فهرست مطالب

Epidemiologic Research - Volume:7 Issue: 2, 2020
  • Volume:7 Issue: 2, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/04/31
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Majid Mardaniyan Ghahfarrokhi *, Ebrahim Banitalebi, Mohammad Faramarzi, Mansooreh Ghorbanpoor Dashtaki, Conrad Earnest Pages 49-51
  • Mohammad-Rafi Bazrafshan, Hamed Delam * Page 52
  • Mehdi Khazaei, Zainab Eslami Hasan Abadi, Mohammad Keshvari Delavar, Morteza Shamsizadeh * Pages 53-57
    Background and aims

    Hemodialysis (HD) is considered as the main method of renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients in many countries including Iran. Given the limited number of epidemiological studies in this regard at the provincial level across the country, the present study aimed to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of ESRD patients and determine the most important causes of ESRD in Hamadan Province.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study was conducted on 508 HD patients in Hamadan province in January 2017. The checklist used to gather information comprised of the patient’s demographic and clinical information. The analysis was carried out using descriptive analysis including frequency tables and charts and the chi-square statistic test was used to compare the groups using Stata software, version 12.

    Results

    The prevalence rate of HD treatment was 288.9 per million population (PMP). Further, most under HD patients were married, illiterate, and urban residents. The mean age of patients at the diagnosis was 47.64 ± 15.17 years. Hypertension (37.4%), diabetes (28.74%), and glomerulonephritis (10.63%) were the common causes of ESRD. Eventually, there was a significant difference between ESRD causes according to gender and residency (P < 0.05).

    Conclusion

    In general, the prevalence rate of HD in Hamadan was relatively similar to that of developing countries although it was lower than the national average. Furthermore, hypertension and diabetes were the common causes of ESRD in Hamadan Province. Therefore, preventive strategies should be taken to modify their risk factors.

    Keywords: Kidney Failure, Hemodialysis, Prevalence, Diabetes, hypertension, Hamadan Province
  • Elham Rezaee *, Fatemeh Heidari, Mohammad Nowrouzi Pages 58-62
    Background and aims
    Pediculosis is one of the most common parasitic diseases that affect a wide range of age groups. The prevention of head lice infections promotes the physical and mental health of people in the community. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of head lice infections and the factors affecting them in those who referred to health centers in Gerash County from 2011 to 2018.
    Methods
    This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on patients suspected with head lice infections in health centers in Gerash. These infections were diagnosed by observing adult lice, nymphs, or nits on the head with the help of a magnifying glass. The collected data were then analyzed using SPSS software, version 22 and P ˂ 0.05 was considered as the significance level.
    Results
    In general, 66 410 patients suspected with head lice were examined, of whom 2,547 cases (3.83%) were reported with confirmed infections including 2395 female (94.03%) and 152 male (5.97%) cases. The highest levels of infections were reported in the age group of 6-10 years while the lowest levels of infections were found in children less than 6 years of age. A significant statistical relationship was observed between head lice and gender, age, season, and the place of residence, and year of infection (P < 0.05).
    Conclusion
    Due to the increasing trend of head lice infections in recent years, pediculosis is still considered a health problem. Therefore, training on personal hygiene, adequate access to health services, and early diagnosis and treatment can play an important role in the prevention and elimination of head lice.
    Keywords: Head lice, Pediculosis, Epidemiology, Gerash
  • Rida Salman, Khairallah Amhaz, Ali Hellani, Loubna Tayara, Batoul Mourda * Pages 63-67
    Background and aims
    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. There are no recent data on the lung cancer prevalence in Lebanon, and the available data are based on prediction. Thus, this study aimed to determine the incidence rate of lung cancer during 2014, among patients who were newly diagnosed at Lebanese teaching hospitals. In addition, the study attempted to identify the associated risk factors of lung cancer, the most common presenting symptoms at the diagnosis time, and the stage at which the majority of the patients were diagnosed at the targeted population.
    Methods
    A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out in many teaching hospitals affiliated to the Lebanese University in Lebanon in 2016.
    Results
    The lung cancer incidence was 221.9 per 100 000 in 2014. Most patients aged 60 years and over and as regards gender distribution, the majority of them included men. Further, more than half of the patients had the (COPD) and 97% of patients had symptoms at their presentation. Based on the results, 57.9% of them had stage IV lung cancer, but only 12% were diagnosed at the stage IA. Furthermore, 80.6% and 16.4% of patients had non-small and small cell lung cancer, respectively. Finally, 75.4% and 12.1% of them were treated with chemotherapy and underwent surgery, respectively, while 5.2% of patients had radiotherapy.
    Conclusion
    The findings of our study showed a higher incidence rate of lung cancer since 2008 which was diagnosed more commonly in men and with the patient’s history of COPD. Eventually, the diagnosis was mostly made at a later stage with non-small cell lung cancer that was the most common histology type.
    Keywords: Lung cancer, Epidemiology, Lebanon
  • Mahmoud Mobasheri *, Soleiman Kheiri, Seifollah Bakhshi, Yadollah Ramezani, Mansour Firouzbakht Pages 68-73
    Background and aims

    The World Health Organization has listed Iran as the country with the highest number of driving accidents worldwide. Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari is among the top ten provinces in Iran. The aim of this study was to carry out an epidemiological survey on driving accidents resulting in deaths that were referred to the Forensic Medical Center.

    Methods

    In this cross-sectional study, the data were obtained from the Forensic Medical Center in Shahrekord, the provincial capital, during 2005-2016. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the chi-square test by SPSS.

    Results

    The number of registered accidents causing death was 3001. The highest number of accidents (13.5%) occurred from August 23rd to September 22nd, which equates to the last months of the summer according to the solar calendar. Location wise, the highest number of accidents happened in Shahrekord (58.2%). In addition, men and married people were more involved in accidents compared to women and singles. The age group of 21-25 had the most number of accidents. Further, the main road had the highest percentage of accidents (86.7%) compared to freeways, by-ways, and rural roads. Finally, head trauma 1634 (60.7%) was the most important cause of death in people who were in car accidents.

    Conclusion

    Based on these results, policymakers and planners have to carry out necessary positive interferences and plans in order to reduce the number of factors which increase car accidents. Eventually, accidents are usually caused by multiple elements and this makes it necessary to review and optimize the operational output of responsible organizations and offices and the cooperation between them.

    Keywords: Traffic Accident, Mortality, Injury, Death Records, forensic medicine
  • Seyed-Mohammad Omrani *, Shahyad Azari-Hamidian Pages 74-91
    Background and aims
    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are still a focus of research because of their role in the transmission of diseases and annoying biting behavior. Source reduction is an effective measure to control mosquito populations, which is based on good knowledge of larval habitats. This study was conducted to obtain that basic knowledge in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province.
    Methods
    This study was carried out in 2011 and 2012. Geographical coordinates, altitude, pH, temperature, and the dissolved oxygen level of larval habitats were recorded by relevant devices, followed by documenting physical attributes by direct observation. In addition, the indices of biodiversity were calculated to analyze the vertical biodiversity of species. Finally, the affinity index was calculated to elucidate species co-occurrence.
    Results
    Eighteen species were recovered from 92 larval habitats. Low- (≤ 1400 m), mid- (1401–2000 m), and high- (≥ 2001 m) altitudes lodged 7, 17, and 14 species, respectively. Further, the indices of the species richness and biodiversity for these altitudinal categories were 0.93, 1.94, and 1.58, as well as 1.54, 2.13, and 1.96, respectively. Larval habitats were mostly natural, temporary, with standing but clear water, muddy substrate, sunlit, and with vegetation. Other physicochemical characteristics and affinity of species were described and discussed as well.
    Conclusion
    To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of vertical distribution and biodiversity of mosquito larvae in Iran. The relative uniformity of physicochemical characteristics of larval habitats was attributed to prevailing water resources in the studied area and sampling design. The oviposition site selection of gravid mosquitoes is still an unresolved problem which needs further investigations.
    Keywords: Elevation diversity gradient, Breeding place, Oviposition site
  • Mazaher Khodabandehloo, Pezhman Sharifi * Pages 92-98
    Background and aims
    Maternal primary and recurrent infection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) may be transmitted to the fetus during pregnancy and may have complications such as death or growth, along with the development retardation of the fetus and infant. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies against CMV in young women, Sanandaj, Iran.
    Methods
    To this end, 90 women (15-40 years old) referring to a clinical laboratory were randomly selected and announced their informed consent to participate in this cross-sectional study. Demographic information and women’s data were collected, including pregnancy, history of abortion, and history of blood transfusion. Then, women’s sera were measured for CMV IgG and IgM antibodies using the electrochemiluminescence technique. Finally, the data were analyzed by SPSS statistical software.
    Results
    The prevalence of IgG and IgM antibodies against CMV in women was 92.2% (95% CI = 86.5-97.8) and 0%, respectively. In addition, the average CMV IgG antibody level was about 137.52 ± 85.215 SD IU/mL. The results revealed a significant statistical association between IgG antibody and pregnancy (P value = 0.012) while there was no association between CMV IgG antibody and other demographic data.
    Conclusions
    In general, high percentages of women had CMV IgG antibody whereas 7.8% of them were susceptible. They are expected to acquire CMV primary infection, and therefore, the screening of antibodies to CMV is suggested for prenatal care.
    Keywords: Seroprevalence, Cytomegalovirus, Antibodies, Electrochemiluminescence, Women, Sanandaj, Iran