urinary inconti-nence following radical prostatectomy in Iranian population. This study is conducted based on the availabledata from the National Cancer Registry.

Methods

In this retrospective study, we extracted the information ofall the patients with organ-confined prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy from 2010 to 2014.All the patients were interviewed face to face or via telephone to collect additional data. Urinary incontinencewas evaluated by a questionnaire using the definition based on pads use. The effects of risk factors were eval-uated using logistic regression models.

Results

The details of 13,583 registered patients with prostate cancerwere collected. Overall, the prevalence of urinary incontinence was estimated as 10.5% (n=1424). It is impor-tant to mention that the highest proportion of cases with urinary incontinence belonged to the age group of71-80 years old (n=502, 35.2%), as well as patients with elementary education (n=458, 32%) or no education atall (n=333,23.5%). Furthermore, more cases lived in urban settings (n=1159,81.7%), one-fourth of them (n=365)smoked tobacco, and nearly 11% of them reported having been diagnosed with diabetes (n=152). The oddsof having urinary incontinence increased by 20% in patients who had undergone radiotherapy as part of theirtreatment for prostate cancer (AOR=1.20, 95%CI: 1.07,1.36).

Conclusion

We estimated the prevalence of urinaryincontinence after radical prostatectomy as 10.5% among prostate cancer patients. We found that having beenexposed to education, having been diagnosed with diabetes, and receiving radiotherapy, are amongst the signif-icant risk factors for urinary incontinence. We also suggested that more predictor variables should be recordedin the National Cancer Registry.

Keywords: Urinary, Incontinence, Cancer, Prostatectomy, Risk factor
• Shahrzad Nematollahi, Samira Shariatpanahi, Mohammad Reza Hosseini, Alireza Fatemi* Page 7

Since its inception on December 2019, COVID-19 epidemic now has been titled a global emergency. Rich liter-ature on the global descriptive epidemiology of the cases has shown that the burden of COVID-19 epidemic interms of both morbidity and mortality is more pronounced among men. Physiological and genetic traits alongwith numerous differences in social and cultural profile of men are attributed to this discrepancy. This reviewattempted to delineate various proposed explanations for the observed gender-differences in COVID-19 mor-bidity and mortality.

Keywords: COVID-19, survival, men, Iran
• Amir Reza Abedi, Saeed Montazeri, Saleh Ghiasy, Ferershte aliakbari* Page 8
Introduction

Regarding the financial and psychological effects of micro-TESE on patients with NOA, it is im-portant to determine the parameters by which the sperm retrieval with micro-TESE can be predicted.

Methods

The key words used for conducting a search in the PubMed database included nonobstructive azoospermia andTESE. The abstracts of the articles were reviewed, and the articles which reported the parameters’ influence onsperm retrieval with micro TESE were included. All non-English papers, case reports, and case series, were ex-cluded from the review. Eventually, 25 articles were selected to be included.

Results

It is recommended thatdiagnostic test is biopsy should be performed at the time of micro-TESE. The histopathology of testis, testic-ular volume, hormone profile, aging, and genetic factors, are parameters that might influence the results ofsperm retrieval with micro-TESE. Heterogeneous histopathological pattern and report of hypospermatogenesison pathology, lower serum FSH level, normal testis volume, and varicocelectomy, increase the chance of spermretrieval with micro-TESE. In terms of sperm retrieval, some genetic factors such as AZFa, AZFb, and chromo-some Y micro deletion provide poor prognosis.

Conclusion

Testis histopathology is the most important factorwhich predicts sperm retrieval with micro-TESE. Other factors that influence the sperm retrieval rate are testisvolume, genetic factor, serum FSH level, and history of varicocelectomy.

Keywords: micro-TESE, nonobstructive azoospermia, sperm retrieval rate, testicular sperm extraction
• Laleh R. Kalankesh, Reza Kheirandish, Shahrzad Nematollahi, Jalil Hosseini*, Maedeh Esmailli, Fereshteh Aliakbari Page 9

Chlorination is the most common disinfectant in the water treatment process. The reaction between NaturalOrganic Matter (NOM) in water and chlorine lead to the formation of harmful disinfectant by-products (DBPs).The most common DBPs (HAAs and THMs) impose risks on human health. The data acquired from humansamples on the relationship of men’s infertility with DBPs exposure are limited and epidemiological studieshave reported various results about the association between long-term exposure to DBPs and the adverse ef-fect on the man’s infertility (sperm concentration, semen quality and sperm motility). Previous cellular studiesshow that HAAs and THM damaged DNA by their effect on the ROS generation and Oxidative stress, respectively.Moreover, CDBM can lead to decreased litter sizes and pup viability. Bromodichloromethane (BDCM) cause theproduction of sperm abnormalities. In addition, Trichloromethane (TCM) led to increase the degeneration ofepididymis ductal epithelium. Dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) and Bromochloroacetic acid (BCAA) led to synergis-tical decrease in the levels of SP22 sperm membrane protein. Likewise, BCAA and DBAA resulted in testiculardamage. It should be noted that synergistic effect between Br THMs and TCAA in relation to below-referencesperm count was demonstrated. It has been reported that mixture of THMs and HAAs lead to increase spermmotility in adult male rats.

Keywords: Drinking Water, Disinfection, Reproductive health, Infertility, Male
• Setareh Siamansoori, Elahe Afshari, Maryam Palizdar, MohammadAli Hosseini Page 10
Introduction

Preeclampsia is a specific gestational syndrome that reduces organ perfusion due to vascular spasm and endothelial activation. Despite the use of magnesium sulfate, the patient's blood pressure sometimes remains uncontrolled, and therefore, it is necessary to use other medications, especially diuretics and Methyldopa. Hence, the aim of this study was to compare Lasix and Methyldopa in controlling postpartum hypertension in preeclampsia patients after magnesium sulfate treatment.

Material and Methods

This double-blind randomized clinical trial was carried out on 100 women with preeclampsia referred to Akbar Abadi Hospital-Iran. In the first 24 hours after the termination of pregnancy, the participants’ blood pressure was measured and those with a blood pressure of 140/90 to 160/100 were divided into two groups. In the first and second 24 hours, and then one week after the intervention, systolic and diastolic blood pressure as well as diuresis and drug complications in the two groups were assessed and compared.  The present study was registered in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT) under the ID of IRCT20180114038349N1.

Results

The mean age of individuals was 29.93 ± 6.65 in the Methyldopa group, and 32.35 ± 4.85 in the Lasix group (P = 0.479). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure had a substantial reduction in both groups, but there was no significant difference between the two groups (P> 0.05). Systolic blood pressure was reduced by 31 mmHg (reduction from 146 to 115) in the methyldopa group and 30 mmHg (reduction from 145 to 114) in the Lasix group. Furthermore, the reduction in diastolic blood pressure was 25 mmHg (from 95 to 70) in the methyldopa group, and 21 mmHg in the Lasix one (from 91 to 70).

Conclusion

The present study showed that using Lasix and methyldopa was effective enough in changing blood pressure in patients with preeclampsia, and the effects observed in the two groups were the same. Therefore, it could have a great impact on the wellbeing of couples.

• Fatemeh Ghanbarpour, Seyed Mohammad Ghahestani, Rayka Sharifian Page 11

appeared in Wuhan, China. As of today, COVID-19 has spread all around the world. There have been 9.24 million confirmed cases and 477,000 deaths globally. Fever, cough, and coexistence chest or back pain are some of the most reported symptoms of COVID-19. Although syncope is not a primary symptoms, we see patients passing out in the street after coronavirus pandemic. Up to now, syncope due to COVID-19 has only been reported by CHANTAL and coauthor in a 79 year-old patient. (1) There is no available data on syncope in COVID-19 patients. This is while some patients have been referred to us purely for their symptoms of fainting. Etiology of fainting in COVID-19 may be the product of orthostatic hypotension and vasovagal syncope due to dehydration. Increasing pressure in thoracic cavity during sequential cough may induce “cough syncope”

• Arezoo Akhoundi Khoranaghi, Shahrzad Nematollahi, Fereshteh AliAkbary, Samira Shariatpanahi Page 12

Today, obesity is one of the leading causes of death. It also causes other diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and various types of cancer. Obesity is a multifactorial disease caused by factors such as genetics and lifestyle. However, scientists imagine that about 40-70% of the disease originates from genetics. In this review, we examined the role of different genes in obesity by examining 30 articles published on the role of genetics in the obesity of Iranian men, according to their BMI, comorbidities and family history. We concluded that most of the research has been done on the FTO, Hind III and S447 genes. We also showed an apparent relationship between these genes and obesity. Finally, according to studies, FTO can be considered as the most important and strongest contributor to obesity.

• Hamid Pakmanesh, Mahboubeh Mirzaei, Sohrab Mohammad Salehi, Rayka Sharifian Page 13
Background

We study different aspect of laparoscopic pyelolithotomy (LP) in patients with large renal pelvis stone regarding success rate, complications as well as the recurrence free status.

Material and methods

From July 2015 to January 2019, 32 patients underwent LP for single large renal pelvis stone ($\ge$2 cm). Patient characteristics, preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin, creatinine as well as possible complications based on Clavien classification were recorded. Stone free status was evaluated using computed tomography scan one month after the surgery. Any particle bigger than 4 mm was considered as significant residual stone. During the next one years after the operation, renal ultrasonography was performed for all patients every six month to find any stone recurrence.

Results

Mean operation time was 134.55$\pm$31.41 minutes. Patients were hospitalized 3.36$\pm$1.13 days in the LP group. Patients showed hemoglobin decrease of 1.50$\pm$1.05 (P=0.2). Stone free rate was 93.75\% and Mean overall stone free status estimated to be 32 months.

Conclusion

PCNL has been the treatment of choice for large renal pelvis stones; however, in expert hands, LP is an appropriate substitute with superior stone free rate, less bleeding and remarkably less stone recurrence.

• Nazeh Al-abd, Mohammed Alshakka, Mohamed Izham Mohamed Ibrahim Page 14
Introduction

It has been reported that patients with diabetes have a decreased risk for developing prostate cancer. The study aimed to measure Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels among diabetic men who had not previously been diagnosed with prostate cancer.

Materials and Methods

A cross-sectional study was carried out in public hospitals among diabetic men in Aden, Yemen. A predesigned structured questionnaire, including the personal data as well as physical and clinical characteristics of the study population, such as height, weight, smoking status, the duration of diabetes, and the type of treatment, was included. Blood samples were collected from the respondents, and the levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and PSA were measured. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.

Results

A total of 145 diabetic male patients were included in this study. The mean PSA level of the respondents was 2.56 ng/ml. There were significant differences in PSA levels according to patient age (p=0.000). The elderly patients exhibited significantly higher PSA levels than the younger groups. The PSA levels of smokers (2.60±0.48 ng/ml) were significantly higher (p=0.035) than those of nonsmokers (2.45±0.65 ng/ml). However, no significant difference was found in PSA levels according to body mass index (BMI) category, the type of treatment, or the duration of diabetes. Additionally, our results showed that PSA levels were not significantly correlated with FBG levels.

Conclusion

PSA levels were associated with age and smoking status, but not with BMI, the type of diabetic treatment, the duration of diabetes, or with FBG levels.