فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:8 Issue: 2, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/05/04
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
|
  • Mohammad-Rafi Bazrafshan, Hamed Delam, Esmaeil Kavi * Pages 58-62
    Introduction

    Drug abuse problem is one of the four global crises and the most important social crisis in Iran. This study was conducted to investigate the importance of life skills training in preventing the recurrence of addiction among young people.

    Methods

    The present article is a narrative review performed by two researchers between January and February 2020 by searching in scientific databases in articles published in Scopus, Pubmed, Google scholar and Google search engine including the terms “addiction”, “youth” , “Coping skills”, “adaptability skills”, “life skills training”, and “drug abuse”.

    Results

    The results of various studiesindicate that the life skills training program increases the feeling of happiness, improves the quality of life of people, and increases the ability to control emotions.

    Conclusion

    Due to the positive impact of life skills training and its applicability to all segments of society, planners and managers in the community's mental health sector can set up centers to continuously hold such classes and conduct life skills training even as in-service training program.

    Keywords: Life, Social Skills, Drug Addiction, education
  • Hamed Delam, Mohammad-Rafi Bazrafshan, Ahmadreza Eidi * Pages 63-68
    Background

    Thyroid cancer is the most common malignancy of the endocrine glands at any age and sex. The present study was designed to comprehensively identify the epidemiological status of thyroid cancer using the results of similar studies.

    Methods

    The present study was an epidemiological review study. Studies on the epidemiology of thyroid cancer between March 2020 and April 2020 were searched by two researchers at four Latin scientific databases (Google Scholar, PubMed / Medline, Scopus, ISI Web of Science). Persian and Latin articles about the epidemiology of thyroid cancer were included in the study.

    Results

    The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing worldwide; however, this type of cancer has a good survival rate. The most important risk factors for thyroid cancer include Ionizing radiation, diet, female gender, age, genetic background and race and ethnicity.

    Conclusion

    The incidence of thyroid cancer in the world is increasing. Therefore, preventive and protective measures to reduce the risk factors of this cancer are recommended to reduce the incidence of the disease.

    Keywords: Neoplasm, Thyroid, Epidemiology, Incidence rate, Risk factor
  • Mohammad Ebrahimi, Marziyeh Hamyali Ainvan, Mohsen Kalantari, Kourosh Azizi * Pages 69-74
    Background
    Scorpions are a group of poisonous invertebrates that are widely distributed in the Middle East countries including Iran. They cause serious injuries and death to humans and domestic animals in Fars province. These arthropods are settled in subtropical regions of the province.
    Methods
    In this study, a total of 35 out of 430 Mesobuthus eupeus, including 15 males and 20 females, were selected, and then their major morphometric characteristics including the whole body length, pedipalp length, length and width of carapace, leg segments, abdomen, and tail segments, as well as the size of the poison gland, pectinal organ length, and pectinal tooth count were measured using a Collis-Vernier caliper scale.
    Results
    The measurements of different body parts were bigger in females than in males, except that pectinal tooth count in males (26.93mm±.88) was greater than that in females (22.20±1.00). The number of simple eyes on each side did not differ between males and females. Other features showed  to be higher for females than  males.
    Conclusion
    The results of the main morphometric features  showed that the mean scores of the characters, except for the pectinal tooth count, in female M. eupeus species were bigger than those in male ones. The findings of this study are suggested to be  used to provide a valid identification key for scorpions in Iran.
    Keywords: Scorpion, Mesobuthus eupeus, Morphometric, Fars, Iran
  • Mohsen Kalantari, Qasem Asgari, Khadijeh Rostami, Shahrbano Naderi, Iraj Mohammadpour, Masoud Yousefi, Mohammad Hassan Davami, Kourosh Azizi * Pages 75-80
    Background
    Anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were identified in female university students referred to Valie-Asr hospital of Mamasani from Azad and Payame-Noor Universities, using serological and molecular methods.
    Methods
    Based on the prevalence and characteristics method, 504 serum samples were collected from female university students, during 2015, and evaluated by Enzyme-Linked Immun-Sorbent Assay (ELISA), Modified Agglutination Test (MAT), and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based on B1 gene for detection of Toxoplasma gondii. The data were analyzed using SPSS 19 software.
    Results
    Out of 504 studied female students, 27 (5.36%) and 36 (7.14%)  cases were found to be positive for anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies by MAT and ELISA, respectively. Moreover, 5 (0.99%) cases were found to be positive for anti-Toxoplasma IgM. PCR detected the Toxoplasma DNA in 58 out of 504 (11.51%) samples.
    Conclusions
    Findings of the current study revealed that Toxoplasma was a common infection among female university students in Mamasani district in Fars province. Seronegative individuals are at risk for the disease, as well as congenital toxoplasmosis in later stages of their life. Preventive measures should be taken to reduce the rate of infection.
    Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii, PCR, ELISA, MAT, Iran
  • Mohammad-Rafi Bazrafshan, Mona Bahmaninejad, Seyede Fatemeh Ahmadpoori, Amir Mansouri, Somayeh Azimi, Fatemeh Ghanbaripour, Mozhgan Jokar, Hamed Delam * Pages 81-84
    Background
    Teachers' motivation towards their jobs is one of the major challenges in educational systems. The purpose of this study was to investigate the motivation of teachers towards their job.
    Methods
    This is a cross-sectional study. The participants consisted of all teachers of secondary school of Bandar Lengeh city in 2016. The sample size of the study was 45 for teachers. The teachers were recruited through census sampling. Data were collected using the Hackman and Oldham's Job Motivation Questionnaire. The data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS 25 software.
    Results
    Of the 45 teachers, 41 (92%) were married and 4 (8%) were single; also, 29 subjects (64%) were males. The majority of teachers were (no:19, 43%) between the ages of 31 and 40 years.  64% of the teachers had a bachelor's degree. 18% of them had low job motivation, 44% had moderate and 38% had high job motivation. The results of the T-test did not show a statistically significant difference between the teachers of public and gifted students schools (p value>0.05).
    Conclusion
    The results of the study show that the teachers' job motivation is important in their productivity. It is suggested that targeted and effective programs should be implemented to promote the mental health of this important group of society.
    Keywords: Motivation, Teacher, School, Occupation
  • Nasim Salehi, Abooalfazl Azhdarpoor *, Mohammadreza Shirdarreh Pages 85-92
    Background
    Pyrene is one of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that has carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic effects for living organisms. Landfill leachate is another environmental pollutant that covers a wide range of pollutants, especially heavy metals. The simultaneous presence of two types of pollutants with organic and inorganic structures can increase their toxicity.
    Methods
     In this experimental study, the single and simultaneous effect of Landfill leachate and pyrene on plant growth parameters and the number of heterotrophic soil bacteria was investigated. The study was conducted for 90 days at concentrations of 150, 300, 500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg-1 of pyrene and percentages 0, 30, 50, 70 and 100% of landfill leachate.
    Results
    The results showed that after 90 days, the highest dry stem and root biomass were obtained in irrigation treatment with pyrene and Landfill leachate (Blank)-non-contaminated municipal water with quantities of 8.2 and 3.5 g, respectively; moreover, the lowest stem and root biomass related to the treatment were observed in the simultaneous presence of 30% leachate and pyrene with a concentration of 300 mg/kg-1 with quantities of 5 and 1.8 g, respectively. Leachate did not produce any biological toxicity at any of the surfaces used, but the use of pyrene at concentrations of 1500 mg/kg-1 and above reduced the number of heterotrophic bacteria.
    Conclusion
    According to the  results, the simultaneous presence of the two pollutants, pyrene and leachate, exacerbates the phytotoxicity due to possible interactions between them. Pyrene as a carbon source is decomposed by bacteria at low concentrations, but it inhibits metabolism and growth at high concentrations.
    Keywords: Toxicity, Sorghum, Pyrene, Landfill leachate, Bacteria
  • Mohammad-Rafi Bazrafshan, Mohammad Reza Foroutani, Ahmadreza Eidi, Hamed Delam * Pages 93-97
    Background

    Malaria has been considered by health systems as one of the most dangerous human infectious diseases. In Iran, the disease has caused great economic and social damage to the country. The present study was designed to identify the epidemiological situation of malaria during 2006 to 2018 in the southern region of Fars province, southern Iran.

    Methods

    This is a cross-sectional study. The study population consisted of all people with malaria whose information was recorded at the Larestan Infectious Diseases Center from 2006 to 2018. To extract the data, a checklist was used that included information such as the total number of smears performed each year, the number of positive smears, age of the individual, sex, type of malaria species, and the month of the disease.

    Results

    Out of a total of 85,201 smear tests performed to identify malaria in the region, 190 had positive smear tests. The majority of the positive cases were Afghan nationalities. Most cases of the disease were seen in 2017, 2008 and 2016, respectively. In all years, men were more likely than women to have malaria, and the highest prevalence was in the age group of 21-30  and 11-20 years, respectively.

    Conclusion

    Despite the relative decrease in malaria cases in recent decades in Larestan city,  in recent years, especially from 2014 to 2018, the increasing trend of the disease has been relatively shown again, so making active diagnosis, equipping health systems and doing more blood smears tests are necessary to reduce the prevalence of malaria in this region.

    Keywords: Malaria, Epidemiology, Parasitic Diseases, Incidence rate, prevalence
  • Esmaeil Kavi, Mohammad-Rafi Bazrafshan * Page 98

    The new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), which belongs to a group of families of viruses, was found in Wuhan, China, on December 29, 2019 and became a highly contagious disease. This unknown disease was introduced with symptoms of fever, cough, myalgia, fatigue, diarrhea, vomiting, hemoptysis, shortness of breath, severe bilateral lung infiltrates, arrhythmia, acute heart injury, impaired renal function, liver dysfunction, and some death cases (1). There is no doubt that COVID-19 has been an unprecedented challenge for humanity and since the World Health Organization warned of a crisis(2), people were faced with a huge amount of right and wrong information published in the cyberspace; despite the few symptoms and possibility of low infection, many people searched the cyberspace to get  information for self-care(3). Experience with the results of previous studies also shows that despite the benefits of using the Internet and smartphones by users, checking the health of users on the Internet pathologically when a disease spreads (Cyberchondria) can be worrying, and in such situations, individuals may try to attribute an illness to themselves by examining the Internet sites and social networks(4). However, research conducted after the COVID-19 pandemic on the number of "CoV" searches on Google shows that the volume of the searched content on "CoV" about 2019-nCoV is rapidly increasing, and in spite of the fact that much of the information in the social media is invalid, it can raise public concern about the disease. Therefore, searching for information about COVID-19 online and confrontation with such huge  information may increase anxiety and distress and cause cyberchondria(5). Therefore, healthcare authorities in different countries, including Iran, must be prepared to face with the health challenges of this emerging disease, address the general anxiety caused by its outbreak, and adopt appropriate programs to manage public opinion during the prevalence of this disease; also, we should expand people's access to the right information to prevent the spread of Cyberchondria, which can be caused by incorrect information received about COVID-19. Finally, it can be said that due to the growing concerns about COVID-19, people may eventually ignore vital information published about this disease by the media because of the fear of knowing.

    Keywords: COVID-19, Anxiety, Cyberchondria